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RE  LI  E  F  SOCI ETY 


Volume  XXI  JANUARY,  1934 


J 


1n4F-&fr'ft 


No.  1 


WE  HEARTILY  1 

KNIGHT 
Spring  Canyon 


or 


fflMMEND 

ROYAL 
Coal 


Royal Coal 

Mot'nC/ean 


Clean,  Hard — Burns  Longer  Quick-starting — Utah's  Purest  Coal 

These  coals  maintain  clean,  cheery  warm  homes  at  lowest  cost. 

ASK  YOUR  FRIEND  THE  COAL  DEALER 

KNIGHT  FUEL  CO.,     ROYAL  COAL  COMPANY 

General  Offices — 8th  Floor  Newhouse  Building — Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 
Leonard  E.  Adams,  General  Sales  Agent 


YOUR  DINNER 

will  be  ready 

When  you  go  to  a  meeting,  or  any 
informal  gathering,  there  is  much  sat- 
isfaction in  knowing  that  at  home  you 
have  an 

ECTRIC  RANGE 

and  there's  no  need  to  hurry  and  pre- 
pare dinner.  Automatic  controls  will 
have  food  deliciously  cooked  and  wait- 
ing at  the  exact  moment  you  want  it. 

Drop  into  our  store  and  learn  more  of  the  advantages  of 

Electric  Cooking 

Utah  Power  8  Light  Co. 

Efficient  Public  Service 


When  Buying  Mention  Relief  Society  Magazine 


m  yr+  wjly    HEADQUARTERS  FOR 
AX MX  WW      LATTER-DAY  STUNT  GARMENTS 

FROM  FACTORY  TO   YOU         We  Solicit  Your  Mail  Orders 
No.  88.  Lt.   Wt.   Men's   and   Ladies'  N°'  87'  ^les™"      01d      and      NeW      g5 

No.  89.  mil  Wt!eM^s*and  Ladi«'$  '"        N°-  10°-  ^^/^e'(G^"¥^i    ' 

•kt__  otwio  1  in  Knit     Ladies      Only.... 85 

No.  80.  SeTvyWt."' Men's"  Double  No.  84.  Med.     Lt      Wt     to',     and 

t>__i_  i  sk  Ladies    New  Style  86 

cacK     *  °         No.  85.  Very  Special  Non-Run  Gar- 
No.  81.  Heavy       Wt.       Old       Style  ments— Guaranteed— Not  To 

Double   Back   1.50  Run  Rayon.  Special 1.15 

Specify  when  ordering,  your  bust  trunk  and  length,  whether  new  or  old   style,   and 
if  men's  or  ladies'.     We  Pay  Postage  Anywhere  in  the  United  States. 

MA    C    P        W     E?    VAT   ¥   C        14  so-  MAIN  ST. 
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INFLATE  YOUR  DOLLARS 

You  get  many  times  the  value  of  your  dollar  when  you  subscribe  for  the 

belief  £s>octetp  jfWagajme 

Send  it  to  your  friend  for  a  present. 

It  will  be  a  reminder  of  your  thoughtful  love  every  month  in  the  year. 

If  you  only  desire  to  spend  50c,  send  it  for  six  months. 


Complete  Suits  for  Men  and  Women — Children's  Clothing  a  Specialty 

Prompt  and  Careful  Attention  to  Mail,  Telephone  and 

Telegraph  Orders 

Temple  and  Burial  Clothes 

Variety  of  Grades  and  Prices 

•• 

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Open  Daily — 9  a.  m.  to  5  p.  m. 

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When  Buying  Mention  Relief  Society  Magazine 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Organ  of  the  Relief  Society  of  the  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints 

Vol.  21  JANUARY,  1934  No.  1 

CONTENTS 

The  First  Snowfall Frontispiece 

Accounts    Josephine    Gardner    Moench  1 

An  Immigrant  Mother  and  her  Sen   Adah  Roberts  Naylor  3 

New  Year  Call Estelle  Webb  Thomas  8 

Anne  Brent,  Helpmate Elsie  Chamberlain  Carroll  10 

Portrait  of  Alberta  Huish  Christensen   14 

Prayer  of  the  Trail  (Prize  Poem) Alberta  Huish  Christensen  15 

Your  Home  Beautiful Mabel  Margaret  Luke  16 

Relief    Society    Conference 22 

Relief  Society  Pageant   Annie  Wells  Cannon  34 

New   Year    Elise   B.   Alder  39 

Preventing  the  Spread  of  the  Common  Cold Lucy  Rose  Middleton  41 

For  Young  Mothers Holly  B.  Keddington  43 

Moral  Mountain  Ranges    Carlton  Culmsee  44 

Happenings Annie  Wells   Cannon  45 

Notes  to  the  Field 46 

Notes  from  the  Field  50 

Editorial — Greetings  from  the  R.  S.  Presidency  51 

Farewell  1933— Hail  1934 52 

Eliza  R.  Snow,  Memorial  Poem  Contest  53 

My  Friend   Edith   E.   Anderson  53 

Lesson  Department 54 

Our  Privilege Edna  J.  Gardiner  68 


PUBLISHED  MONTHLY  BY  THE  GENERAL  BOARD  OF 

RELIEF  SOCIETY 

Editorial  and  Business  Offices :  20  Bishop's  Building,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 

Telephone  Wasatch  3540 

Subscription  Price:  $1.00  a  year;  foreign,  $1.25  a  year;  payable  in  advance. 

Single  copy;   10c. 
The  Magazine  is  not  sent  after  subscription  expires.     Renew  promptly  so  that  no 
copies  will  be  missed.     Report  change  of  address  at  once,  giving  both  old  and  new 
address. 

Entered  as  second-class  matter  February  18,  1914,  at  the  Post  Office,  Salt  Lake  City, 
Utah,  under  the  Act  of  March  3,  1879.  Acceptance  for  mailing  at  special  rate  of 
postage  provided  for  in  section  1103,  Act  of  October  8,  1917,  authorized  June  29,  1918. 
Stamps  should  accompany  manuscripts  for  their  return. 

When  Buying  Mention  Relief  Society  Magazine 


L.  D.  S.  GARMENTS 


FOR  ALL  SEASONS 


Selected    from   our    extensive   line   of    L.    D.    S.    Garments   we    suggest   the    following 

numbers  for  all  seasons  wear : 


No.  1  New  Style,  ribbed  lgt.  wgt. 
Combed  Cotton.  An  excel- 
lent Ladies'   number   $1.25 

No.     2  Old    style,    ribbed    lgt.    wgt. 

cotton,  our  standard  garment  1.25 

No.  3  Ribbed  med.  wgt.  cotton, 
bleached.  Our  all  season  num- 
ber. Men's  new  or  old  style....l.45 

No.  4  Ribbed  heavy  wgt.  un- 
bleached cotton.  Our  double 
back  number.  Men's  new  or 
old    style    1.50 

No.  5  Part  wool,  ribbed  unbleached. 
Our   best   selling   wool    num- 


ber. Men's  new  or  old  style....$.300 

No.     6  Light   weight   garment, 

Ladies'  new  style  or  old  style  1.10 

No.     7  Light     weight     Spring     and 

Autumn  garment.     Men  only  1.00 

No.     8  Light  weight  silk   for  ladies 

only,  new  style  only 1.15 

No.     9  Medium    wgt.    silk    for    men 

and  women,  new  style  only....  1.75 

No.  10  Ladies'  new  style  light  wgt. 

1  /3    wool    1.75 


No.  11  Ladies'  new  or  old  style  med. 

wgt.  Part  wool,  silk  stripe....  1.50 
In  ordering,  be  sure  to  specify  whether  old  or  new  style  garments,  short  legs  and 
sleeves  or  ankle  length  legs,  are  wanted.  Also  give  bust  measure,  height  and  weight 
to  insure  perfect  fit. 

Postage  prepaid  on  orders  accompanied  by  money  order  in  United  States.     Special 
discount  to  missionaries. 

Our  Jack  Frost  Blankets  are  made  of  Utah  Wool  and  Utah  Labor 

Write   for   Prices 

FACTORY  TO  YOU— THE  ORIGINAL 

Utah  Woolen  Mills 


Briant  Stringham,  Manager 

One-Half  Block  South  of  Temple  Gates 


28  Richards  Street 


L.D.S.      GARMENTS,      CUTLER     VALUES 

No.  68  Ribbed  Lt.  Wt.  Combed  Cotton -•-$  -75 

No.  74  Ribbed  Lt.  Wt.  Fine  Combed  Cotton 1-00 

No.  64  Lt.  Med.  Wt.  Bleached  Combed  Cotton  1-25 

No.  62  Med.  Hvy.  Wt.  Bleached  Double  Back  Combed  Cotton  1.59 

No.  56  Extra  Hvy.  Wt.  Bleached  Double  Back  Combed  Cotton  1-98 

No.  500  Super  Non-run  Rayon  Short  Sleeve  and  Knee  Length  1-19 

No.  82  33  1  /3  %  Wool  - 2.75 

In    ordering    garments    please    state    if    for    men    or    women,    and    if   old    or    new 
styles    are   wanted,    also    state   bust,    height  jtiSPfSk 

and     weight     of     person.        Marking      15c.  Mar    jm 

Postage  prepaid.     Special — When  you  order  H        w  iflfc^  JM-mimHj 

three    pairs    of    garments    at    one    time    we  ^I^^M^  11    l^^Br 

allow  you  a  15%  discount  on  third  pair  only.  ^^1^11^P^*W^»#<» 

An   additional   charge  of   20  %    will   be  .  ,;t 

made  on  orders   for   persons   weighing   210  SALT  LAKE  CITY  **"'* 

pounds  or  over.  UTAH 


L.   D.   S.   GARMENTS 

Good  grade  and  well  made.     Garments  that  satisfy,  when  ordering,  state  size,  new 
or  old  style,  and  if  for  man  or  lady.     Postage  prepaid. 


OLD   AND   NEW   STYLE 

144  Spring  Needle  Flat  Weave $1.10 

205  Rib  Knit,  Lt.  Weight 1.15 

33  Fine  Knit,   Lt.   Weight 1.25 

256  Double    Carded,    Med.    Wt 1.35 

758  Med.  Hvy.  Cot.,  Ecru  or  White....  1.65 

902  Unbleached  Cot.  Extra  Hvy 2.00 

1118  Med.  Hvy.  Wool  &  Cot.  Mixed....  3.25 


NEW  STYLE  ONLY,  MAN  OR  LADY 

472  Light    Rib    Cotton $  .75 

464  Med.  Rib  Cotton 1.00 

92  Lt.  Wt.  Rayon  Stripe 1.25 

228  Lt.    Wt.    Rayon    Stripe 1.35 

84  Rayon     Plated 1.45 

405  Non-run    Viscose    Rayon 1.35 

306  Non-run   Viscose   Rayon 1.75 


BARTON   &   CO. 


Established  in  Utah  45  Years 


142  WEST  SOUTH  TEMPLE  ST. 


SALT  LAKE  CITY,  UTAH 


When  Buying  Mention  Relief  Society  Magazine 


5! 


Compensation 
By  Ella  J.  Coulam 

There's  a  melancholy  feeling 

When  the  frost  is  in  the  air, 
And  old  Winter  blows  a  chilling  blast 

Down  the  winding  stair. 
There's  a  feeling  of  resentment 

When  the  flowers  all  must  go 
And  verdure  seems  to  cuddle 

Under  downy  puffs  of  snow. 

But  when,  on  winter  evenings 

We  sit  around  the  grate 
And  each  one  tells  a  story 

Or  a  joke  on  Bob  or  Kate, 
The  family  ties  seem  stronger 

And  we  banish  worldly  care; 
There's  a  feeling  of  contentment 

When  we  join  in  family  prayer. 

And  in  the  joy  of  Yuletide, 

With  its  wealth  of  Christmas  cheer, 
It  seems  there  never  was  a  time 

Or  season  quite  so  dear. 
The  air  is  charged  with  laughter 

As  we  gather  round  the  tree; 
There's  a  happy  good-will  feeling 

As  the  bells  ring  out  in  glee. 

And  when  the  New  Year  enters 

On  a  stage  of  ice  and  sleet, 
There's  a  happy,  buoyant  feeling 

As  we  hurry  down  the  street. 
For  just  around  the  corner 

We  hear  a  robin  sing; 
There's  a  hopeful  kind  of  feeling 

When  we  know  'twill  soon  be  spring. 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


CA 


ccou 


nts@) 


By  Josephine  Gardner  Moench 

Can  we  balance  our  give  and  receive  accounts 

In  an  honest  and  generous  way? 
Can  we  always  remember  the  things  we  accept 

As  well  as  the  things  we  repay? 

Do  we  think  of  the  kindness  our  neighbor  has  shown 
When  sickness  or  death  came  our  way, 

As  well  as  the  harsh  word  she  might  have  let  slip 
In  a  moment  of  anger  one  day? 

Can  we  view  with  a  conscience  unbiased  and  clear 
What  was  said  in  the  heat  of  the  fray  ? 

And  hard  though  it  be,  can  we  balance  it  up 
In  an  honest  and  generous  way? 


O 

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111. 


belief  Society0  cMa^azine 


Vol.  XXI 


JANUARY,  1934 


No.  1 


An  Immigrant  Mother  and  Her  Son 


By  Adah  Roberts  Naylor 


Chapter  I 


HER  name  was  Ann  Evering- 
ton,  and  her  home  was  in 
Norfolk,  England.  She  was 
very  fair — blue  eyes  set  far  apart — 
light  hair  with  glints  of  gold,  and 
the  fresh  complexion  of  a  young 
English  girl.  Since  her  parents  were 
both  dead  she  supported  herself  by 
working  in  a  shop  where  she  trim- 
med hats,  and  did  fine  "stitching" 
for  the  grand  ladies  of  the  country- 
side.    - 

The  Everingtons  had  lived  for 
many  generations  in  Norfolk.  They 
were  of  Anglo-Saxon  descent,  and 
there  was  in  Ann  much  of  the  somber 
seriousness  of  that  race.  It  was  her 
nature  to  be  studious  and  in  her 
spare  moments  she  read  the  books 
that  were  to  be  had,  and  gave  much 
thought  to  the  meaning  and  purpose 
of  life. 

When  she  was  twenty-one,  she 
met  a  yoking"  blacksmith, — Ben 
Roberts  by  name.  He  had  a  sunny, 
genial  nature,  was  dark  and  tall — 
proud  of  the  fact  that  he  measured 
six  feet  one  in  his  stocking  feet. 
There  was  something  about  his  light 
hearted,  easy-going  ways  that  at- 
tracted Ann,  and  he  in  turn  loved 
her  for  her  high  ideals,  her  ambi- 
tions, her  serious-mindedness,  and 
her  gold  hair.  The  following  year, 
June  15th,  1848,  they  were  married, 


but  unfortunately  the  "story  book 
ending"  cannot  be  recorded — they 
did  not  live  happily  ever  afterwards. 
Their  aims,  their  desires,  the  things 
they  asked  of  life  were  too  divergent, 
and  there  was  ever  with  them  a  fierce 
economic  struggle. 

'"THE  first  child  was  a  son,  and 
named  for  his  father,  Ben 
Roberts — but  he  lived  only  a  few 
months.  Then  two  daughters  were 
born.  The  elder  was  given  the 
name  of  Mary  and  the  younger  one 
they  called  Annie.  With  her  grow- 
ing family  Ann  felt  the  need  of 
establishing  a  home — an  abode  that 
would  be  something  more  than  a 
shelter.  She  had  an  abhorrence  of 
the  cheap  and  the  shoddy  and  she 
longed  to  surround  her  children  with 
an  atmosphere  of  the  permanent — 
of  the  lasting  things  of  life.  But 
this  desire  seemed  far  beyond  their 
reach,  Ben  was  often  out  of  work 
and  they  were  forced  to  move  from 
place  to  place  living  wherever  em- 
ployment could  be  found. 

TN  order  to  augment  their  uncer- 
tain income,  Ann  took  in  fine 
sewing  for  the  English  gentry,  and 
often  in  the  evening  she  would  walk 
several  miles  to  deliver  a  "finished 
piece."  One  night  as  she  passed 
through  the  streets  she  was  attracted 
by  a  gathering  of  people  on  one  of 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


the  busy  corners.  A  man  was  sing- 
ing in  a  clear  tenor  voice,  the  song 
ended,  and  Ann  paused  a  moment; 
he  was  speaking  of  America.  "A 
land  blessed  above  all  other  lands" — 
"A  land  of  liberty — Where  Zion  is 
to  be  built  in  the  tops  of  the  moun- 
tains"— "A  Zion  unto  which  all  peo- 
ples shall  gather."  She  stopped  for 
a  while  and  listened  and  then  passed 
on,  somewhat  tfotabled  in  her  mind 
about  "the  gathering  of  Israel" 
which  the  speaker  had  described. 
She  sat  up  late  that  night  reading 
her  Bible,  and  pondering  in  her  heart 
the  words  she  had  heard. 

The  next  evening  Ann  made  her- 
self ready  and  went  out  in  search  of 


the  street  preacher.  This  time  she 
waited  until  he  had  finished  speak- 
ing, then  talked  with  him,  and  ob- 
tained some  of  his  literature  which 
she  carried  home  and  carefully 
studied.  She  tried  to  interest  her 
husband  in  this  new  faith — this  new 
Zion — this  new-old  gospel  of  the 
brotherhood  of  man,  but  he  would 
listen  to  none  of  it.  And  so  it  was 
that  she  went  alone  and  was  baptized 
a  member  of  the  Church  of  Jesus 
Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 

TN  1857  at  Warrington,  a  second 

son  was  born.    The  father  chose 

the  name  of   Henry  for  him,  and 

Henry  he  was  christened,  but  Ann 


AN  IMMIGRANT  MOTHER 


A 


took  him  secretly  to  the  Missionaries 
and  had  him  blessed  Brigham  Henry 
Roberts  in  honor  of  the  great  Mor- 
mon leader  whom  she  had  come  to 
so  ardently  admire. 

NN  was  everything  that  she  was 
with  all  the  intensity  of  her 
deep  strong  nature,  and  so  she  be- 
came a  Latter-day  Saint  with  all  her 
mind,  with  all  her  heart,  and  with 
all  her  soul.  Her  constant  prayer 
was  that  her  husband  would  be  con- 
verted. Finally  swept  along  by  her 
enthusiasm  he  was  baptized,  but  he 
was  ever  luke  warm,  and  took  no  part 
in  the  activities  of  the  Branch  of  the 
Church  of  which  they  were  mem- 
bers. 

jDEN  was  an  expert  horseshoer, 
and  sometime  previous  to  his 
baptism  he  had  attached  himself  to 
the  stables  of  an  English  nobleman, 
who  had  a  string  of  horses  that  were 
exhibited  at  the  Fairs  and  the  race- 
tracks. There  was  always  drinking 
and  gambling  at  the  Races  and  Ben 
fell  in  with  a  rough  crowd.  His 
work  took  him  away  from  home  a 
great  deal  of  the  time  and  Ben  often 
failed  to  send  his  pay  check  to  the 
little  family. 

And  now  a  third  son  came — 
Thomas,  and  there  was  within  Ann 
an  insatiable  desire  to  go  to  America 
— to  take  her  little  brood  to  Zion 
where  they  would  be  numbered  a- 
mong  the  "chosen  people,"  and  her 
sons  would  have  the  opportunities 
of  a  new  land.  But  Ben  refused  to 
consider  such  a  move  and  the  breach 
grew  wider  and  wider  between  them. 

After  an  absence  of  several 
months,  Ben  sent  Ann  a  sum  of 
money.  She  decided  to  use  this 
money  as  part  payment  on  her  pas- 
sage to  Utah.  The  decision  was 
made  hurriedly,  as  it  was  now  April 
and  the  last  company  of  Saints  to 
leave  that  year  were  to  sail  May  2nd. 


It  took  more  than  five  mosths  to 
reach  Utah  and  the  trek  across  the 
plains  had  to  be  made  before  the  cold 
weather  began. 

It  was  impossible  for  Ann  to  take 
her  entire  family  with  her.  Mary, 
now  twelve  years  old,  was  left 
in  the  care  of  some  distant  rela- 
tives by  the  name  of  Pie,  who 
operated  a  factory  where  china  was 
burned  and  decorated.  It  was  agreed 
that  she  should  work  as  an  apprentice 
for  her  board  and  keep.  A  Brother 
and  Sister  Tovey  had  recently  joined 
the  Branch,  coming  up  from  Scot- 
land where  they  had  "embraced" 
the  gospel.  Little  was  known  about 
them  but  Ann  felt  that  anyone  who 
had  become  a  Latter-day  Saint  was 
to  be  believed  in  and  trusted,  and  so 
it  was  that  she  left  behind,  in  charge 
of  this  couple,  her  five  year  old  son 
Henry.  Annie  and  Thomas  the 
baby  she  took  with  her. 

TT  was  a  long  hard  journey — many 
weeks  on  a  sailing  vessel,  where 
the  baby  contracted  "Ship  fever" — 
then  torturous  days  in  railroad  cars, 
and  then  the  long  tramp  across  the 
plains.  Little  Thomas  was  very  ill 
now — wasted  away  by  the  fever  to 
almost  a  skeleton.  Ann  carried  him 
in  her  arms  as  she  trudged  along 
beside  the  covered  wagon  train.  Be- 
fore she  reached  the  mountains  he 
died,  and  for  the  first  time,  Ann's  all 
but  dauntless  courage  failed  her. 
She  could  not  endure  the  thought  of 
placing  in  the  ground  the  body  of 
the  little  son  for  whom  she  had 
visioned  so  splendid  a  future.  It 
was  Horten  Haight  Captain  of  the 
Company,  who  came  to  her  rescue, 
taking  from  his  wagon  a  wooden 
bread  box  he  improvised  a  coffin, 
and  helped  Ann  prepare  the  tiny 
body  for  burial.  A  simple  service 
was  said  over  the  little  grave,  and 
with  leadened  feet  and  a  heavy  heart 
she  continued  the  journey. 


6 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


T  J  PON  reaching  Utah  Ann  went 
immediately  to  a  small  settle- 
ment eight  miles  north  from  Salt 
Lake  City,  known  as  Bountiful. 
Here  she  had  friends — Saints  she 
had  known  in  England — and  here 
she  opened  a  shop  where  she  made 
hats  and  did  sewing  and  tailoring; 
hoping  thereby  to  not  only  support 
herself  and  daughter  Annie,  but  to 
accumulate  enough  money  to  bring 
her  children  to  Utah. 

A  NN  had  a  keen  appreciation  of 
the  beautiful,  a  fine  artistic 
sense  of  line  and  color,  and  a  love 
of  the  nice  things  of  earth.  Poverty 
she  had  endured,  but  the  crudeness 
of  life  in  this  mountain  village  often 
appalled  her.  It  was  a  painful  thing 
— this  slow  process  of  a  people  from 
an  old  civilization  taking  root  in  a 
new  land. 

ANN  was  blessed  with  an  abun- 
dance of  vitality  and  she  work- 
ed early  and  late,  often  sewing  far 
into  the  night,  in  her  struggle  to  get 
warm  clothing,  bedding  and  money 
enough  to  send  for  the  children,  but 
nearly  three  years  had  passed  before 
Ann  had  accomplished  her  purpose. 
The  clothing  and  bedding  were  sent 
to  New  York,  the  money  to  Eng- 
land, and  Mary  now  a  girl  of  fifteen 
was  prepared  for  the  journey,  but 
no  trace  of  the  boy  Henry  could  be 
found. 

And  so  it  was  that  a  great  search 
was  set  up  in  the  Branches  of  the 
Mormon  Church  throughout  the 
British  Isles. 

II 

THE  TOVEYS,  tireing  of  the 
restrictions  placed  on  them 
by  the  teachings  of  the 
Church,  appeared  shortly  after 
Ann  left  England,  taking  the  boy 
Henry  with  them.  Their  sole  earthly 
belongings  were  a  violin,  a  Bible  and 


a  bundle  of  clothing.  It  was 
Summer  time  and  on  foot  they  went 
through  the  green  lanes  of  England. 
They  worked  a  little  at  odd  jobs 
and  begged,  and  at  night  they  slept 
huddled  together  under  the  hedges. 
But  when  cold  weather  came  they 
sought  the  cities  where  shelter  could 
be  had  at  low  cost,  and  where  Mr. 
Tovey,  who  was  a  stonecutter  by 
trade,  would  sometimes  find  employ- 
ment. 

OOTH  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Tovey  were 
given  to  drink  and  many  hours 
were  whiled  away  at  Taverns  where 
Mr.  Tovey  played  his  violin  and  Mrs. 
Tovey  sang  in  a  cracked  voice,  in 
return  for  which  they  were  given 
free  drinks  and  sometimes  food. 
They  taught  Henry  a  number  of  old 
English  ballads,  and  he  would  stand 
on  a  table  and  entertain  the  patrons 
by  singing  in  a  sweet  childish  treble, 
afterwards  passing  his  hat  for  pen- 
nies. One  day  some  soldiers  notic- 
ing the  splendid  rhythm  of  the  lad 
suggested  that  he  would  make  a 
good  drummer  boy  for  the  army. 

When  Henry  was  seven  the 
Toveys,  who  had  now  changed  their 
name  to  Gaily,  quarreled  seriously 
and  decided  to  separate.  Mrs.  Gailey, 
Henry  learned  from  their  conversa- 
tion, wanted  to  join  a  brother  who 
had  recently  finished  a  term  in  pris- 
on, and  Mr.  Gaily  not  wishing  to  be 
encumbered  with  a  small  boy  and 
evidently  remembering  the  comment 
of  the  soldier,  took  him  to  near  by 
Barracks  where  he  was  accepted  as 
a  drummer  boy  in  the  British  Army. 
Measurements  were  taken  for  his 
uniform,  and  Mr.  Gaily  was  to  re- 
turn with  him  the  following  day,  but 
that  night  as  Henry  slept  h  i  s 
Mother's  face  appeared  before  him. 
She  was  weeping  and  the  promise  he 
had  made  at  their  parting  flashed 
into  his  mind  — "Promise  me,"  she 


AN  IMMIGRANT  MOTHER 


had  said,  "that  if  I  am  unable  to 
send  for  you,  that  you  will,  when 
you  grow  to  be  a  man  go  to  Utah." 
The  dream  awakened  him  and  some- 
thing within  him  said,  "if  you  serve 
in  the  army  you  will  never  get  to 
Utah."  He  got  up  quietly  and  tak- 
ing his  clothing  in  his  arms  crept 
down  the  stairs  and  out  into  the  dark 
street.  He  stopped  to  dress,  and 
then  started  on  his  pilgrimage  back 
to  Thorplton  where  he  thought  he 
could  find  the  Elders  who  had  known 
his  mother. 

jpOR  many  weeks  he  wandered 
about  eating  when  he  could  find 
food  and  sleeping  with  other  street 
urchins  in  empty  boxes  and  door- 
ways. He  inquired  everywhere  for 
Mormon  Elders,  but  no  one  seemed 
to  have  heard  of  them,  and  so  over- 
come by  loneliness  and  longing  for 
the  healing  influence  of  the  familiar 
he  retraced  his  steps  back  to  where 
he  had  lived  with  the  Gaileys.  They 
welcomed  him  back  and  life  for  him 
settled  back  into  the  old  groove. 

^NN  EVERINGTON  had  been 
in  America  four  long  years,  and 
Henry  had  passed  his  ninth  birthday 
when  the  Elders  found  him.  He 
was  a  sturdy  lad  like  his  mother  in 
appearance — the  same  clear  blue 
eyes  with  the  wide  setting,  the  same 
fine  head  line,  and  the  same  air  of 
serious  earnestness.  He  could 
neither  read  nor  write,  nor  did  he 
know  the  letters  of  the  alphabet,  but 
necessity  had  made  him  a  keen  ob- 
server, and  he  was  far  older  than 
his  years.  He  joined  his  sister  Mary 
at  Liverpool  and  late  in  April,  1866, 
they  set  sail  for  America. 

"UCH  could  be  told  of  that  long 
journey.  Of  the  wonderful 
weeks  at  sea,  where  the  boy  made 
fast  friends  with  the  sailors,  and  so 
spent  all  of  his  waking  hours  on 


M 


BRIGHAM  HENRY  ROBERTS 

deck,  and  where  to  his  great  delight 
one  of  the  sailors  tattooed  a  blue 
anchor  on  his  right  forearm.  There 
were  the  days  at  Castle  Gardens 
and  more  days  in  dirty  crowded  rail- 
road cars  that  carried  them  to  the 
middle  west,  but  it  was  when  they 
reached  the  plains  that  a  new  world 
opened  up  to  the  lad.  There  were 
the  great  stretches  of  land,  and  a  sky 
that  met  the  land  at  its  outer  rim — 
he  loved  to  lie  flat  on  his  back,  to 
feel  the  broad  earth  under  him,  and 


8  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

watch  the  wind  blow  the  prairie  grass  log  cabins  that  had  been  burned,  and 
that  stretched  out  miles  and  miles  were  still  smouldering.  Henry 
before  him.  The  wagon  train  with  stayed  behind  to  investigate — stick- 
its  drivers,  its  confusion  and  noise  ing  out  between  two  burned  logs, 
was  a  constant  delight  to  him — and  were  the  charred  legs  of  a  man,  and 
there  was  the  campfire  when  the  on  those  legs  were  a  practically  new 
dark  closed  in  around  them.  pair  of  shoes.  He  pulled  and  tug- 
He  slept  with  the  other  men  and  ged  until  the  shoes  were  free  from 
boys  under  the  wagons,  shivering  in  the  dead  feet,  then  running  swiftly 
the  cold  because  the  bedding  sent  by  he  caught  up  with  the  train  and 
his  mother  had  been  lost,  and  the  climbing  quietly  into  the  back  of  a 
only  covering  he  had  was  the  flannel  provision  wagon,  he  hid  his  precious 
petticoat  of  his  sister  that  was  drop-  find  against  the  time  when  he  should 
ped  down  to  him  when  she  went  to  meet  his  mother — A  great  burden 
bed  inside  the  wagon.  He  was  up  had  been  lifted  from  his  heart, 
early   and   out  to   the   campfire   to 

warm  himself,  he  liked  to  watch  the  JN  October  they  reached  the  "Val- 
sun  pulling  itself  up  over  the  edge  ley."  As  the  long  wagon  train 
of  the  earth,  its  coming  meant  slowly  wended  its  way  through  Im- 
warmth  and  comfort.  migration  canyon,  Henry  hurried  a- 
During  the  day  he  made  tours  of  head  and  climbing  to  a  high  cliff, 
inspection  that  often  led  him  far  caught  his  first  glimpse  of  Zion. 
afield.  Once  he  was  left  behind  and  There  was  the  great  dead  sea  bask- 
forced  to  swim  the  Missouri  River  ing  in  the  rays  of  the  setting  sun — 
before  he  could  rejoin  the  wagon  to  the  right  was  the  small  city,  snug- 
train.  It  was  there  that  he  lost  his  gled  up  against  the  mountains,  and 
coat  and  shoes — a  loss  that  filled  him  to  the  left  were  the  green  cotton- 
with  a  sad  foreboding.  He  had  woods.  It  seemed  a  small  world  to 
lovely  remembrances  of  his  mother,  the  boy  who  had  already  seen  so 
Her  clothes  made  by  herself   often  much. 

from  cast  off  garments  of  her  rich  The  wagons  rolled  into  the  city 

customers,  had  a  line  and  a  style  streets,  and  at  last  the  great  moment 
that  gave  her  a  fine  appearance,  and  had  come.  The  lad  rushed  to  the 
Henry  thought  her  very  beautiful,  provision  wagon  where  his  treasure 
He  remembered  her  exactitude  about  was  hidden.  They  were  a  man's 
clean  hands,  well  brushed  hair,  and  shoes,  much  too  large  for  him — but 
neat  clothing,  and  the  sight  of  his  they  were  shoes,  and  slipping  his 
bare  bruised  feet  made  him  miser-  bruised  and  swollen  feet  into  them, 
able.  Then  one  evening  a  kindly  he  marched  at  the  head  of  the  proces-' 
providence  came  to  his  rescue.  Along  sion  up  Main  Street  to  the  Tithing 
the  trail  they  came  upon  a  cluster  of      Office  where  his  mother  awaited  him. 

New  Year  Call 

(A  Monologue) 
By  Estelle  Webb  Thomas 

WHY,  how-do-you-do,  Mary !      to  put  my  nose  out  of  the  door  today, 
How  fresh  you  look !    How      this  fire  looks  more  attractive  than 
do  you  do  it  ?    Such  a  bitter-     calling,  to  me,  and  I'm  so  fagged  out 
ly  cold  day,  too !  I  haven't  ventured     after  the  holiday,  always,  that  I  can 


NEW  YEAR  CALL 


0 


hardly  exist!  Terrible  bore,  aren't 
they? 

"Oh,  you  like  them!  Well,  you 
certainly  must  have  more  pep  than 
I  have — or  fewer  friends  !  I  believe 
if  I  have  to  entertain  another  guest 
or  go  to  another  party,  it  will  simply 
slay  me ! 

"Oh,  yes,  the  presents  are  nice! 
Did  you  get  many,  this  year?  Draw 
your  chair  up  to  the  fire  and  I'll  show 
you  mine. 

"This  bathrobe  and  slippers  are 
John's  gift.  Original,  isn't  he?  I 
told  him  if  he  couldn't  do  better  next 
time,  he  could  just  give  me  a  check. 
I  could  surely  find  something  I'd 
like !  And  I  gave  him  the  loveliest 
silver  service,  just  the  thing  for  a 
formal  dinner!" 

"Those  pillow  slips  are  from  Ethel. 
I  wonder  if  she  thinks  I  can't  recog- 
nize cheap,  machine-made  embroid- 
ery, when  I  see  it !  My  gift  to  her 
cost  easily  five  times  as  much! 
The  beautifulest  hand-drawn  collar 
and  cufT  set !" 

"That's  from  Gladys.  Hold  your 
nose !  When  did  Gladys  ever  know 
me  to  use  such  cheap  perfume !  But 
I'll  get  even  with  her!  I'll  send  it 
back  to  her  next  year !" 

"Those  guest  towels  are  from 
Elinor.  They  are  really  rather  nice 
— but  do  you  know  where  she  got 
them  ?  They  are  precisely  the  same, 
box  and  all,  that  her  rich  aunt  in 
Chfcago  senit  her  last  Christmas.! 
I  suppose  she  doesn't  remember 
showing  them  to  me !  Of  course,  it 
wouldn't  realy  matter,  but  you  can't 
tell  me  they  haven't  been  used  and 
laundered  at  least  half  a  dozen 
times !" 

"Just  look  at  these  statuettes  from 
Sue !  Doesn't  she  know  those  things 
went  out  with  tidies  ?  But  I  suppose 
if  one  can  pick  up  a  bargain  at  the 
five-and-ten,  it  doesn't  pay  to  turn 
it  down !" 

"Sam  sent  this  book.  You'll  notice 
he  waited  till  it  got  into  the  popular 


edition  so  it  wouldn't  cost  so  much ! 
And  it's  by  his  favorite  author, 
though  he  knows  I  abhor  the  man! 
He'll  be  over  to  borrow  it  in  a  day  or 
so — save  buying  for  himself,  you 
see!" 

"And  what  do  you  think!  Clara 
merely  sent  a  card  !  Oh,  I  know  they 
lost  everything  this  year,  but  when 
she  remembered  that  my  gift  to  her 
last  year,  cost  five  dollars,  you'd 
think  she  would  feel  obligated!  Oh, 
well,  I  sent  her  only  a  card  this  time, 
too,  I  just  had  a  feeling — " 

"And  Aunt  Jennie  !  When  I  think 
how  I've  waited  on  that  woman,  and 
pamepered  her  and  stood  for  her 
whims !  And,  believe  it  or  not,  her 
Christmas  check  to  me  this  year 
was  for  ten  dollars!  I  neved  dreamed 
it  would  be  less  than  a  hundred ! 
I'd  counted  on  it  to  cover  all  my 
outlay  for  gifts !  And  mind  you,  she 
gave  it  to  me  just  as  she  was  leaving, 
so  I'd  be  just  as  nice  as  possible  to 
her  all  the  while  she  was  here !" 

"Oh,  those  other  things  !  There's 
really  nothing  worth  looking  at! 
Not  one  of  them  is  anywhere  near 
as  valuable  as  the  things  I  sent. 
And  I  had  supposed  some  of 
those  people  were  my  best  friends, 
too !  Well,  you  never  can  tell !  O, 
by  the  way,  dear,  thanks,  so  much, 
for  the  card  case !  It  was  lovely.  So 
much  like  the  one  I  gave  you  two 
years  ago,  isn't  it  ?" 

"Yes,  some  people  actually  say 
they  enjoy  Christmas !  To  me,  the 
whole  thing  is  so  irritating  I'm 
simply  prostrated  for  a  month  after- 
ward !  So  much  fuss  and  bother ! 
And  to  hear  John  rave  about  the  bills 
one  would  think  I  simply  spent 
money  for  spite !  Why,  I've  got  to 
where  a  piece  of  tinsel  will  throw  me 
into  hysterics,  and  I  can't  bear  the 
sight  of  my  dearest  friend !" 

"What!  Going?  Well,  I've  cer- 
tainly enjoyed  your  call,  dear !  Come 
again  when  we  all  recover  from  the 
holiday  rush!    Good-bye!" 


Anne  Brent,  Helpmate 


By  Elsie  Chamberlain  Carroll 


II 


IT  was  Saturday  morning.  Anne 
was  almost  through  with  the  up- 
stairs cleaning  when  she  heard 
the  door  bell.  She  went  to  the  head 
of  the  stairs  to  call  to  the  twins  to 
answer  the  ring,  when  she  heard  the 
door  open.  She  took  off  the  towel 
she  had  pinned  around  her  head  and 
went  down. 

"Why,  Phyllis,"  she  cried  as  her 
daughter-in-law  came  in,  "this  is  a 
surprise.  Where  are  Morris  and 
Junior?"  She  led  the  way  to  the 
living  room,  reading  intuitively  from 
Phyllis'  troubled  face  that  some- 
thing was  wrong. 

"Sit  down,  dear,  and  let  me  take 
your  things.  You  look  tired.  Won't 
you  have  a  glass  of  milk  and  a 
cookie  ?" 

"No,  I  couldn't  eat,"  the  girl's 
eyes  filled  with  tears. 

"Has  something  happened,  Phyl- 
lis ?"  Anne  tried  to  keep  alarm  from 
her  voice. 

"Yes.  Everything.  Morris — is 
— tired  of  me.  He's — in  love  with 
— another  girl." 

"Why,  Phyllis,  what  nonsense." 
Anne  sat  down  and  patted  the  young- 
er woman's  trembling  shoulders. 

"But  it's  true.  I  guess — you  think 
it's  funny  for  me — to  come  to  you, — 
but  I — I — haven't  any  mother  and  I 
had  to — talk  to  someone." 

"Of  course  you  should  have  come 
to  me.  I'm  your  mother.  I'm  the 
very  one  you  should  have  come  to. 
Come  on  into  my  room,  dear,  where 
we  won't  be  disturbed." 

When  they  were  seated  on  the  low 
settee  at  the  foot  of  Anne's  bed, 
Phyllis   began    to    sob    hysterically. 


Anne  let  her  cry  for  a  few  moments, 
then  she  said, 

"Now  can't  you  tell  me  about  it, 
dear  ?  Who  is  this  woman  ?  What 
makes  you  think  Morris  is  interested 
in  her?" 

"She's  Marian  Welling.  He  used 
to  know  her  at  college.  She  studied 
interior  decorating  while  he  was 
studying  architecture.  When  Ran- 
dalls opened  that  new  department 
they  sent  for  her  to  take  charge  of  it, 
and  her  office  is  right  next  to 
Morris'.  He  talks  about  her  all  the 
time — about  how  smart  she  is — and 
interesting — and  clever.  And  he's 
always  criticizing  me —  and  they  go 
out  together  to  make  bids  on  places 
— and  work  together  evenings  down 
at  the  office.  I — I  can't  stand  it." 
There  was  another  flood  of  tears. 

"Phyllis,"  said  Anne  gently,  "I'm 
sure  you  are  letting  your  imagination 
make  you  miserable.  The  very  fact 
that  Morris  talks  to  you  about  this 
other  woman  is  good  evidence  that 
there  is  nothing  but  friendship  be- 
tween them." 

"But  he  isn't  the  same  to  me.  I 
know  he  is  in  love  with  her.  You 
can  just  tell  some  things  by  the  way 
a  man  looks  and  acts.  He's  always 
nagging  at  me  for  not  reading  more 
books  and  knowing  about  things  that 
are  in  the  newspapers  so  I'll  have 
something  to  talk  about.  The  things 
we  used  to  do  bores  him  to  death." 

ANNE  realized  that  at  least  this 
was  true.  She  had  felt  herself 
that  Morris'  infatuation  for  Phyllis 
was  deminishing  with  his  maturity 
just  as  she  and  Peter  had  feared  it 
would  when  they  tried  to  persuade 
him  to  wait  until  he  was  through 


ANNE  BRENT,  HELPMATE 


11 


college  before  thinking  of  marriage. 
But  she  realized  also  that  perhaps  it 
was  all  exaggerated  in  the  young 
wife's  mind.  She  recalled  how  she 
had  suffered  in  the  early  years  of  her 
own  married  life  when  Peter  had 
begun  to  neglect  some  of  the  little 
attentions  of  their  courtship  and  had 
found  fault  with  some  of  the  things 
she  did.  It  was  too  bad  that  the 
glamor  of  young  love  couldn't  con- 
tinue along  with  the  humdrum 
routine  of  married  life. 

"You  mustn't  take  all  this  so 
seriously,  dear.  It's  just  natural  that 
as  you  and  Morris  come  to  know 
each  other  better  you'll  see  each 
other's  faults.  You  see  things  in 
Morris  that  annoy  you  I'm  sure — 
things  you  didn't  notice  or  mind  at 
all  before  you  were  married.  But 
you  must  have  found  out  other 
things  about  him  that  are  bigger  and 
finer  than  you  had  even  imagined. 
For  instance,  certain  little  habits  that 
Morris'  father  has  would  drive  me 
frantic  if  I  didn't  see  in  him  also 
some  of  the  best  traits  a  man  ever 
had.  He  forgets  a  lot  of  the  little 
things,  but  he's  sure  to  be  right  there 
when  it  comes  to  the  big  things  in 
life." 

"But  Morris  is  tired  of  me.  I 
bore  him.  And  even  if  you  can't 
believe  it,  I  know  he's  in  love  with 
Marian  Welling.  I — I — can't  stand 
it. 

A  NNE  knew  that  part  of  the  prob- 
lem was  real.  Morris  lived  in 
an  intellectual  world  Phyllis  could 
not  enter.  It  was  inevitable  that  as 
the  years  went  on  and  the  physical 
part  of  love  came,  to  mean  less,  he 
should  crave  intellectual  companion- 
ship. Yet  she  could  not  say  to  her 
daug!hter^in-law,  *'You  are  not 
Morris'  intellectual  equal.  Of  course 
you  cannot  hold  him."  She  must 
try  to  find  some  way  to  help  them 


preserve  their  happiness.  Phyllis 
was  as  pretty  as  when  they  were 
married,  though  she  had  grown  care- 
less in  her  personal  care.  Anne 
realized  that  a  beautiful  woman  had 
a  great  natural  advantage. 

"Phyllis,"  she  said  after  a  little 
pause,  "I  suppose  at  your  age  it  has 
not  occurred  to  you  that  husbands 
and  wives  need  occasional  vacations 
from  each  other.  Perhaps  that  is 
just  what  you  and  Morris  need  now. 
How  would  you  like  to  take  Junior 
and  go  to  Castle  Junction  and  stay 
with  your  Aunt  Laura  for  a  month 
and  take  vocal  lessons  from  Mr. 
Driggs?" 

"And  leave  him — there — with 
Marian  Welling?" 

"Phyllis,  if  a  man  really  wants  to 
be  with  a  woman  not  his  wife,  all 
the  watching  the  wife  can  do  won't 
prevent  him  from  finding  ways  of 
being  with  her.  If  he  knows  his 
wife  is  suspicious  and  jealous,  it  may 
make  him  all  the  more  eager  to  be 
with  the  other  woman.  I'm  sure, 
my  dear,  that  Morris  loves  his  wife 
and  baby,  and  that  if  you  were  away 
from  him  and  he  had  to  do  for  him- 
self the  things  you  do  for  him,  if  he 
didn't  have  Junior  to  play  with  when 
he  comes  home,  he'd  miss  you  and 
maybe  realize  a  little  bit  more  how 
much  you  both  mean  to  him.  Be- 
sides I  think  you  should  do  some- 
thing with  that  lovely  voice  of  yours. 
Mrs.  Norman  told  me  the  other  day 
that  Mr.  Driggs  is  doing  marvelous 
work  with  his  students.  And  he  will 
only  be  there  a  few  more  weeks. 
You  could  get  started  with  him,  and 
then  follow  up  the  work  with  one 
of  the  teachers  here  or  in  Shannon. 
Wouldn't  you  like  to  do  that?" 

"If  you — think  it  would  help," 
Anne  knew  that  Phyllis  wasn't 
thoroughly  convinced,  although  she 
arose  and  began  to  powder  her  nose. 

"I   suppose,"  Anne  asked,   "that 


12 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


Morris   knows   how   you    feel   bout 
this  girl?" 

"If  he  doesn't  he's  pretty  dense. 
I've  tried  to  let  him  know." 

"Well,  if  you've  tried  talking 
about  it  and  maybe  accusing  and 
chiding  and  that  hasn't  helped,  it  at 
least  wouldn't  hurt  to  try  some  other 
method,  would  it?  Perhaps  if  he 
thought  you  didn't  care,  or  that  you 
were  big  enough  to  realize  that  he 
was  under  the  spell  of  a  foolish  in- 
fatuation, that  might  make  him  see 
things  as  he  should." 

"But  I  don't  think  it  is  infatua- 
tion. I'm  jealous  because — I  know 
the  girl — must  be  wonderful. 
There's  more  to  her  than  there  is  to 
me.  She's  educated  like  he  is. 
Maybe — he  was  just  infatuated  with 
me  and  this — this — is  his  real — 
love,"  again  she  began  to  dab  at  her 
eyes. 

Anne  was  surprised  and  en- 
couraged that  Phyllis  was  beginning 
to  sense  what  was  perhaps  the  truth. 
"Now  don't  let  your  imagination 
make  mountains  out  of  molehills," 
she  comforted.  "Morris  was  madly 
in  love  with  you  when  he  married 
you.  We  know  of  course  that  love 
is  a  queer  plant.  It  needs  a  lot  of 
pampering  and  tending ;  yet  it  doesn't 
die  suddenly  or  without  some  cause." 
Anne  waited  a  moment  then  asked, 
"Are  you  willing  to  try  my  plan?" 
"I'm  willing  to  try  anything  that 
will  keep  Morris — that  will  make 
him  love  me  again.  But  I  haven't 
any  money  to  pay  for  music  lessons 
— without  asking  Morris." 

"And  that  wouldn't  do  of  course. 
This  music  is  to  help  you  give  Mor- 
ris a  surprise.  I'll  write  to  Mr. 
Driggs  and  make  arrangements  for 
your  lessons." 

Anne  knew  that  she  couldn't  af- 
ford such  a  thing  either.  It  was 
hard  enough  keeping  her  budget 
balanced,  but  she  must  do  something 


to  help  Phyllis  recapture  her  charm 
for  Morris,  and  Anne  remembered 
that  he  used  to  talk  about  the  girl's 
beautiful  voice  and  say  that  some- 
day he  was  going  to  have  her  cul- 
tivate it. 

As  Phyllis  rose  to  go,  Anne  asked 
where  the  baby  was. 

"Morris  was  going  out  to  look 
over  a  site  for  a  new  country  house 
for  Mrs.  Wallace  and  took  Junior 
with  him.  I  had  a  chance  to  ride 
over  here  with  Nan  Myers  who  came 
to  bring  some  papers  to  her  father. 
She'll  be  waiting  for  me.  Thanks 
so  much  for — helping  me.  I'll  go 
to  Castle  Junction  tomorrow.  Aunt 
Laura  has  been  wanting  me  to  come 
for  a  visit." 

'tXTHEN  she  was  alone,  Anne 
went  back  to  her  work.  There, 
she  thought  to  herself,  I've  let  my- 
self in  for  something  else  to  keep 
me  awake  nights.  She  went  upstairs 
to  finish  her  dusting. 

As  she  entered  Quint's  room,  she 
was  surprised  to  find  him  there. 

As  she  entered  he  turned  quickly 
from  a  box  he  had  on  his  bed,  put- 
ting something  hastily  into  his 
pocket.  To  the  mother  he  seemed 
greatly  confused  as  he  put  the  box 
back  on  the  closet  shelf. 

"Why,  hello,  Quint.  It  isn't  din- 
ner time  yet,  I  hope." 

"No — I — I  just  came  home  for  a 
handkerchief.  Goodbye."  He  dash- 
ed down  the  stairs  and  was  gone. 

Anne  sighed.  She  wished  Quint 
wasn't  such  an  engima.  She  was 
still  worrying  over  that  night  he  had 
been  out  until  after  four  o'clock. 
And  now  this  strange  behavior. 

With  Gloria  she  could  get  at  the* 
problems  that  worried  her ;  even 
though  she  couldn't  always  solve 
them,  she  at  least  knew  what  they 
were.  As  Anne  worked  she  recalled 
that  afternoon  Gloria  had  gone  with 


ANNE  BRENT,  HELPMATE 


13 


JeraldMeekin  to  the  Shriner's  outing 
even  after  she  had  been  told  that  her 
parents  disapproved.  When  Jim 
Harker  had  called  up  from  the  store 
and  told  Anne  that  Gloria  had  gone, 
she  had  at  first  thought  he  resented 
it  merely  because  she  had  left  her 
work,  and  she  had  spoken  rather 
curtly  to  him  when  she  said  Gloria 
had  told  her  about  it  and  asked  him 
if  she  hadn't  got  someone  to  take  her 
place.  Later  as  she  thought  of  it, 
she  knew  this  was  not  like  Jim,  so 
she  had  called  him  and  asked  what 
he  had  meant.  When  he  had  an- 
swered that  he  just  wouldn't  want  a 
daughter  of  his  out  with  a  man  like 
Meekin  and  didn't  think  she  would, 
Anne  couldn't  rest  until  she  had  in- 
duced him  to  drive  up  to  the  Grange 
and  bring  Gloria  home. 

This  had  infuriated  her.  She 
would  hardly  speak  to  her  mother. 
Then  an  item  had  appeared  in  the 
paper  a  week  or  so  later  stating  that 
Meekin  was  being  prosecuted  for 
bigamy  in  another  state  and  Gloria 
had  been  crushed  with  shame  at  the 
way  she  had  behaved. 

If  it  wasn't  one  problem,  it  was 
another  to  worry  about,  Anne 
thought  as  she  went  down  to  start 
dinner.     But  there  were  the  innum- 


erable little  bright  spots  thrown  in 
all  along  the  way.  Only  yesterday 
she  had  received  that  lovely  letter 
from  Peter,  who  had  been  detained 
longer  in  Layton  working  on  the 
store  merger  than  he  had  anticipated. 
He  had  spent  a  whole  evening  in  his 
hotel  writing  a  real  love  letter  to  his 
wife.  When  a  woman  who  has  been 
married  twenty-four  years  and  has 
a  family  of  five  children  receives 
such  a  letter  as  that,  Anne  had 
mused,  life  was  worth  living.  And 
the  twins  were  such  a  source  of  in- 
terest and  pleasure,  too.  The  days 
could  not  be  dull  with  two  ingenious 
little  boys  of  ten  about.  Anne  had 
always  thought  that  they  had  been 
sent  as  a  recompense  for  the  loss  of 
the  little  girl  who  had  died  the  year 
before  they  were  born. 

Quint  and  Gloria  came  from  the 
store  for  lunch.  The  twins  were 
called  in  from  the  sand  pile  and  sent 
to  the  bathroom  while  the  meal  was 
being  taken  from  the  stove.  Just  as 
the  family  were  sitting  down  to  eat, 
a  special  delivery  letter  was  brought 
to  the  door.  A  glance  at  the  address 
told  Anne  that  it  was  from  Suzanne, 
and  a  sudden  premonition  swept  over 
her. 

(To  be  continued) 


ALBERTA  HUISH  CHRISTENSEN 


•"-I 


Grayer 
of  the 
Trail 


<® 


This  poem  is  one  of  the  two 

poems  declared  equal 

winners  in  {he 

Eliza  R.  Snow  oJYLemorial 

(JPoem  Contest 


<© 


By  Alberta  Huish  Christensen 

'Tis  not  for  weary  hands,  dear  Lord,  I  pray, 

Although  the  handcart  makes  them  callous-worn; 

And  not  for  balm,  the  hurting  to  allay 

Of  bruised  and  bandaged  feet,  is  this  prayer  born. 

The  lantern  of  my  faith  tonight  burns  low, 

Unless  it  be  renewed,  I  cannot  go 

Such  endless  miles  as  still  before  us  lie. 

But  if  re-kindled,  Lord,  ah,  then  I  know  - 

I  can  file  on,  nor  ever  count  the  cost 

Of  all  the  things  for  conscience'  sake  I  lost: 

I  can  forget  how  friends,  entreating,  cried: 

Even  forget  our  parting, — his  low  voice — 

His  tvords  that  spoke  the  scorn  his  kiss  denied — 

— //  /  but  feel  the  wisdom  of  my  choice. 

And  so  for  that — to  keep  faith's  torch  alight — 
And  only  that, — dear  God,  I  pray  tonight! 


J 


Your  Home  Beautiful 


By  Mabel  Margaret  Luke 


X — Lighting  Your  Home 

EVERYONE  who  is  interested 
in  beautiful  interiors,  and  this 
should  include  everyone  who 
is  interested  in  making  her  own 
home  beautiful,  realizes  the  tremend- 
ous importance  of  correct  lighting. 
However  carefully  furniture  and 
draperies  may  foe  selected  the  ulti- 
mate result  can  be  largely  negatived 
by  inappropriate  lighting. 

Artificial  light  has  a  peculiar 
charm  possessed  by  no  other  medi- 
um and  by  its  skillful  use  in  decora- 
tion delightful  results  are  obtained. 
Indeed  the  beauty  of  a  room  at  night 
as  well  as  its  comfort  depend  in  a 
large  measure  on  the  choice  and 
placement  of  the  lighting  fixtures. 

The  first  light  was  probably  the 
glow  from  the  hearthfire,  followed 
by  the  glimmer  of  burning  rushes 
held  in  wrought  iron  devices.  Cen- 
turies later  we  find  oil  and  tallow 
candles  used.  The  home  of  the 
French  peasant  and  the  palace  of 
Versailles  differed  only  in  the  num- 
ber of  candles.  Next  came  the  oil 
lamps,  the  first  of  which  we  find  ex- 
emplified in  the  "Betty"  lamp  of 
New  England,  an  open  boat  affair 
filled  with  oil  and  a  wick  coming 
through  a  spout  at  one  end.  Only  a 
hundred  years  or  so  ago  gas  lighting 
was  introduced  and  this  was  consid- 
ered a  revolutionary  advance.  Final- 
ly, in  comparatively  recent  times  we 
have  electricity  which  has  reached 
real  heights  of  perfection  and  use- 
fulness. 

There  are  two  systems  of  electric 
lighting — direct  and  indirect,  both 
having  their  good  points  and  their 
adherents.  The  direct  svstem  throws 


the  light  directly  on  the  room  and 
its  furnishings  or  on  the  spot  to 
be  lighted.  The  indirect  throws  the 
light  on  the  ceiling  from  where  it 
is  reflected  back  in  the  room.  It 
gives  a  soft  pleasing  light  near  the 
floor  but  lights  unduly  the  ceiling, 
which  is  the  last  place  in  the  room 
that  should  have  brilliant  light. 
Although  this  system  may  be  ad- 
vocated by  doctors  and  eye  special- 
ists as  very  fine  for  the  eyes  it  is  not 
particularly  artistic.  Another  in- 
direct method  is  cove  lighting.  A 
metal  trough  is  placed  around  the 
walls  about  one  foot  from  the  ceil- 
ing. It  is  lined  with  white  and  deco- 
rated on  the  outside  to  suit  the  room. 
In  it  are  placed  lamps  at  regular 
intervals,  the  ceiling  acts  as  a  re- 
flector which  diffuses  the  rays.  This 
and  other  schemes  of  concealing  the 
light  are  used  a  great  deal  in  modern 
decoration  where  the  idea  seems  to 
be  that  light  and  its  sources  should 
be  integrally  a  part  of  the  room,  not 
an  added  effect.  It  seems,  however, 
a  little  mechanical  and  gives  an 
effect  of  coldness.  We  cherish  an 
open  fire  as  a  symbol  of  home,  so 
with  light,  to  actually  see  a  friendly 
glow  of  light  is  to  give  one  a  feel- 
ing of  satisfaction. 

To  really  light  a  room  efficiently 
and  ideally  provision  should  be  made 
for  soft  lights  for  mellowness,  ade- 
quate and  concentrated  lights  for 
special  activities  and  well-distribut- 
ed light  for  general  use. 

The  secret  of  good  lighting  is  in 
artful  and  gradual  contrasts  of  light 
and  shadow.  Therefore,  good  light- 
ing is  not  necessarily  quantity  light- 
ing.    Every  room   should  be  as  a 


YOUR  HOME  BEAUTIFUL                              17 

picture.     Place  the  lights  so  there  method  of  lighting.     The  Colonial 

will  be  good  composition,  centers  of  hall  has  always  been  lighted  by  a 

interest   and   balance   of    light   and  lantern.      An    elaborate  ihall   calls 

shadows — illusory    shadows    which  for  something  elaborate  in  a  chande- 

play  about  the  walls  and  ceiling  for  Her  or  wrought  iron  lantern.    For  a 

beauty.    No  room  is  lovely  with  too  delightful  yet  inexpensive  effect  use 

brilliant  lighting,  either  natural  or  a    Chinese'  paper    lantern    over    a 

artificial,  everything  seems  harsh  and  simple  electric  drop. 
defects  stand  out.    Shade  the  source 

of  light  and  the  romance  and  beauty  ^PHE  most  successful  way  of  light- 
return.  jng  a  room  is  by  means  of  side 

lights  or  sconces  well  placed  about 
^LL  lighting  falls  into  two  groups,  the  room  with  proper  regard  to 
fixed  and  portable.  The  first  openings,  panelling  and  balance.  A 
includes  the  lights  that  are  incorpor-  particularly  suitable  place  for  wall 
ated  in  the  architecture,  in  the  con-  brackets  is  on  each  side  of  the  over- 
struction  of  the '  walls  themselves,  mantel  or  mirror  (unless  portable 
Portable  lighting  gives  more  free-  girandoles  or  candlesticks  are  used 
dom  for  individuality  in  interior  on  the  mantel).  They  may  be  placed 
decoration.  on  either  side  of  an  important  pic- 
Fixed  lighting  includes  chande-  ture,  door  or  window  or  at  sides  of 
liers,  lanterns  and  wall-brackets,  panels  or  in  centers  of  small  panels. 
The  first  of  these,  the  chandelier,  is  Be  sure  the  electrician  does  not 
a  doubtful  contribution  to  the  deco-  set  a  bracket  off-center  or  in  the 
ration  scheme  of  the  ordinary  small  middle  of  a  panel,  thus  interfering 
room  as  it  throws  the  light  too  high,  in  the  hanging  of  pictures  or  placing 
Artificial  light  should  come  from  of  furniture.  They. should  carry 
approximately  the  same  level  as  the  light  in  a  balanced,  even  dis- 
natural  light  and  that  is  obviously  tribution  around  the  room, 
not  the  ceiling.  So  it  is  usually  a  Side  lights  make  a  glow  part 
safe  rule  to  leave  it  out  of  consider-  way  up  the  walls  of  a  room.  When 
ation  except  in  a  very  high  ceilinged  below  them  there  is  a  sufficient  num- 
room,  ballroom,  hallway  or  French  ber  of  table  and  floor  lamps  the 
room,  (where  a  crysal  chandelier  is  whole  room  will  be  properly  lighted 
a  part  of  the  period  decoration.  If  in  the  pleasantest  and  least  ohtrns- 
you  desire  to  install  a  center  chande-  ive  manner.  The  proper  height  .for 
Her  or  light  to  provide  brilliant  light  wall  brackets  is  slightly  above  shoul- 
f or  a  party  or  when  a  large  crowd  is  der  height,  or  about  five  feet  in  the 
assembled  it  is  permissible,  but  there  average  room. 

should  also  be  side  lights  at  a  lower  Portable  lighting  includes  table 
level  for  general  illumination.  If  and  floor  lamps,  torches  and  candles, 
both  a  center  fixture  and  wall  brack-  Lamps  if  placed  for  use  will  prove 
ets  are  used  they  should  be  of  the  of  decided  importance  in  the  f urn- 
same  type.  ishings  of  any  room.  In  buying  a 
Hanging  lamps  and  lanterns  give  lamp  never  consider  it  apart  from 
more  latitude  in  handling  than  do  its  ultimate  environment,  no  matter 
chandeliers.  There  are  many  ad-  how  beautiful  it  may  be  in  itself, 
mirable  designs  in  both  types.  The  If  it  does  not  fit  practically  and  deco- 
lantern  is  very  important  in  the  hall  ratively  into  the  scheme  it  will  only 
where  it  is  a  dignified  and  suitable  bring  discord. 


18 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


•In  chosing  a  table  lamp  consider  it 
first  in  its  scale  relationship  to  the 
table  on  which  it  is  to  stand,  and 
its  shape  and  color  in  relation  to  the 
room.  If  you  wish  to  accent  a  ver- 
tical line  get  a  pedestal  lamp,  or 
your  room  may  call  for  a'  squat  one. 
In  general  it  may  be  said  a  bowl 
lamp  will  give  a  more  homelike  ap- 
pearance while  a  pedestal  lamp  is 
more  formal.  Your  room  must 
decide  the  type.  A  plain  lamp  is 
usually  a  safer  choice  than  one  high- 
ly decorated.  A  black  lamp  in  a 
colorful  room  is  always  good.  Use. 
white  lamps  only  in  a  room  of  very 
delicate  hue.  Be  careful  in  using 
decorated  lamps,  remembering  the 
light  will  be  thrown  down  on  the 
decoration  and  emphasize  it.  Chinese 
and  Japanese  pottery,  and  porcelain 
figures  are  especially  lovely  choices. 
In  making  lamps  the  art  of  the 
potter,  sculptor,  gold  and  silver- 
smiths and  wood  carvers  have 
brought  them  to  perfection,  and  rare 
treasures  are  used  in  their  structure. 
From  the  art  centers  of  the  world 
come  urns,  vases,  figures  and  carv- 
ings in  ivory,  jade,  quartz,  ebony 
and  other  semi-precious  stones, 
woods  and  metals  for  us  to  choose 
from.  Most  of  the  very  fine  lamps 
are  expensive,  to  be  sure,  but  if  it 
suits  your  room  scheme  a  fine  lamp  is 
usually  a  worthwhile  purchase.  A 
very  lovely  vase,  a  pottery  bowl,  a 
ginger  or  spice  jar,  or  a  very  fine 
piece  of  cloisonee,  or  gay  colored 
china  birds  and  small  figurines  may 
be  wired  for  electricty  and  with  a 
suitable  shade  will  make  charming 
lamps.  Old  oil  lamps  may  be  electri- 
fied if  desired  although  this  to  a  cer- 
tain extent  spoils  the  personality  and 
individuality  they  possess. 

The  floor  lamp  is  a  modern  devel- 
opment of  the  ancient  torchere,  but 
in  its  many  delightful  forms  it  finds 
numerous  uses  in  the  modern  home. 


As  a  piano  lamp  it  first  found  a  de- 
serving place.  The  reading  lamp 
by  an  easy  chair  is  indispensable ; 
the  adjustable  bridge  lamp  is  splen- 
did for  use  at  a  game  table,  secretary 
or  desk.  (Lamps  should  be  placed 
to  the  left  of  a  desk.)  Lanterns  and 
candelabrum  mounted  on  poles  and 
standards  are  used  with  good  effect 
in  halls  and  dining  rooms.  The  chief 
thing  to  remember  in  choosing  a  floor 
lamp  is  to  select  shafts  that  are  as 
simple  as  possible.  Elaborate  carv- 
ing and  heavy  ironwork  should  be 
avoided.  Either  a  floor  or  table  lamp 
should  have  a  heavy  base  so  it  will 
stand  firmly. 

Either  floor  or  table  lamps  should 
be  placed  in  relation  to  furniture. 
A  light  should  be  on  or  near  the 
desk,  on  the  most  important  table  in 
the  room,  one  near  every  easy  chair 
and  by  the  chaise-longue  or  couch. 
A  practical  and  beautiful  effect  may 
be  had  by  the  use  of  a  pair  of 
lamps  on  a  long  table.  A  davenport 
should  be  equally  lighted  at  both 
ends,  this  may  be  accomplished  by 
a  large  lamp  with  a  broad  shade 
placed  in  the  center  of  a  table  set 
back  of  the  davenport,  or  by  a  lamp 
at  each  end.  A  floor  lamp  should  be 
placed  slightly  behind  the  chair  so 
it  will  not  shower  quantities  of  raw 
light  on  the  person  seated.  The 
shades  on  all  lights  should  be  ad- 
justed so  the  source  of  light  will  not 
shine  into  anyone's  eyes.  A  table 
lamp  should  be  placed  upon  a  table 
of  the  correct  height  so  the  person 
seated  near  will  have  his  book  or 
paper  or  other  work  bathed  in  light, 
but  with  a  shade  sufficiently  deep  so 
the  lamp  bulbs  are  not  in  evidence 
and  the  eyes  are  kept  out  of  the  cir- 
cle of  light. 

Candles  and  candlesticks  provide 
a  strong  decorative  note.  There 
are  many  lovely  candlesticks, 
especially  of  period  form,  made  of 


YOUR  HOME  BEAUTIFUL 


19 


wood,  carved  and  gilded,  of  pottery, 
silver,  brass,  glass  and  other  mate- 
rials. Candlesticks  should  always 
hold  candles,  even  though  they  may 
not  be  used  or  the  obvious  purpose 
of  the  article  is  disregarded.  The 
wax  candle  itself  is  a  beautiful  thing 
and  contributes  no  small  item  to  a 
room's  decoration.  Decorated 
candles  may  be  used  occasionally, 
however,  elaborate  ones  are  so  ob- 
viously not  intended  to  be  burnt  that 
their  use  is  questionable.  Colored 
candles  often  provide  an  interesting 
note. 

No  light  is  softer  or  more  beauti- 
ful than  is  candlelight,  and  in  its 
use  on  the  dining  table  we  are  giving 
expression  to  an  innate  dignity. 
Candelabra  on  the  buffet,  dining 
table  or  mantel  holding  two,  three  or 
more  candles  are  very  lovely.  Al- 
though nothing  has  ever  equaled  in 
beauty  and  charm  the  glow  of  a 
candle  there  are  now  on  the  market 
tiny  electric  bulbs  with  a  flickering 
flame  which  prove  delightful  sub- 
stitutes for  real  candlelight.  Never 
use  a  shade  on  real  candles  or  on 
these  imitations  if  you  want  true 
elegance  and  distinction.  Always 
complete  the  candle's  perfection  by 
the  use  of  a  bobeche,  which  is  a  small 
saucerlike  affair  into  which  the  can- 
dle fits  at  the  top  of  a  candlestick 
meant  to  catch  the  drippings. 

A  BARE  electric  bulb  is  not  a 
thing  of  beauty  and  should  have 
a  shade.  In  choosing  any  electric 
bulb  remember  its  primary  purpose 
is  to  provide  light  in  desired  intensity 
and  location.  The  type  of  illumin- 
ation that  will  give  the  best  results  is 
determined  by  the  needs  of  the  room, 
but  to  be  consistent  use  bulbs  of 
such  intensity  that  they  will  give 
only  the  same  amount  of  light  the 
original  media  did  in  the  period 
which  the  fixture  represents.     This 


can  be  illustrated  by  the  following 
example:  In  some  of  the  lovely 
French  chandeliers  hung  with  crystal 
pendants  the  idea  of  the  prisms  was 
to  magnify  the  light  from  the  can- 
dles. To  use  them  •  today  with 
globes  of  considerable  intensity  does 
not  give  the  same  results.  Avoid 
glare.  A  number  of  dim  or  subdued 
lights  are  preferable  to  one  or  two 
blazing  bulbs.  In  selecting  fixtures 
be  sure  they  are  suitable  to  the  room 
for  no  fixture  is  beautiful  if  it  is 
disproportionate  or  too  prominent. 
Lamps  beautiful  and  suitable  to  the 
room  are  not  only  decorative  in  them- 
selves, but  add  charm  to  the  article 
or  furniture  with  which  they  are 
grouped. 

Lampshades  are  very  important. 
They  should  be  lovely  in  themselves, 
yet  inconspicuous,  and  let  light  filter 
through  them  in  a  gentle  diffused 
glow.  "The  perfect  lampshade 
should  be  so  related  to  its  surround- 
ings, so  harmonious,  so  inconspicu- 
ous you  forget  its  presence  and  only 
enjoy  the  service  it  gives."  Never 
choose  shades  of  erratic  lines. 
Usually  a  shade  wide  across  the 
bottom  is  best  as  it  gives  a  larger 
spread  of  light.  The  shade  should 
conform  in  period,  scale  and  design 
with  the  lamp.  It  should  not  be  set 
too  low  on  the  lampstand,  nor  so 
high  it  shows  the  lighting  machinery. 
The  lines  of  the  shade  and  lamp  to- 
gether should  make  a  graceful  and 
pleasing  design. 

Materials  suitable  for  lamp  shades 
are  China  silk,  georgette,  taffeta, 
chiffon,  pongee  organdy  (especially 
good  for  bedroom  lamps),  gold  and 
silver  cloth,  chintz,  chiffon,  velvet, 
Dresden  silk,  leaded  glass,  metal 
mesh  and  parchment.  Highly  deco- 
rated shades  are  never  good.  A 
well-done  mural  on  a  parchment 
shade  is  good  as  are  many  of  the 
Venetian   scenes.      Simple   pleated, 


20  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

tailored  silk  is  most  tasteful,  or  and  cover  the  stitches  with  a  binding 
parchment.  The  latter  is  especially  of  black  velvet  ribbon, 
suitable  on  wrought  iron.  The  tex- 
ture of  the  material  should  agree  TN  introducing  color  into  the  light- 
with  the  textural  treatment  of  the  ing  by  means  of  colored  shades 
room  and  its  furnishings.  For  bril-  on  lamps  the  color  scheme  of  the 
liant  light  shades  should  be  lined  room  should  be  considered.  Appar- 
with  white.  ently  many  prefer  bright  red  wall 

Shields  on  wall  brackets   (if  not  covering   if   one   may   judge   from 

imitation   candles)    are  appropriate  observations.    This  is  usually  a  mat- 

and   should  be  made  very  simply,  ter  of  not  knowing,  but  extremely 

An  excellent  idea  is  to  use  two  or  bright  and  pure  colors  in  lighting 

three  thicknesses  of  the  glass  curtain  effects  are  very  much  like  living  with 

material  bound  with  material  like  the  a  brass  band.  If  a  room  is  decorated 

overdrapes,   'thus   tieing   them   up  for  natural  lighting  then,  logically 

with  the  rest  of  the  room.    If  candles  in  artificial  lighting  it  should  receive 

or  sconces  are  placed  to  light  a  pic-  the  same  color,  but  sometimes  other 

ture  they  should  be  shielded  so  as  color  introduced  in  the  lampshade 

to  throw  light  on  the  picture.    Bead  may  relieve  a  monotonous  scheme, 

fringe  or  other  ornate  decoration  is  Slight  tints  of  rose  and  yellow  may 

not  good  as  the  light  is  deflected  by  add   something  pleasing,   but   deep 

the  fringe  and  distracts  the  eye.  yellow,  orange  or  red  form  a  garish 

Sometimes  a  room  is  very  charm-  note  as  well  as  have  an  obliterating 
ingly  completed  by  making  the  lamp-  effect  upon  the  flesh  tints  of  the  face, 
shades  of  the  same  chintz  that  is  Blue  should  always  be  avoided  un- 
used in  the  curtains.  The  chintz  is  less  it  is  very  pale  and  lined  with 
first  starched  then  bound  and  ac-  a  warm  color.  Tans,  creams  and  yel- 
cordian  pleated,  a  silk  cord  may  be  low  tints  are  excellent  giving  mellow 
drawn  through  die  top  to  hold  it  in  and  soft  light  without  absorbing  any 
place,  or  it  may  be  made  on  a  wire  of  it.  Rose  and  rose  tones  are  good 
frame.  A  paper  shade  may  be  made  in  the  bedroom,  but  unless  in  a  very 
in  the  same  way.  Some  pleasing  dark  oak  room  never  use  red  shades, 
lampshades  have  been  made  by  Where  a  room  is  of  definite  period 
mounting  old  prints  on  them  and  throughout  the  lighting  fixtures 
cutting  away  the  paper  behind  so  should,  of  course,  follow  that  period, 
the  light  will  show  through  and  bring  Although  it  is  impossible  owing  to 
out  the  colors.  Old  costume  prints  lack  of  space  to  go  into  this  subject 
often  make  very  charming  shades  at  any  length,  brief  mention  might 
of  this  sort.  A  Spanish  Galleon  be  made  of  some  of  the  styles, 
shade  is  made  by  pinning  a  piece  of  Spanish  and  Italian  rooms  call  for 
wrapping  paper  smoothly  around  the  wrought  iron  fixtures  of  a  candle 
frame  and  trimming  close  to  the  type..  Star  lanterns  are  suitable 
wires,  allow  Yi  inch  overlap.  Unpin  in  either  Venetian  or  Spanish  rooms, 
and  use  as  a  pattern  for  a  parchment  Adam  and  Georgian  decoration  call 
paper  covering,  lay  flat  on  table,  for  mirror  reflectors  as  well  as 
apply  a  transfer  decoration  in  ship  crystal  pendants.  Queen  Anne  fix- 
design.  Let  dry,  give  front  and  tures  also  use  brackets  with  mirror 
back  two  coats  of  whfite  shellac.  backs  which  twinkle  back  the  lights 
Sew  over  and  over  to  the  bottom  in  front  of  them.  Old  ship's  lanterns 
and  top  rings  of  the  shade  frame  and  lamps  of  punched  tin  are  good 


YOUR  HOME  BEAUTIFUL 


21 


in  Early  American  rooms.  Tole  is 
equally  suitable  in  Empire  and  Di- 
rectoire,  as  well  as  fitting  in  with 
modern  decoration.  French  Louis 
XV  and  XVI  used  delicately  carved 
and  gilded  brackets  and  crystal 
chandeliers.  The  old-fashioned  oil 
lamp  type  of  brass  or  pewter  with 
cut  glass  shades  and  with  or  without 
crystal  prisms  is  correct  in  a  Colon- 
ial room.  Many  styles  of  early  lamps 
have  survived  to  the  present  day 
and  as  electric  fixtures  find  use  in 
modern  homes. 

Each  room  presents  a  different 
problem  in  lighting  and  we  might 
summarize  some  of  these  needs  brief- 
ly. In  the  hall,  or  at  the  front  en- 
trance a  lantern  sounds  a  note  of 
hospitality.  The  hall  may  or  may 
not  have  standard  lamps  or  wall 
brackets  at  either  side  of  a  hall  table. 
The  living  room  needs  side  lights,  a 
pair  of  lamps  for  a  long  table,  a 
desk  lamp  and  each  easy  chair  should 
be  within  the  circle  of  light  from 
a  table  or  floor  lamp.  There  may  be 
candlesticks  or  girandoles  on  the 
mantel,  and  a  bridge  lamp  is  very 
convenient  for  the  game  table.  The 
dining  room  should  have  wall  lights, 
lights  on  sideboard  and  candles  on 
the  table.  If  you  feel  there  should 
be  a  light  over  the  dining  table  use  a 
simple  hanging  light  with  a  deep 
shade  or  a  shade  that  is  covered  to 
conceal  the  bulbs  from  the  bottom. 


The  library  needs  table  and  reading 
lamps  and  a  light  which  may  be  turn- 
ed on  the  bookshelves  to  help  in  find- 
ing a  desired  book.  The  bedroom 
should  have  first  and  most  import- 
ant a  bedside  lamp,  then  wall  brack- 
ets or  small  boudoir  lamps  at  either 
side  of  the  dressing  table,  a  lamp  by 
the  boudoir  chair  and  by  the  desk  of 
there  is  one.  The  nursery  should 
have  shaded  light,  which,  if  turned 
on  while  a  baby  is  asleep,  will  not  be 
disturbing.  The  bath  needs  only  a 
light  at  the  mirror  and  one  in  the 
center  if  it  is  a  large  room.  The 
kitchen  needs  light  on  the  working 
surfaces.  A  daylight  lamp  in  the 
center  of  the  ceiling,  with  drop  lights 
over  sink  and  stove  will  usually  pro- 
vide that.  Outlets  at  least  every 
twelve  feet  around  the  baseboard  are 
very  desirable  to  permit  of  the  plac- 
ing of  portable  lights  wherever  you 
may  need  them. 

Far  from  constituting  a  problem 
the  choice  of  the  most  interesting  as 
well  as  the  most  correct  lighting 
fixtures  for  any  scheme  of  decora- 
tion is  nowadays  an  opportunity  to 
add  the  final  touch  of  complete- 
ness, and  always  striving  for  beauty 
and  perfection  of  decoration  never 
forget  or  sacrifice  that  essential 
homey  quality  necessary  for  a  satis- 
factory result. 

Next  Month :  Pictures  and  Bric- 
a-brac. 


/v/Hr-ty/ 

4      m^IBi^^^SS^^^^!© 

W*P                              Jo,  4f.£*en?ti.  ' 

wmm, 

^gjpQ 

Relief  Society  Conference 


THE  DOCTRINE  AND  COVENANTS 

By  Elder  Joseph  Fielding  Smith,  of  the  Council  of  the  Twelve 


[  have  been  asked  to  say  something 
in  relation  to  the  Doctrine  and 
Covenants.  First  I  will  give,  briefly, 
some  thoughts  in  regard  to  the  early 
history  of  this  book.  Shortly  after 
the  organization  of  the  Church  the 
members  were  desirous  of  obtaining 
copies  of  the  revelations  given  up  to 
that  time.  In  the  summer  of  1830, 
the  Prophet,  by  Divine  command- 
ment, commenced  to  copy  and  pre- 
pare the  revelations,  no  doubt  with 
the  thought  in  mind  of  having  them 
published.  Some  of  the  Elders  were 
carrying  copies  in  their  pockets,  as 
far  as  the  Lord  would  permit  them, 
for  there  were  some  revelations  at 
that  time  they  were  forbidden  to 
publish  to  the  world.  On  November 
1st  and  2nd,  1831,  a  conference  of 
the  Elders  was  held  at  Hiram,  Ohio, 
when  it  was  decided  that  the  revela- 
tions should  be  compiled  and  pub- 
lished. On  the  first  day  of  the  con- 
ference the  Lord  gave  approval  to 
this  plan  by  giving  a  revelation 
which  he  called  his  "preface  unto 
the  book  of  my  commandments, 
which  I  have  given  them  to  publish 
unto  you,  O  inhabitants  of  the 
earth."  While  this  was  not  the  first 
revelation  given  to  Joseph  Smith,  it 
appears  as  the  first  revelation  in  the 
Doctrine  and  Covenants,  naturally, 
as  it  is  the  custom  to  place  the  pre- 
face of  any  book  today  in  the  be- 
ginning of  the  volume.  Oliver 
Cowdery  and  John  Whitmer  were 
appointed  to  carry  the  revelations  to 
Independence,  Missouri,  where  they 
were  to  be  published.  The  Prophet 
made  haste  in  the  choosing  and  pre- 


paration of  these  revelations  so  that 
the  brethren  could  start  on  their 
journey  to  Missouri  about  the  middle 
of  November. 

W.  W.  Phelps,  one  of  the  early 
members  of  the  Church,  was  by  trade 
a  printer.  He  had  gone  down  into 
Missouri.  The  printing  press  and 
type  were  brought  down  the  Ohio 
River  from  Cincinnatti  where  it  was 
purchased,  and  across  the  country  to 
Independence,  and  the  revelations 
which  had  been  selected  by  the  Pro- 
phet were  set  in  type,  that  is,  most 
of  them.  But  this  was  slow  work. 
We  must  remember  that  they  were 
living  in  pioneer  times,  that  Kirtland 
was  about  as  far  from  Missouri  as 
we  are  here  from  Winter  Quarters, 
from  which  point  the  pioneers  start- 
ed on  their  journey  to  the  Rocky 
Mountains.  We  do  not  stop  to  think 
of  that,  and  so  it  took  some  time. 
By  the  Summer  of  1833  most  of 
these  revelations  had  been  printed, 
but  not  all. 

At  that  time  trouble  arose,  and  a 
mob  destroyed  the  press,  scattered 
the  type,  and  destroyed  most  of  the 
copies  that  had  been  printed,  how- 
ever, a  few  were  saved.  This  was 
known  as  the  Book  of  Command- 
ments. As  I  have  said  very  few  of 
the  sheets  were  preserved  so  that 
there  are  very  few  copies  of  the 
book,  so  far  as  it  was  completed,  in 
existence.  I  only  know  of  five  or 
six  copies  that  are  to  be  found  today. 

In  the  year  1834,  a  committee  was 
formed,  consisting  of  the  Presidency 
of  the  Church,  and  some  others,  for 
the  purpose  of  again  preparing  the 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE 


23 


revelations  and  having  them  pub- 
lished. This  selection  of  revelations 
went  on,  and  in  1835  was  presented 
at  a  Conference  of  the  Church  held 
on  the  seventeenth  day  of  August, 
and  there  was  approved.  When  the 
Prophet  made  this  selection,  he  made 
the  statement  that  he  prized  these 
revelations  beyond  the  wealth  of  this 
whole  earth. 

I  want  to  read  to  you  just  a  word 
or  two  of  the  testimony  of  the  Coun- 
cil of  the  Twelve  in  relation  to  these 
revelations,  which  were  accepted  on 
August  17,  1835: 

"We,  therefore  feel  willing  to  bear 
testimony  to  all  the  world  of  mankind,  to 
every  creature  upon  the  face  of  all  the 
earth,  that  the  Lord  has  borne  record  to 
our  souls,  through  the  Holy  Ghost  shed 
forth  upon  us,  that  these  commandments 
were  given  by  inspiration  of  God,  and 
are  profitable  for  all  men  and  are  verily 
true. 

"We  give  this  testimony  unto  the  world, 
the  Lord  being  our  helper;  and  it  is 
through  the  grace  of  God  the  Father,  and 
His  Son,  Jesus'  Christ,  that  we  are  per- 
mitted to  have  this  privilege  of  bearing 
testimony  unto  the  world,  in  the  which 
we  rejoice  exceedingly,  praying  the  Lord 
always  that  the  children  of  men  may  be 
profited  thereby." 

Each  man  signed  his  name,  begin- 
ning with  Thomas  B.  Marsh,  then 
President  of  the  Council,  and  ending 
with  Lyman  E.  Johnson,  the  young- 
est member. 

At  this  Conference  it  was  decided 
to  include  in  this  publication  of  the 
Doctrine  and  Covenants  seven  Lec- 
tures on  Faith.  These  lectures  have 
been  given  before  the  Schools  of  the 
Elders  in  Kirtland  during  the  years 
1834-1835.  In  accepting  these  seven 
Lectures  on  Faith,  it  was  made  very 
clear  to  that  Conference  that  they 
were  not  received  on  a  parallel  with 
the  revelations,  but  were  accepted  as 
helps  in  the  study  of  the  doctrines  of 
the  Church,  and  so  they  were  added 
to  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  with 
that  understanding. 


At  this  Conference  two  other  ar- 
ticles were  also  received,  read,  ap- 
proved, and  ordered  to  be  printed  in 
the  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  one  on 
Marriage  and  the  other  on  Laws  and 
Government.  These  two  articles  ap- 
peared in  each  edition  of  the  Doc- 
trine and  Covenants  from  the  first 
edition  in  1835,  until  1876.  We 
should  remember  that  these  lectures 
on  Faith  were  not  revelations,  and 
were  not  considered  so  in  the  be- 
ginning. These  two  articles,  one  on 
Marriage,  and  the  other  on  Laws  and 
Government,  were  not  revelations.  I 
want  to  impress  this  upon  you,  be- 
cause this  question  comes  up  con- 
stantly, especially  by  members  of 
the  Reorganized  Church,  who  accuse 
us  of  taking  a  revelation  out  of  the 
Doctrine  and  Covenants.  This  ar- 
ticle on  marriage  was  not  a  revelation 
and  I  want  you  never  to  forget  it. 

I  hold  in  my  hand  a  copy  of  the 
Doctrine  and  Covenants  published  in 
1869,  one  of  the  last  before  that 
article  was  taken  out.  Do  not  forget 
what  I  am  going  to  tell  you,  that  at 
this  Conference  held  on  August  17, 
1835,  Joseph  Smith  and  Frederick  G. 
Williams,  one  of  the  Counselors  in 
the  Presidency,  were  not  present, 
they  were  in  Michigan.  That  is  a 
matter  of  recorded  history,  we  know 
where  they  were  because  we  have  it 
in  the  documentary  history  of  the 
Church.  So  this  article  on  marriage, 
and  this  article  on  Laws  and  Gov- 
ernment in  General,  were  written  by 
Oliver  Cowdery  in  the  absence  of 
the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  and  the 
Prophet  knew  nothing  of  the  action 
that  was  taken  ordering  them  printed 
with  the  revelations.  These  were 
not  revelations,  and  never  were  so 
considered,  and  were  ordered  printed 
in  the  absence  of  Joseph  Smith,  and 
when  Joseph  Smith  returned  from 
Michigan,  and  learned  what  was 
done,  I  am  informed  by  my  father, 


24 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


who  got  this  information  from 
Orson  Pratt,  the  Prophet  was  very 
much  troubled.  Orson  Pratt  and 
Joseph  F.  Smith,  my  father,  were 
missionary  companions,  they  trav- 
eled together,  and  my  father  learned 
a  great  many  things  from  Orson 
Pratt  of  these  early  days.  When  the 
Prophet  came  back  from  Michigan 
he  learned  of  the  order  made  by  the 
Conference  of  the  Church,  and  let 
it  go  through. 

Now  the  Prophet  did  know  some- 
thing about  these  Lectures  on  Faith, 
because  he  helped  to  prepare  them, 
and  he  helped  also  to  revise  these 
lectures  before  they  were  published, 
but  these  two  other  articles,  he  had 
nothing  to  do  with  them. 

In  the  days  of  Nauvoo,  the  Lord 
gave  Joseph  Smith  a  revelation  on 
Marriage,  that  revelation  appears 
under  date  of  July  12,  1843.  That 
is  not  the  date  that  the  revelation  was 
given,  but  the  date  when  the  revela- 
tion was  recorded.  That  revelation 
on  Marriage  was  not  placed  in  the 
Doctrine  and  Covenants  until  1876. 
In  the  year  1876,  the  first  edition  of 
the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  pub- 
lished in  the  west  was  published  by 
David  O.  Calder  of  the  Deseret 
News.  Orson  Pratt,  under  the  di- 
rection of  the  Presidency  of  the 
Church,  had  added  to  the  body  of 
revelations,  a  great  many  others  as 
we  have  them  now  in  the  Doctrine 
and  Covenants,  that  were  not  in  these 
earlier  editions,  and  this  section 
known  now  as  Section  132,  was 
among  those  so  added.  It  would  not 
have  been  consistent  to  have  allowed 
that  article  on  Marriage  to  stay  in 
when  it  contradicted  the  revelation 
given  to  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith, 
so  they  took  it  out,  and  very  properly. 
That  is  a  matter  of  history  that  we 
ought  to  be  familiar  with. 

I  want  to  read  from  this  article 
on  Marriage  to  show  you  that  it  is 
not  a  revelation  and  could  not  be : 


"According  to  the  custom  of  all  civilized 
nations  marriage  is  regulated  by  laws  and 
ceremonies :  therefore,  we  believe  that  all 
marriages  in  this  church  of  Christ  of 
Latter-day  Saints  should  be  solemnized 
in  a  public  meeting,  or  feast,  prepared 
for  that  purpose ;" 

I  do  not  believe  that  at  all.  We 
solemnize  marriages  in  the  Temple 
of  the  Lord,  at  an  altar.  We  do  not 
have  a  crowd,  and  it  is  not  a  feast. 

"And  that  solemnization  should  be  per- 
formed by  a  presiding  high  priest,  high 
priest,  bishop,  elder,  or  priest,  not  even 
prohibiting  those  persons  who  are  de- 
sirous to  get  married,  of  being  married 
by  other  authority." 

I  do  not  believe  that.  I  believe 
every  marriage  in  this  Church  should 
be  performed  by  a  High  Priest  who 
is  appointed  by  the  one  who  holds  the 
keys  to  perform  that  ceremony  for 
time  and  eternity,  at  the  altar  in  the 
House  of  the  Lord,  and  it  ought  not 
to  be  performed  anywhere  el-se.  Of 
course  they  had  no  temples  and  no 
understanding  of  the  ceremonies  for 
time  and  eternity  in  the  year  1835, 
so  we  will  have  to  excuse  Oliver 
Cowdery  for  that.  However  this 
article  is  not  the  doctrine  of  the 
Church,  and  cannot  be,  you  can  see 
that. 

"We  believe  that  it  is  not  right  to  pro- 
hibit members  of  this  church  from  marry- 
ing out  of  the  church,  if  it  be  their  de- 
termination so  to  do,  but  such  persons 
will  be  considered  weak  in  the  faith  of 
our  Lord  and  Savior  Jesus  Christ." 

Of  course  we  do  not  believe  that 
we  should  prohibit  people  from  mar- 
rying outside  of  the  Church,  we  can- 
not go  to  that  extent,  and  prohibit 
them  from  doing  it,  but  we  should 
counsel  against  it,  and  teach  against 
it,  and  try  to  persuade  them  not  to 
do  that  sort  of  thing. 

"Inasmuch  asi  this  church  of  Christ  has 
been  reproached  with  the  crime  of  forni- 
cation, and  polygamy ;  we  declare  that  we 
believe  that  one  man  should  have  one 
wife ;  and  one  woman  but  one  husband, 
except  in  case  of  death,  when  either  is 
at  liberty  to  marry  again." 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE 


25 


Of  course  there  was  no  doctrine  of 
Plural  Marriage  in  the  Church  in 
1835,  but  Orson  Pratt  said  (I  get 
this  from  my  father  who  was  his 
missionary  companion)  that  the 
Lord  did  reveal  to  Joseph  Smith, 
before  1835,  and  before  1834,  and 
as  early  as  1832,  the  doctrine  of 
plural  marriage.  The  Prophet  re- 
vealed that  to  some  few  of  the  breth- 
ren, and  Orson  Pratt  was  one  of 
them.  He  said  the  Prophet  told  him 
that,  but  it  was  revealed  as  a  law  or 
principle  that  was  not  at  that  time 
to  be  revealed  to  the  Church,  or  made 
public,  or  practiced,  but  something 
that  would  yet  come,  that  was  future. 
I  have  the  confidence  that  Orson 
Pratt  spoke  the  truth. 

So  it  would  be  inconsistent,  I  say, 
to  keep  that  article  in  here,  when  the 
revelation  known  as  Section  132 
came  to  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith 
and  was  added  to  the  revelations  in 
the  Doctrine  and  Covenants. 

TT  is  not  necessary  for  me  now  to 
go  into  further  detail  in  regard  to 
the  history  of  these  revelations  more 
than  to  say  this,  that  in  187'6  Orson 
Pratt  divided  the  Doctrine  and  Cove- 
nants into  verses  as  we  have  it  now. 
Before  that  it  was  not  divided,  and 
then  it  was  sent  to  England  to  be 
published — both  the  Doctrine  and 
Covenants  and  the  Book  of  Mormon, 
as  we  now  have  them  divided  into 
verses  and  the  Book  of  Mormon  into 
chapters,  also  with  the  foot  notes. 
This  was  in  1879  when  the  first  edi- 
tions of  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants 
and  Book  of  Mormon,  with  foot- 
notes, were  published  in  Liverpool, 
England.  All  of  the  printing  of  the 
Church  works,  after  we  were  driven 
from  Nauvoo,  until  1876,  was  done 
in  Great  Britain. 

The  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  that 
is  the  title  of  this  book,  and  how 
much  more  significant  it  is  than  "The 


Book  of  Commandments."  A  Book 
of  Commandments  means,  if  we  ac- 
cept the  title  at  its  face  value,  that  it 
contains  only  commandments.  But 
this  title  which  the  Lord  gave  when 
they  got  out  this  edition — let  me 
refer  to  the  title  page ;  "The  Doctrine 
and  Covenants  of  the  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints," 
is  very  significant,  and  tells  the  story 
of  what  this  book  actually  is.  It 
contains  the  doctrine  of  the  Church ; 
it  contains  the  covenants  the  Lord 
will  make  with  the  Church,  if  we  are 
willing  to  receive  them. 

In  my  judgment  there  is  no  book 
on  earth  yet  come  to  man  as  im- 
portant as  the  book  known  as  the 
Doctrine  and  Covenants,  with  all  due 
respect  to  the  Book  of  Mormon  and 
the  Bible,  and  the  Pearl  of  Great 
Price,  which  we  say  are  our  stan- 
dards in  doctrine.  The  book  of  Doc- 
trine and  Covenants  to  us  stands  in 
a  peculiar  position  above  them  all. 
I  am  going  to  tell  you  why.  When 
I  say  that  do  not  for  a  moment  think 
I  do  not  value  the  Book  of  Mormon, 
the  Bible  and  the  Pearl  of  Great 
Price,  just  as  much  as  any  man  that 
lives —  I  think  I  do.  I  do  not  know 
of  anybody  who  has  read  them  more, 
and  I  appreciate  them,  they  are  won- 
derful, they  contain  doctrine  and 
revelation  and  commandments  that 
we  should  heed;  but  the  Bible  is  a 
history  containing  the  doctrine  and 
commandments  given  to  the  people 
anciently.  That  applies  also  to  the 
Book  of  Mormon.  It  is  the  doctrine 
and  the  history  and  the  command- 
ments of  the  people  who  dwelt  upon 
this  continent  anciently.  But  this 
Doctrine  and  Covenants  contains  the 
word  of  God  to  those  who  dwell  here 
now.  It  is  our  book.  It  belongs  to 
the  Latter-day  Saints.  More  pre- 
cious than  gold,  the  Prophet  says  we 
should  treasure  it  more  than  the 
riches  of  the  whole  earth.    I  wonder 


26 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


if  we  do?  If  we  value  it,  understand 
it  and  know  what  it  contains,  we  will 
value  it  more  than  wealth,  it  is  worth 
more  to  us  than  the  riches  of  the 
earth. 

I  heard  a  brother  say  he  could  not 
read  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  be- 
cause it  was  so  much  like  a  diction- 
ary. We  have  heard  practically  that 
expressed  here  this  afternoon.  It  is 
not  a  consecutive  story — it  changes 
the  subject,  and  so  on — well  of 
course  it  does. 

A  BOUT  thirty  years  ago,  when  I 
was  a  president  in  a  Quorum  of 
Seventies — and  in  those  days  we  did 
not  have  any  supervision  so  far  as 
our  study  was  concerned — it  was  de- 
cided by  that  Quorum  of  Seventies 
that  they  would  study  the  Doctrine 
and  Covenants,  and  I  was  appointed 
to  be  the  class  teacher.  We  took  it 
up  section  by  section.  You  are  not 
going  to  get  all  there  is  out  of  it  in 
any  other  way.  You  may  take  it  up 
if  you  want  to  by  topics,  or  doc- 
trines, that  is  good,  but  you  are  not 
going  to  understand  the  Doctrine 
and  Covenants,  you  are  not  going  to 
get  out  of  it  all  there  is  in  it  unless 
you  take  it  up  section  by  section,  and 
then  when  you  do  that  you  will  have 
to  study  it  with  its  setting  as  you 
get  it  in  the  history  of  the  Church. 
So  when  we  studied  the  Doctrine  and 
Covenants  in  those  days,  we  did  not 
take  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  for 
our  text  book,  but  we  took  the  Docu- 
mentary History  of  the  Church.  The 
first  volume  had  just  been  published, 
and  it  contained  the  greater  part  of 
the  revelations  in  the  Doctrine  and 
Covenants,  with  their  setting,  so  that 
we  got  the  reasons  why  this  revela- 
tion was  given,  and  that  revelation 
was  given,  and  with  this  background, 
so  there  was  greater  interest  in  the 
things  we  were  studying  than  there 
would  have  been  if  we  had  taken  the 
revelations  in  some  other  way.    And 


so  we  studied  it  for  a  number  of 
years.  I  do  not  remember  now  how 
long,  but  we  were  still  studying  it 
when  I  was  called  out  of  that  Coun- 
cil to  the  Council  of  the  Twelve. 

May  I  say  that  the  family  I  belong 
to,  for  five  or  six  years,  I  do  not 
remember  just  how  long,  has  been 
holding  meetings  practically  month- 
ly, and  we  have  been  studying  the 
Doctrine  and  Covenants,  taking  it  up 
revelation  by  revelation,  we  have  got 
over  to  about  Section  88. 

I  have  been  trying  for  years  to  get 
the  Priesthood  of  the  Church  to 
study  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants. 
I  partially  have  succeeded,  but  they 
are  not  doing  it  (with  all  due  respect 
to  what  they  are  doing)  as  thor- 
oughly as  I  wish  they  were.  We 
ought  to  be  familiar  with  it  and  know 
its  contents. 


I 


WANT  to  call  attention  to  some- 
thing here.  In  this  preface  to  the 
Doctrine  and  Covenants,  which  was 
given  November  1,  1831,  the  Lord 
has  something  to  say  that  I  think  is 
very  significant,  because  he  tells  us 
why  this  book  is  published. 

"Hearken,  O  Ye  people  of  my  church, 
saith  the  voice  of  him  who  dwells  on  high, 
and  whose  eyes  are  upon  all  men;  yea, 
verily  I  say :  Hearken  ye  peope  from 
afar ;  and  ye  that  are  upon  the  islands  of 
the  sea,  listen  together." 

There  is  the  trumpet  call  to  the 
Latter-day  Saints,  and  to  the  people 
on  the  islands  of  the  sea,  and  in  every 
land,  to  give  ear,  for  the  Lord  has 
something  of  importance  to  say.  And 
then  he  goes  on  to  tell  how  every 
heart  will  be  penetrated,  every  ear 
shall  hear  and  every  eye  shall  see, 
and  the  rebellious  shall  be  pierced 
with  much  sorrow,  for  their  iniqui- 
ties shall  be  spoken  from  the  house- 
tops and  their  secret  acts  shall  be  re- 
vealed. 

I  want  to  show  you  here  from  this 
very  revelation  why  these  revelations 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE 


27 


are  given,  so  I  am  going  to  read 
from  verse  17: 

''Wherefore,  I  the  Lord,  knowing  the 
calamity  which  should  come  upon  the  in- 
habitants of  the  earth,  called  upon  my 
servant  Joseph  Smith,  Jun.,  and  spake 
unto  him  from  heaven,  and  gave  him  com- 
mandments. 

"And  als'o  gave  commandments  to 
others,  that  they  shoud  proclaim  these 
things  unto  the  world;  and  all  this  that 
it  might  be  fulfilled,  which  was  written 
by  the  prophets — 

"The  weak  things  of  the  world  shall 
come  forth  and  break  down  the  mighty 
and  strong  ones,  that  man  should  not 
counsel  his  fellow  man,  neither  trust  in 
the  arm  of  flesh — • 

"But  that  every  man  might  speak  in 
the  name  of  God  the  Lord,  even  the 
Savior  of  the  world ; 

"That  faith  also  might  increase  in  the 
earth ; 

"That  mine  everlasting  covenant  might 
be  established ; 

"That  the  fulness  of  my  gospel  might 
be  proclaimed  by  the  weak  and  the  sim- 
ple unto  the  ends  of  the  world,  and  before 
kings  and  rulers. 

"Behold,  I  am  God  and  have  spoken  it ; 
these  commandments  are  of  me,  and  were 
given  unto  my  servants  in  their  weakness, 
after  the  manner  of  their  language,  that 
they  might  come  to  understanding. 

"And  inasmuch  as  they  erred  it  might 
be  made  known ; 

"And  inasmuch  as  they  sought  wis'dom 
they  might  be  instructed; 

"And  inasmuch  as  they  sinned  they 
might  be  chastened,  that  they  might  re- 
pent ; 

"And  inasmuch  as  they  were  humble 
they  might  be  made  strong,  and  blessed 
from  on  high,  and  receive  knowledge 
from  time  to  time." 

That  gives  you  an  idea  of  why  we 
have  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants, 
and  this  is  given  not  only  to  the 
Church,  but  to  those  on  the  islands 
of  the  sea,  in  foreign  lands,  and  to 
everybody.  These  are  the  reasons : 
that  faith  might  be  increased;  that 
the  everlasting  covenant  might  be 
established,  that  the  gospel  might  be 
preached,  that  men  might  be  brought 
to  repentance,  and  understand  the 
things  of  God. 

Two  days  after  that  revelation  was 


given,  at  the  close  of  the  Conference, 
the  Lord  gave  another  revelation, 
and  since  it  was  given  after  the  close 
of  the  Conference,  it  was  called  the 
appendix,  now  section  133.  In  this 
the  Lord  says : 

"And  by  the  weak  things  of  the  earth 
the  Lord  shall  thrash  the  nations  by  the 
power  of  his  Spirit. 

"And  for  this  cause  these  command- 
ments were  given;  they  were  commanded 
to  be  kept  from  the  world  in  the  day  that 
they  were  given,  but  now  are  to  go  forth 
unto  all  flesh — ■ 

"And  this  according  to  the  mind  and 
will  of  the  Lord,  who  ruleth  over  all 
flesh." 

Just  another  word  in  regard  to  the 
value  of  these  revelations.  In  an- 
other revelation  the  Lord  said  this: 

"And  again,  I  will  give  unto  you  a  pat- 
tern in  all  things,  that  ye  may  not  be 
deceived ;  for  Satan  is  abroad  in  the  land, 
and  he  goeth  forth  deceiving  the  nations — 

"Wherefore  he  that  prayeth,  whose 
spirit  is  contrite,  the  same  is  accepted  of 
me  if  he  obey  mine  ordinances. 

"He  that  speaketh,  whose  spirit  is  con- 
trite, whose  language  is  meek  and  edi- 
fieth,  the  same  is  of  God  if  he  obey  mine 
ordinances." 

THE  Lord  says  he  will  give  us  a 
pattern  to  follow  that  will  pro- 
tect us  from  false  spirits  and  doc- 
trine, and  we  need  it  today  as  we 
have  never  needed  it  before  in  the 
history  of  this  Church. 

Pointing  out  the  value  of  these 
revelations,  and  what  they  mean  to 
us,  in  this  first  revelation  again  I  call 
attention  to  this  one  thing.  Here  is 
the  word  of  the  Lord  in  a  command- 
ment to  every  member  of  this 
Church : 

"Search  these  commandments,  for  they 
are  true  and  faithful,  and  the  prophecies 
and  promises  which  are  in  them  shall  all 
be  fulfilled. 

"Search  these  commandments," 
that  is  the  thread  that  runs  through 
this  preface  to  this  Book  of  Com- 
mandments. I  tell  you  there  is  noth- 
ing  you    ever   attempted    to    study 


28 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


equal  to  this,  and  you  will  never  find 
anything  quite  equal  to  it.  You  have 
only  scratched  at  it,  that  is  all  you 
have  done. 

Of  course  it  is  not  my  place  to  dic- 
tate to  you  and  tell  you  what  to  do, 
but  it  is  my  place  to  warn  the  peo- 
ple and  tell  them  that  the  Lord  has 
commanded  them  to  search  these 
things.  I  am  reading  this  book  all 
the  time,  scarcely  a  day  passes  that 
I  do  not  read  something  and  ponder 
over  it  and  the  other  standards  in 
doctrine.  The  Lord  has  given  this 
book  to  us ;  it  is  our  book,  it  contains 


the  doctrines  of  the  Church  and  the 
commandments  and  the  covenants. 
Many  of  the  covenants  could  not  be 
written  and  put  in  a  book,  you  get 
these  in  the  Temple  of  the  Lord,  but 
I  am  reading  these  things  because  I 
want  to  know  what  the  Lord  has  to 
say,  and  what  He  would  have  me  do. 
It  is  a  wonderful  study,  and  there  is 
not  anything  in  all  this  world  more 
pleasing,  more  delightful  or  that 
brings  greater  joy,  not  anything. 

May  the  Lord  bless  you  and  guide 
you  in  this  labor,  I  pray  in  the  name 
of  Jesus  Christ.     Amen. 


CARE  OF  THE  FEET 
By  Dr.  B.  H.  Blackham 


\\TK}  as  Latter-day  Saints  be- 
lieve in  keeping  our  bodies 
as  perfect  as  possible,  so  that  they 
may  be  temples  for  the  Spirit  of 
God,  as  well  as  for  our  own  spirits, 


it  is  easy  to  shape  these  small 
bodies  into  the  forms  that  we 
wish.  If  we  want  to  deform  them, 
it  is  very  easy  to  do  it.  So  we 
must    watch   through    childhood 


and  it  is  only  natural  that  through  days  to  see  that  there  is  no  un- 

perhaps  misunderstanding,  or  not  due  strain  upon  these  small  bodies, 

really  knowing  what  we  are  doing,  At  the  age  of  ten  to  twelve  the 

that  we  cripple  this  body  of  ours,  biggest  danger  is  past,  the  bones 

The  bodies  of  our  children,  will  are  rather  hard,  not  fully  complet- 
be  my  biggest  plea  today.  Ninety  ed,  but  enough  to  eliminate  de- 
per  cent  of  the  children  come  into  forming  very  easily.  If  the  child 
this  world  with  perfect  bodies.  At  is  left  alone  and  given  the  proper 
the  age  of  21  it  is  found  that  sixty-  opportunity  it  will  gradually  de- 
five  per  cent  of  them  have  defec-  velop  its  bone  and  muscle  and 
tive  feet,  and  it  is  only  through  body  structure  to  the  degree 
educating  the  people  to  this  that  where  it  can  stand  alone  and  walk, 
we  can  prevent  this  great  wrong  Some  children  walk  sooner  than 
to  the  generations  that  are  com-  others — let  them  gradually  devel- 
ing.  op  their  bones  and  muscles  to  the 

At  the  age  of  one  to  three,  the  degree  that  they  can  carry  their 

child  is  learning  to  walk.    The  ov-  weight,  and   do  not  try  to  push 

er-eager  parent  begins  pushing  the  them. 

child,   and   trying  to   teach   it  to  The  thing  I  wish  to  emphasize 

walk.    This  is  a  very  bad  practice  is  the  proper  fitting  of  shoes  and 

inasmuch  as  we  must  consider  the  stockings.     So  many  people  say, 

bone  formation  has  only  started.  "Stockings? — I  have  heard  about 

At  birth  the  child  has  only  one-  shoes,  but  what  do  stockings  have 

third     of    each     individual     bone  to  do  with  it?"    I  have  found  that 

formed,  and  the  rest  is  a  soft  sub-  there  are  more  bad  feet,  crippled 

stance  which  is  very  pliable,  and  and     deformed     bodies,     caused 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE 


29 


through  bad  fitting  stockings  than 
through  short  shoes.  The  proper 
fit  of  the  stocking  should  be  half 
an  inch  longer  than  the  foot  when 
the  person  is  sitting,  then  when 
the  person  stands  it  allows  for  the 
elongation  of  the  foot. 

The  shoes  should  be  one  quarter 
to  half  an  inch  longer.  For  chil- 
dren half  an  inch,  because  their 
feet  grow  so  fast,  that  if  you  do 
not  get  them  long  enough  they 
will  soon  grow  out  of  them.  The 
type  of  shoe  with  a  thick  sole  is 
best,  so  that  when  the  child  stands, 
it  stands  naturally  with  the  feet 
flat  on  the  ground. 

If  a  child  seems  to  have  flat  feet 
at  the  age  of  from  one  to  five  years, 
do  not  be  alarmed,  because  as  a 
general  rule  50%  of  the  children 
have  this  appearance,  but  if  this 
does  develop  at  the  age  of  six  or 
seven,  then  it  is  time  for  the  condi- 
tion to  be  remedied. 

When  buying  shoes  parents  of- 
ten choose  a  shoe  one  quarter  to 
half  an  inch  longer  than  the  foot, 
and  have  the  child  wear  this  shoe 
for  best  for  six  weeks  to  two 
months,  until  it  appears  to  be 
short,  then  they  will  allow  the 
child  to  wear  these  for  every  day 
in  school.  If  you  must  have  your 
children  wear  short  shoes,  be  sure 
that  these  shoes  are  worn  the  days 
when  they  are  not  on  their  feet, 
e.  g.  Sundays,  and  make  the  little 
ones  stay  in  'the  house  and  sit 
down.  The  longer  shoes  should 
be  worn  every  day,  for  when  a 
child  is  on  its  feet,  playing,  it 
needs  to  have  plenty  of  length. 

I  made  a  survey  of  a  school  re- 
cently, and  found  that  75  °/o  of  the 
school  children  were  wearing 
short  shoes  and  stockings.  You 
perhaps  have  been  permitting  this 
without  even  thinking,  and  won- 
der why  the  shoe  wears  out  at  the 
end,  and  the  child  stumbles  and 


turns  its  ankle.  These  are  signs 
of  weak  feet,  and  of  shortness  in 
foot  wear. 

If  you  will  examine  your  chil- 
dren's feet  this  evening,  and  note 
that  the  toes  are  extending  up- 
ward, and  the  knuckles  bunched 
up,  you  will  have  a  sure  sign  that 
you  have  fitted  this  child  in  short 
shoes  and  stockings. 

In  the  adolescent  child,  foot 
troubles  increase  in  the  female  and 
decrease  in  the  male,  and  that  is 
due  to  a  desire  of  the  girl  to  be  in 
style.  The  girl  at  12,  13  or  14 
imagines  that  she  has  reached 
womanhood,  and  desires  to  wear 
high  heels.  At  first  the  parent 
says,  "No"  but  just  like  the  drip- 
ping of  water  on  a  stone  gradually 
wears  the  stone  away,  so  it  is  with 
the  resistence  of  the  parent.  It 
is  worn  away  until  the  child  is 
permitted  to  wear  high  heels, 
which  are  only  for  evening  wear 
or  formal  occasions.  One  is  just 
as  much  out  of  place  on  the  streets, 
or  at  home  in  the  morning,  with 
high  heels  on  as  if  she  wore  a  low 
heel  for  formal  wear.  The  per- 
manent wearing  of  a  high  heeled 
shoe  will  cause  deformities  of  the 
body  such  as  curvature  of  the 
spine,  round1  shoulders,  and  de- 
rangement of  the  organs  of  the 
body. 

Even  though  women  have  diffi- 
culty in  making  a  change  to  the 
lower  heel,  if  they  have  been  wear- 
ing the  higher  one,  it  will  benefit 
them.  Wear  the  three  different 
types,  according  to  your  wishes, 
during  the  day.  You  will  note  that 
the  muscles  are  kept  constantly 
changing,  and  the  muscle  that  has 
to  change  continually  is  a  strong 
muscle. 

The  proper  fitting  of  shoes  is  to 
have  the  wide  part  of  the  foot  be- 
hind the  wide  part  of  the  shoe,  so 
that  when  you   stand  your  foot 


30 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


elongates  into  the  wider  part  of 
the  shoe.  This  will  prevent  corns, 
callouses,  bunions,  swollen  ankles, 
fallen  arches,  and  a  lot  of  body 
derangement. 

Women  today  are  not  getting 
enough  exercise  through  walking. 
It  should  be  a  resolution  in  the 
new  year  to  take  a  fifteen  or  twen- 
ty minute  snappy  walk  every  day. 
You  will  find  that  you  will  be  able 
to  do  your    work  better    in    the 


house,  even  though  you  lose  that 
much  time. 

Teach  the  children  to  take  care 
of  their  feet,  and  fit  them  proper- 
ly, so  they  may  be  raised  in  com- 
fort, and  they  will  enjoy  life  while 
here.  Bad  feet  is,  of  course,  a 
cause  for  worry,  even  eye  strain  is 
caused  by  bad  feet,  head  aches, 
back  aches,  curvature  of  the  spine 
and  things  of  that  nature  are  all 
caused  by  this  fitting  of  our  feet 
improperly. 


'ANGELS  AND  AMAZONS" 
By  Julia  A.  F.  Lund 


^pHE  Third  point  in  the  Three 
Point  Program  of  the  National 
Council  of  Women  in  1933,  was  the 
writing  of  a  book  which  should  tell 
the  development  of  women  in  the 
past  Century.  It  is  my  pleasure  to 
briefly  review  that  work. 

When  plans  for  the  program  of 
the  National  Council's  contribution 
to  the  Century  of  Progress  were 
completed,  it  was  presented  to  the 
Member  Organizations,  which  were 
in  turn  asked  to  cooperate.  You  al- 
ready know  what  a  fine  piece  of 
work  you  all  helped  to  accomplish 
in  the  "Signature  Campaign."  Your 
General  Officers  exerted  their  best 
efforts  to  supply  pictures  and  his- 
torical data,  for  the  books  on  display 
and  for  the  one  to  be  written. 

After  careful  consideration,  Mrs. 
Inez  Haynes  Irwin  was  chosen  as 
the  author,  whose  task  it  was,  to  fit- 
tingly portray  the  story  of  a  hun- 
dred years  of  American  Women,  the 
social  movement  of  the  past  century, 
which  has  stood  above  all  others. 
Mrs.  Irwin  is  herself  quite  typical 
of  the  versatile  and  brilliant  woman 
of  today.  Born  in  Rio  De  Janeiro, 
South  America,  of  American  par- 
entage, she  received  her  education  in 
the  best  schools  of  the  United  States. 


She  has  been  a  writer  since  her 
youth,  contributing  to  magazines  and 
newspapers,  in  addition  to  many 
books  that  claim  her  as  author.  In 
1924  she  took  the  O.  Henry  prize  for 
the  best  Short  Story  of  the  year. 
She  has  traveled  practically  all  over 
the  world  and  has  been  actively 
identified  with  the  interests  of  wo- 
men, a  close  associate  of  Maude 
Wood  Park  and  other  great  Amer- 
ican women.  She  was,  therefore, 
very  well  qualified  as  Miss  Phillips 
says  "to  make  the  pioneer  women  of 
the  past  century  live  again  as  they 
pass  in  review  in  the  pages  of  this 
book,  and  whose  desire  to  be  accurate 
and  impartial  has  impelled  her,  to- 
gether with  her  distinguished  hus- 
band, Will  Irwin,  to  trace  countless 
sources  of  information  for  the  wealth 
of  material  which  has  resulted  in 
this  vivid  presentation." 

The  Title- — Angels  and  Amazons 
is  most  appropriate  and  arresting, 
suggesting  as  it  does,  the  extreme 
types,  which  were  mingled  in  these 
heroines  of  a  cause.  The  sweetness 
and  patience  of  Angels  combined 
with  the  determination  and  courage 
of  the  fabulous  nation  of  martial 
women,  who,  according  to  tradition, 
lived    in    Asia    Minor    and    fought 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE 


31 


against  the  Greeks  at  the  Siege  of 
Troy.  The  battles  with  the  Amazons 
were  favorite  subjects  with  ancient 
Greek  poets,  sculptors  and  painters. 
Our  glorious  American  women  were 
gentle  as  Angels  and  strong  as 
Amazons  in  this  battle  of  a  Century  ! 
The  book  concerns  itself  with 
sowers  rather  than  reapers,  with  im- 
portant beginnings,  no  matter  how 
humble  they  seemed  in  their  time, 
rather  than  with  fulfillment,  which  is 
in  evidence  at  every  turn. 

The  Plot,  or  more  correctly  speak- 
ing in  this  book,  the  motivity  of  ac- 
tion developed  in  the  period  from 
1833  to  1933,  is  a  recital  of  the  rise 
of  women  and  their  contribution  to 
human  welfare. 

The  Characters  are  those  great 
souls  who  have  inspired  and  directed 
the  movements,  immortalized 
through  their  work  in  a  lofty  cause. 
Tt  is  the  story  of  Movements  rather 
than  of  individuals. 

The  Setting  is  our  own  great  Na- 
tion,   Puritan    New    England,    the 
aristocratic  South,  the  workshop  and 
the    cultured    home,    the    industrial 
center,   and  the   farm   from   North 
and  South  and  from  Ocean  to  Ocean. 
The  Climax  is  the  conquest  women 
have  made  in  every  field  of  endeavor. 
The  Dramatic  incidents  fill  every 
page  of  the  book  with  episodes  from 
the  lives  of  those  leaders  who  have 
had  vision  to  see,  courage  to  chart  a 
course,    and    magnetism    to    draw 
others  along. 

The  story  of  the  race  has  been  one 
long  struggle  upward  for  woman, 
toward  a  plane  of  equality — social, 
economic,  and  political. 

The  contents  of  "Angels  and 
Amazons"  falls  into  Three  Books. 
Book- 1  Thev  Stir— r-Book  II  They 
Move — Book  III  They  Mwch. 

Chapter  I,  is  a  very  delightful 
sketch  of  the  Women  of  Colonial 
days,  when  they  had  more  rights  and 


privileges  than  in  the  early  days  of 
the  Republic.  Anne  Hutchinson  of 
New  England,  Margaret  Brent  of 
Maryland  shine  in  very  early  days, 
as  did  Abigail  Adams  and  Mercy 
Otis  Warren  in  Revolutionary  times. 

The  publishing  of  whatever  peri- 
odicals of  these  times  were  almost 
entirely  in  the  hands  of  women. 
Ann  Franklin,  Sister-in-law  of 
Benjamin's,  was  printer  to  the  Col- 
ony of  Rhode  Island.  Cornelia 
Bradford  founded  and  published  the 
Philadelphia  Mercury  in  1742.  A 
Mrs.  Zenger  controlled  the  second 
paper  in  the  City  of  New  York  in 
1748.  Anna  K.  Greene  founded  the 
Maryland  Gazette  in  1767. 

These  are  but  a  very  few  of  the 
brilliant  names  of  that  day.  The 
reaction  which  followed  the  war  is 
most  graphically  told  in  the  chapters 
dealing  with  the  women  of  one  hun- 
dred years  ago.    The  Author  says  : 

"Studying  the  early  part  of  the 
Nineteenth  Century,  one  seems  to 
see  the  whole  sex  as  a  vast,  sub- 
merged continent.  Here  and  there  a 
column  of  rock  rises  above  murky 
waters.  It  is  exciting,  thrilling,  pro- 
foundly moving,  as  one  follows  the 
years  from  1833  to  1933,  to  see  other 
rocky  tors  emerge — and  more — and 
more — ■  until  gigantic  chains  of 
mountains  have  lifted  themselves  in- 
to the  clear  air.  Gradually,  the  whole 
vast  expanse  rises  into  the  light  of 
the  sun. 

"And  the  stirring  first  manifests 
itself  in  that  human  activity  which 
is  the  beginning  of  all  progress — ed- 
ucation." 

The  entering  wedge  was  made 
when  women,  in  face  of  the  bitterest 
opposition,  began  to  enter  the  field 
of  education,  and  to  fight  for  equal 
advantages.  Under  this  title — They 
Educate  Themselves  a  splendid  pic- 
ture is  drawn  of  these  early  strug- 
gles.    According  to  the  Author— 


32 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


"Perhaps  the  greatest  women  educa- 
tors of  the  period  were  Catherine 
Beeeher,  The  Two  Sisters,  Emma 
Hart  Willard,  and  Almira  Hart 
Phelps.  These  did  marvelous  work 
in  the  training  of  Teachers.  Zelpha 
Grant  and  Mary  Lyon,  certainly 
made  educational  history.  In  the 
beginning  certain  districts  allowed 
girls  to  attend  short  terms  of  school 
while  boys  were  on  vacation.  In 
1826  a  public  high  school  was  opened 
for  girls  but  had  to  be  closed  the 
next  year  due  to  hostility  against  it. 
In  1821  the  Troy  Female  Seminary 
was  opened  as  the  first  institution  in 
the  United  States  offering  higher  ed- 
ucation for  women. 

In  1833  Oberlin  College,  Ohio,  ad- 
mitted men  and  women,  black  and 
white  on  equal  terms,  and  in  1837 
Mount  Holyoke  in  South  Hadley, 
Massachusetts,  opened  its  doors.  The 
educational  way  was  really  present- 
ed by  the  State  Universities  which 
for  the  most  part  were  coeducational. 
In  spite  of  this  progress,  the  limita- 
tions and  restrictions  placed  upon 
women  were  numerous  and  galling. 
Some  of  the  large  Universities  of  the 
East  established  Ladies'  Annexes,  but 
these  were  for  the  arts  courses  only. 
One  ridiculous  argument  against  the 
education  of  women  was  that  it 
would  invade  the  femininity  of  wo- 
men, so,  for  the  most  part,  the  pro- 
fessions were  closed  to  them.  Wo- 
men must  not  pursue  subjects  that 
would  touch  realities.  Physiology, 
zoology,  biology  and  anatomy  were 
forbidden.  Astronomy  was  allowed, 
presumably  because  there  was  noth- 
ing indelicate  in  the  moon.  In  spite 
of  all  the  victory  of  woman's  cause 
in  the  field  of  educational  training 
has  been,  perhaps,  the  most  complete. 

The  first  of  the  professions  wo- 
men sought  to  enter  was  that  of 
Medicine.  Elizabeth  Blackwell 
claims  the  distinction  of  being  the 


first  woman  in  modern  times  to  take 
a  medical  degree.  She  was  gradu- 
ated at  the  head  of  her  class  from  the 
University  of  Geneva,  New  York,  in 
1849.  Emily  Blackwell  followed  her 
sister  and  there  are  two  other  names 
that  should  be  mentioned  here,  Marie 
Zakrewska  and  Mary  Putnam 
Jacobi. 

The  Chapters  dealing  with  our 
early  women  Physicians  are  among 
the  most  dramatic  and  gripping  in 
History.  The  urge  to  train  for  this 
came  from  a  knowledge  of  the  agon- 
izing needs  of  women. 

The  next  Profession  attracting 
women  was  the  Ministry.  Gentle, 
adorable,  Lucretia  Mott,  was  a 
Preacher  in  the  Society  of  "Friends" 
to  which  she  belonged.  Julia  Ward 
Howe  often  occupied  the  Unitarian 
pulpit.  Antionette  Brown  Blackwell 
was  the  first  woman,  not  only  in 
American  but  in  all  the  Christian 
World  to  be  ordained  a  regular  rec- 
ognized clergyman.  Augusta  J. 
Chopin  was  the  first  woman  to  re- 
ceive the  title  Doctor  of  Divinity, 
Law  followed  with  a  brilliant  record. 
Ada  Kepley  was  the  first  woman  to 
be  graduated  from  a  law  School,  this 
in  1870. 

As  the  movement  for  education 
grew,  the  power  of  organization 
took  hold  of  women.  It  is  said  that 
Anne  Hutchinson  started  the  first 
Woman's  Club  in  America. 

Women  were  the  chief  sufferers 
from  the  evils  of  Slavery,  Intemper- 
ance, the  Double  Standard  of 
Morals,  economic  discriminations 
and  of  Misgovernment.  Their  first 
organized  efforts  therefore  were  to 
fight  these  great  enemies. 

From  the  account  of  the  first  Wo- 
man's Rights*  Convention  held  in 
Seneca  Falls,  New  York,  in  1848  to 
the  ratification  of  the  19th  Amend- 
ment to  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States  in  1920,  is  one  of  the 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE 


33 


most  amazing  reports  in  the  whole 
history  of  reform  movements.  It 
is  a  story  of  the  most  magnificent 
battle  ever  waged  in  the  cause  of 
human  rights.  It  was  a  steady  edu- 
cational campaign  carried  on  in  the 
spirit  of  its  great  leader  who  said : 
"I  pray  every  single  second  of  my 
life,  not  on  my  knees,,  but  with  my 
work.  My  prayer  is  to  lift  women 
to  equality  with  men" — educational, 
social,  economic  and  legal  equality. 

The  great  pillars  of  the  Woman's 
Suffrage  Movement  were  undoubt- 
edly Lucretia  Mott,  Elizabeth  Cady 
Stanton,  Lucy  Stone  and  Susan  B. 
Anthony.  Not  one  of  these  lived  to 
see  the  actual  adoption  of  the  Suf- 
fage  Amendment,  but  their  labors 
were  carried  to  completion  by  Dr. 
Anna  Howard  Shaw,  Carrie  Chap- 
man Catt  and  some  of  the  brilliant 
leaders  of  the  Woman's  Party. 

Education  and  organization  moved 
on  with  the  Beecher  Sisters,  Julia 
Ward  Howe,  Francis  E.  Willard, 
Clara  Barton  and  scores  of  others. 
Temperance,  Suffrage  and  Anti- 
slavery  organizations  were  the  most 
significant  from  1833  to  1860. 

From  a  very  early  day  Trade 
Unions  played  an  important  part  in 
preparing  women  to  take  their  place 
in  the  world  of  business  and  in- 
dustry. 

The  Appendix  to  our  Book  gives 
a  fine  statement  of  the  organizations 
which  have  been  the  medium  of  ex- 
pression of  women's  efforts  in  indus- 
trial, social,  and  educational  fields. 

National  and  International  Coun- 
cil of  Women,  General  Federation 
of  Women's  Clubs,  Business  and 
Professional  Women,  American  As- 
sociation of  University  Women, 
American  Child  Health  Association, 
American  Federation  of  Teachers, 
National  Woman's  Party,  National 
League  of  Women  Voters,  The 
Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement 


Association  and  The  National  Wo- 
man's Relief  Society,  are  examples 
of  the  organizations. 

The  Stream  Becomes  A  River,  is 
the  closing  chapter  of  this  epic  of 
American  Womanhood — In  1833  it 
was  Female — in  1883,  Lady — 1933, 
Wroman.  The  story  of  how  the  first 
was  dropped  for  the  second  and  the 
second  for  the  third  is  a  thrilling 
record  of  effort  and  toil.  It  is  a 
long  step  between  the  time  when 
Lucretia  Mott  and  Elizabeth  Cady 
Stanton  were  refused  seats  in  an 
Anti-Slavery  meeting  in  London, 
simply  because  they  were  women, 
and  Ruth  Bryan  Owen,  Ambassador 
to  Denmark.  Much  has  happened 
since  the  time  Sojourner  Truth,  the 
Slave  woman,  who  pled  for  protec- 
tion and  rights,  and  Francis  Perkins, 
Secretary  of  Labor  in  the  Cabinet 
of  the  President  "of  the  United 
States. 

Women  are  everywhere,  in  every 
field,  in  the  sun,  on  the  mountain 
above  the  clouds. 

In  the  day  of  the  pioneer  there 
were  no  women  in  trade,  none  in  the 
professions,  none  in  public  life,  only 
a  handful  in  teaching,  a  smattering  in 
the  arts,  and  any  woman  who  con- 
sidered business  as  a  career  opened 
herself  to  the  charge  of  being  un- 
sexed.  Today  we  have  a  world 
peculiarly  marked  with  the  touch 
of  strong  feminine  hands. 

It  is  much  more  than  the  mere 
struggle  for  equality  that  the  book 
describes,  however.  Mrs.  Irwin  has 
been  notably  successful  in  painting 
the  mental  changes  that  have  taken 
place  in  the  American  people  due  to 
feminine  influence. 

The  concluding  portion  of  the 
book  traces  the  work  of  the  individ- 
uals and  organizations  of  the  past 
years.  It  is  a  realistic  picture  of  the 
new  place  of  women  in  a  new  and 
fast-changing   world. 


Relief  Society  Pageant 

By  Annie  Wells  Cannon 


Portraying  the  Educational 
Department 

At  the  Conference  of  the  Relief  Society 
on  Wednesday  Oct.  4,  in  the  Assembly 
Hall  the  accompanying  "Lesson  in  Pic- 
tures" was  presented. 

THE  LAUREL  WREATH 

Prologue 

Music : 

"The  Glory  of  God  is  Intelligence." 
Words  of  power  divinely  given 
In  answer  to  a  prophet's  prayer, 
What  more,  oh  Lord,  is  there 
To  make  the  scheme  complete  ? 
In  the  soft  light  of  glorious  vision 

Appeared  a  woman 
With  hands  upraised  she  seemed 

to  say : 
"Oh  Lord,  let  Thy  light  shine 

upon  me." 
And  lo !  in  her  uplited  hands 

was  placed 
A  laurel  wreath. 
And  at  her  feet 

there  lay 
A  book  with  golden  clasp 

Shaped  like  a  key. 
Slowly  turned  the  golden  key, 
Opened  wide  the  wondrous  book. 
Illumined  on  its  every  page 

In  words  divine 
"Behold  the  gifts  of  grace  combine 
Devotion,  service,  love,  entwine 

And  the  laurel  wreath 

is  thine." 

During  the  reading  a  marble  statue  is 
s'hown,  at  the  words  "is  thine"  she  comes 
to  life  places  the  wreath  on  a  table,  lifts 
the  book,  unclasps  it  and.  vanishes. 

Chapter  I 

THEOLOGY 

Reader : 

"In  the  house  of  righteousness 
is  much  treasure." 


I  hold  within  my  hand  this  book 
I  press  it  closely  to  my  heart 

Its  every  word  divinely  given 
A  holy  message  does  impart. 

In  reverence  I  turn  the  leaves 

I  read  and  find 
"And  thus  if  ye  are  faithful  ye  shall 
be  laden  with  many  sheaves ;" 
Sweet  words  and  kind. 
And  then,  O  glorious  promise  to  a 

world  of  strife 
For  faith  shall  you  be  crowned  with 
honor  and  glory  and  immortality 
And  eternal  life. 

During  the  reading  of  the  selections 
from  the  lesson  the  figures  on  the  stage 
assume  different  positions  in  illustration. 
Selections  from  Doctrine  and  Covenants 
76:1-6;  lames'  1:5;  Doctrine  and  Cove- 
nants 110:1-4;  76:19-23;  19:38-29;  65:2, 
3 ;  and  Sec.  4. 

Curtain  for  Theology  Tableau.  3  figures 
representing  Faith,  Hope  and  Charity. 

Chapter  II 

THE  TEACHER 

Music : 

Reader: 

"Charity  Never  Faileth." 

"And  now  abideth  faith,  hope  and 
Charity,  these  three,  but  the  great- 
est of  these  is  charity." 

Tableau 

The  curtain  opens  on  the  group  of 
statuary  known  as  Faith,  Hope  and 
Charity,  while  the  Reader  repeats  : 

A   message   celestial   came   sweetly 

and  clear 
To  Israel's  fair  daughters  reveal  the 

glad  tidings 
A  mission   of   mercy   for  them   to 

revere 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  PAGEANT 


35 


Go  forth  in  all  gladness  and  kindness 
and  love 

Relieve  the  sad  hearted, 

Your  tenderness  prove ; 

Go  comfort  the  weary,  give  cheer  to 
the  lonely, 

Remember  the  aged,  forget  not  the 
poor ; 

The  mourner,  the  sufferer,  the  or- 
phan the  childless 

All  call  for  your  sympathy,  tender- 
ness, care; 

Relief  is  your  motto,  and  labor  your 
watchword, 

Be  thoughtful  and  gentle,  let  love 
be  your  prayer. 

Let  wisdom  and  faith  guide  your 
footsteps  forever 

As  forward  you  follow  your  labor 
of  love. 

Let  joy  fill  your  hearts,  and  weary, 
No,  never; 

For  heaven  and  the  angels  shower 
Smiles  from  above ! 

Other  pictures  representing  teachers 
work  might  be  introduced  during  this 
reading. 

Music  Interlude 

Chapter  III 
SOCIAL  SERVICE 

OUR  CHALLENGE 
(Enter  Laurel.) 


Music 


Introduction 


But  Jesus  said, 

"Suffer  little  children,  and  forbid 
them  not  to  come  unto  me;  for  of 
such  is  the -kingdom  of  heaven." 
A  challenge  to  the  world  is  flung 
The  Children's  Charter,  hold  it  high 
For  every  child  the  word  has  come 
Health,  strength,  happiness,  build  to 

the  sky. 
"Spirit  that  made  those  spirits  dare 
To    die,    and    leave    their    children 

free," 


Today  let  not  one  effort  spare 
Inspire  this  work  for  them  and  thee. 

Curtain  for  the  Challenge 

OUR  CHALLENGE 

Chapter   IV 

LITERATURE 

Reader : 

"Seek  ye  knowledge  out  of  the 
best  books." 

How  wonderful  the  golden  dreams 
That  men  unto  our  mission  bring, 
Whose  God-like  inspiration  gleams 
When  they  have  tasted  the  Pierian 
Spring. 

Curtain  for  Literature 

LIFE   AND   LITERATURE 

Reader : 

Oh  rich  is  life,  as  down 

The  vistas   of   the  years   we   look, 

And  find, 
Within  time's  golden  book 
The  treasures  of  the  human  mind. 
No  satin  pearls  in  ocean  depths, 
Nor  emeralds  from  Peruvian  mines 
Nor    rubies    rare     from     southern 
climes 

Would  we  compare 
With    gems    of    thought    enfolded 

there. 
Within  the  shadows  of  the  past 
When  that  which  once  was  new 

Is  now  so  old, 

(Enter    Literature    and    Pages.      One 
carrying  a  book  and  one  an  ancient  lamp.) 

We  scan  the  story  of  the  ages 
It  may  be  it  is  told 
By  spoken  word  in  mystic  rhyme 
From  generation  to  generation 
Throughout  aeons  of  time, 
Perchance  'twere  marked  on  marble 

walls 
Or  pictured  panels  of  stately  halls 
Or  sculptured  on  the  mountain  side 
Or  plates  of  precious  metal ; 
But  far  and  wide 


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RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


(Turn  and  slowly  take  places  in  center 
of  round  platform.) 

By  stone,  papyrus,  leather, 

However  brought, 
Until  the  printed  word 
What  magic  has  God  wrought 
To  thus  preserve  for  all  mankind 
The  world's  best  thought. 
Spoken,  painted,  sculptured,  written 

It  matters  not, 
Throughout  the  centuries  of  time 
Literature  is  life's  gift  sublime. 

THE  GIFTS  OF  THE  GREEKS 

What  kind  of  men  were  these 
Who  worshipped  at  a  pagan  shrine 
Yet  to  a  waiting  world 

Brought  gifts  divine 
Plato,    Aeschylus,    Socrates, 
Aristotle,  Lysian,  Demosthenes 
And  names  innumerable,  of 

such  renown 
Triumphantly  have  worn  the 

victor's  crown. 
The  Iliad  and  the  Odessy 
Great  Homer's  gifts  supreme 
And  lovely  Sappho's  lyric  songs 
Etherial  as  a  dream 
Science,  Art,  Philosophy  and  Song 
Had  magic  birth   at   Athens'   Par- 
thenon. 

Tableau 

As  each  enters  Reader  continues 

Science — "Ah,  who  can  tell  how 
hard  it  is  to  climb  the  steep  where 
Fame's  proud  temple  shines 
afar?" 

Art — "It  is  the  glory  and  the  good 
of  Art  that  it  is  the  one  way  pos- 
sible to  speak  the  truth." 

Philosophy — "How  charming  is  di- 
vine Philosophy!  Musical  as 
Apollo's  lute,  and  a  feast  of  nec- 
tared  sweets." 

Poetry — "Some  thoughtfully  pro- 
claim the  muses  nine  a  tenth  is 
Lesbian's  Sappho,  maid  divine." 

— Plato,  translated  by  Lord  N eaves. 


Each  of  these  in  Grecian  costume  takes 
place  in  turn  at  left  of  Literature. 

Picture  Three. 

GIFTS  OF  THE  ROMANS 

Imperial  Rome ! 
In  men's  hearts  enthroned 
For  gifts  imperishable 
Whose  lustre  bright, 
Shines  down  the  ages  in 

reflected  light. 
Caesar,  Livy,  Virgil,  Horace, 

Cicero, 
Proud  names  to  conjure  with 

I  trow, 
The  classic  culture  of  the  Latin  sage 
Still  holds  its  place  upon  the  world's 
great  stage. 

(Enter    Calpurnia,   passes'   slowly   and 
takes  place  in  picture.) 

Tableau 
Reader : 
Calpurnia,  Ceasar's  wife,  Empress 

of  Rome. 
"When   beggars   die   there   are   no 

comets  seen; 
The  heavens  themselves  blaze  forth 

the  death  of  princes." 
So  spake  Calpurnia  to  warn  great 
Caesar,      "Beware     the     Ides      of 

March." 

THE  BIBLE  AND  ITS 
LITERATURE 

Great  book  of  books ! 
Your  every  page  is  fraught 
With  words  of  such  inspired  thought 
That  men  of  every  tongue 

and  clime 
Have  learned  throughout  the  years 

of  time 
Life's  greatest  lessons. 
The  wisdom  of  the  prophets  old, 
Their  counsels,  warnings  manifold, 
In  rare  and  classic  verse  are  told 
From  Genesis  to  Revelations; 
History,  Drama,  Poetry  and  Art, 
All  are  a  part 
Of  this  most  priceless  treasure, 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  PAGEANT 


37 


And  with  the  prophets,  and  the 

kings 
Woman  too,  her  portion  brings 
Of  travail  and  of  pleasure: 

(Enter   Miriam,   with   lyre  or  ancient 
musical  instrument.) 

Tableau 
Reader : 
There's  Miriam,  the  singer  in  the 

wilderness : 
"And  Miriam  took  a  timbral  in  her 
hand,  and  said,  'Sing  ye  to  the  Lord ; 
for  He  hath  triumphed  gloriously !" 

Esther,  queen  and  prophetess : 
(Enter  Esther  with  scepter.) 

"And  Esther  obtained  grace  and  fa- 
vor in  his  sight,  and  the  king  loved 
Esther,  so  that  he  sat  the  royal  crown 
upon  her  head,  and  made  her  queen." 

(Enter     Ruth,     carrying    sheeves     of 
wheat.) 

Ruth,  the  gleaner  in  the  wheat 
With  these  words  so  softly  sweet: 
"Entreat  me  not  to  leave  thee 
or  to  return  from  following 

after  thee ; 
For  whither  thou  goest 

I  will  go; 
And  where  thou  lodgest 

I  will  lodge; 
Thy  people  shall  be  my  people, 
And  thy  God  my  God." 

(Enter     Samarian,     with     picturesque 
water  jar  on  shoulder.) 

Again  in  most  dramatic  word 
The  story  of  the  woman  fair 
Who  by  the  well  in  thoughtful 

mood 
Gave  drink  unto  the  Lord. 
This  woman  of  Samaria 
In  amazement  heard 

her  Lord  declare 
"If  thou  knewest  the  gift 

of  God, 
And  who  it  is 

that  saith  to  thee 
Give  me  to  drink 


Thou  would'st  have  asked 

of  him, 
And  he  would  have  given  thee 

living  water. 
Who  drinketh  of  this  water 
Shall  thirst  again 
But  whosoever  drinketh 

of  this  water,  I  shall  give  him 
Shall  be  in  him  a  well 

of  water 
Springing  up  into 

Everlasting  life." 

(Each  in  turn  takes  place  at  right  of 
Literature.) 

Picture  Five. 

ROMANCE 

In  olden  times,  so  we  are  told 
By  sages  and  by  poets  too 
All  maids  were  fair 
While  knights  were  bold 
And  came  in  armour  bright 

to  woo 
Germanic,   Spanish,   Celtic,   French 
Each  land  its  thrilling  tale 

has  wrought 
Of  chivalry  and  of  gay  romance 
And  pictures  to  the  mind  are 

brought 
Of  lovers  true  and  brave 
Like  Siegfried  and  like  Launcelot 
Who  castles   stormed  with   sword 

And  lance 
A  maiden  fair  to  save. 

(Enter  Brunhilde.) 

Reader : 

Brunhilde : 

"I  stand  in  sight 

Of  Siegfried's  star 

For  me  he  was, 

And  for  me  he  will  ever  be." 

Wagner. 

(Enter  Guinevere.) 

Guinevere : 

"She  seemed  a  part  of 

joyous  spring; 
A  gown  of  grass  green  silk 

she  wore, 


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RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


Buckled  with  golden  clasps 

before, 
A  light  green  tuft  of  plumes 

she  bore 
Closed  in  a  golden  ring." 

Tennyson. 

(With  graceful  gesture  each  in  turn 
slowly  enters  and  takes  place  on  left  of 
picture.) 

Picture  Six. 

THE    NOVEL— A    SOCIAL 
RECORD 

The  novel  is  a  vital  thing 
Its  pages  do  express 

In  interesting  phrases 
The  different  periods  of  time 
Their  habits,  speech  and  dress, 
And  all  life's  social  phases. 
Scott,  Thackery,  Dickens,  Eliot, 

Conrad,  Austen, 
Hawthorn,  James,  Disraeli,  Lytton, 
And  others  might  we  name 
Of  equal  worth  and   fame, 

who  chose 
In  most  delightful  prose 
Their  thoughts  and  fancies 

to  disclose. 

(Enter  Jane  Austen,  with  parasol.) 

Some  tales  are  true, 
And  some  are  not ; 
And  some  are  purely 

fancy  wrought; 
Though  light  or  dark  the  pattern  be 
It's  leisure's  simplest  luxury. 

Tableau 
Reader : 
Jane  Austen : 

The  beautiful  Jane  Austen,  Eng- 
land's first  woman  novelist. 

Picture  Seven. 

SHAKESPEARE 

In  the  rich  Elizabethan  time 
By  land  and  sea  men  ventured 
forth 


Great  wealth  to  find ; 
But  one  there  was  content 

to  bide 
Along  the'  placid  Avon's  side 

For  in  his  mind, 
Such  wealth  of  treasure  lay 
That  all  the  world  unto 

this   day 
Proclaim  him  master  of  his 

kind. 
Lovely  women  and  gifted  men 
Have  walked  the  mimic  stage 
Have  played  the  parts,  your 

facile  pen 
Portrayed  on  written  page 
Hamlet,  Richard,  Romeo, 
Othello,  Lear  and  Prospero, 
Juliet,  Katharine,  Jessica, 
Rosalind,  Miranda,  Portia, 
In  picture  pass  before 

our  eyes 
As  kings,  and  princes,  lovers,  fools 
Witches,  fairies,  jesters,  ghouls 
In  art  that  never  dies. 
So  real,  so  true  personified 
By  magic  words  are  glorified. 
Great  Shakespeare,  immortal  bard 
A  laurel  wreath  we  bring 
And  in  the  realm  of 

literature 
We  crown  thee  king. 

(Enter  Miranda.) 

Reader : 

Miranda,  heroine  of  "The  Tempest." 

"O'  I  have  suffer'd 

With  those  that  I  saw  suffer!" 

(Enter  Desdemona.) 

Desdemona : 

"She  loved  him  for  the  dangers 

he  had  passed : 
And  he  loved  her  that  she  did 

pity  them." 

(Enter  Juliet.) 

Juliet : 

''Did  my  heart  love  till  now? 

Forswear  it  sight! 
For   I   ne'er   saw   true  bieauty   till 
this  night." 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  PAGEANT 


39 


(These  3  group  at  right  of  Bible  char- 
acters completing  the  semi  circle.) 

Reader : 

What  magic  has  God  wrought 

To  thus  preserve  for  all  mankind 

The  world's  best  thought. 

Spoken,  painted,  sculptured,  written 

It  matters  not, 
Throughout  the  centuries  of  time 
Literature  is  life's  gift  sublime. 

(Group     turn     toward     Literature     in 
graceful  pose.     Curtain.) 


DECALOGUE 

"Let  life  attain  the  starry  towers 

Lured  to  the  bright  divine  ascent 
Be  yours  the  things  you  would ;  be 
ours 
The    things    that    are    more 
excellent." 

Paraphrased  from  Watson. 

(Reader  now  steps  to  center,  places  book, 
poses  as  statue  with  wreath  held  high. 
Curtain.) 


>i     |           "^ 

'  'M'iHi 

fisNiJasKmwtvKs 

New  Year 

By  Elise  B.  Alder 
Given  over  KSL,  December  30,  1932 


IT  appears  that  among  all  nations 
and  in  all  ages  the  first  day  of 
the  new  year  has  been  and  is  re- 
garded not  only  as  a  holiday  but  also 
an  especially  holy  day,  a  day  of 
glad  rejoicing  and  of  reverent  wor- 
ship." 

It  seems  that  He  whose  birthday 
we  celebrate  on  December  25th  took 
what  was  good  in  men  and  moulded 
it  to  higher  uses  and  that  no  doubt 
is  why  the  Season  of  His  birth  has 
won  such  an  intimate  place  in  the 
heart  of  mankind.  Memory  can  be 
filled  full  of  things  to  be  remem- 
bered. No  soul  is  entirely  destitute 
of  blessings.  No  man  has  yet  num- 
bered the  blessings,  the  mercies,  the 
joy  of  God.  We  are  all  richer  than 
we  think  and  if  we  once  set  our- 


selves to  reckoning  up  the  things  of 
which  we  are  glad,  we  shall  be  aston- 
ished at  their  number. 

J.  R.  Miller  says  in  A  Greeting  to 
the  New  Year:  "We  are  on  the 
threshold  of  a  New  Year.  We  do 
not  know  what  the  year  holds  for  us 
but  we  are  not  afraid  of  it.  We  have 
learned  to  look  for  kindness  and 
goodness  in  all  our  paths,  and  so  we 
go  forward  with  glad  hope  and  ex- 
pectation full  of  a  desire  to  improve. 

"He  came  to  my  desk  with  a  quivering 
lip, 
The  lesson  was  done — 
'Dear  teacher,   I   want  a  new  leaf,'  he 

said, 
T  have  spoiled  this  one.' 
In   place   of   the   leaf    so    stained   and 

blottedj 
I  gave  him  a  new  one  all  unspotted, 


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RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


And  into  his  sad  eyes  smiled — 
'Do  better  now,  my  child.'  " 

"I  went  to  the  throne  with  quivering  soul, 
The  old  year  was  done — 
'Dear  Father,  hast  Thou  a  new  leaf  for 

me, 
I  have  spoiled  this  one  ?' 
He  took  the  old  leaf  stained  and  blotted, 
And  gave  me  a  new  one  all  unspotted. 
And  into  my  sad  heart  smiled — 
'Do  better  now,  my  child.'  " 

V\7"E  made  a  good  many  failures 
in  the  past  year.  The  New 
Year  is  a  chance  to  try  again  with  a 
hope  of  doing  better.  The  New 
Year  a  golden  gate  of  opportunity 
for  improvement.  The  chances  of 
life  are  open  anew.  Mary  G.  Grain- 
ard  in  her  "The  New  Year  Medita- 
tion" says: 

"I  see  not  a  step  before  me 

As  I  tread  on  another  year 
But  the  past  is  still  in  God's  keeping 

The  future  His  mercy  shall  clear 
And  what  looks'  dark  in  the  distance 

May  brighten  as  I  draw  near." 

One  New  Year's  eve  a  trembling' 
young  man  who  in  the  year  just 
closing  had  been  greatly  helped  by 
a  strong  friendship,  said  to  the  friend 
who  had  given  the  help,  "May  I  put 
my  hand  in  yours  for  another  year  ?" 
The  answer  was,  "Yes,  but  in 
Christ's  first."  "There  is  no  other 
hand  that  can  guide  us  safely 
through  the  new  and  strange  ex- 
periences and  we  need  great  watch- 
fulness if  we  would  make  the  voy- 
age of  the  year  in  safety.  If  we  love 
God  we  shall  love  our  brother  also. 
We  make  gladness  for  ourselves 
only  when  we  do  our  duty  well  as 
we  can.  It  never  can  be  found  in 
selfishness." 

One  author  says : 

"He  is  dead  whose  hand  is  not  open  wide 
To  help  the  need  of  a  human  brother, 
He  doubles  the  length  of  his  life  long 

ride 
Who  gives  his  fortunate  place  to  another  ; 
And  a  thousand  million  lives  are  his 
Who  carries  the  world  in  his  sympathies. 
To  give  is  to  live !" 


We  must  learn  to  view  the  past 
successes  we  have  achieved  with  sat- 
isfaction and  look  steadfastly  to  the 
future  and  what  it  holds  out  to  be 
accomplished,  and  muster  up  our 
determination  to  do  what  we  can  to 
make  the  world  better. 

Past  failures  and  disappointments 
are  to  be  forgotten  and  doubts  and 
misgivings  are  to  be  banished  from 
thoughts  and  meditations.  If  we  are 
at  war  with  conditions  and  environ- 
ments the  first  step  is  to  get  at  peace 
with  ourselves.  Bury  our  griev- 
ances, forget  all  wrongs  and  begin 
all  over  again.  Channing  Pollack 
says :  "The  art  of  living  is  a  process 
of  selections" — Life  is  a  game.  We 
can  play  it  squarely  with  all  there 
is  in  it  or  we  can  cheat  and  try  to 
get  results  by  short  cuts.  This  means 
failure  in  the  end.  To  get  the  best 
results  in  our  search  for  happiness 
we  must  follow  one  fundamental 
rule — Choose  the  truth. 

With  Tennyson  we  say : 

"Ring  out,  wild  bells,  to  the  wild  sky 
The  flying  clouds  the  frosty  light 
The  year  is?  dying  in  the  night 
Ring  out  wild  bells  and  let  him  die. 

"Ring  out  the  old  ring  in  the  new 
Ring  happy  bells,  across  the  snow 
The  year  is  going,  let  him  go 
Ring  out  the  false,  ring  in  the  true. 

"Ring  out  the  want,  the  care,  the  sin 
The  faithless  coldness  of  the  times. 
Ring  out,  ring  out  my  mournful  rhymes 
But  ring  the  fuller  minstrel  in. 

"Ring  in  the  valiant  man  and  free 
The  larger  heart,  the  kindlier  hand 
Ring  out  the  darkness  of  the  land 
Ring  in  the  Christ  that  is1  to  be." 

Let  the  New  Year  be  free  from 
wrong  doing,  a  year  of  service,  a 
year  of  trust  in  God,  and  it  will  be 
a  happy  year  from  first  to  last.  It 
may  be  the  hardest  year  we  have 
known  but  it  will  be  the  happiest 
if  we  will  earnestly  try  to  make  it  a 
bigger,  brighter  one  for  ourselves 
and  for  the  world  in  which  we  live. 


Preventing  the  Spread  of  the  Common  Cold 


By  Lucy  Rose  Middleton 


IN  spite  of  traditional  dread  of 
open  windows  and  drafty  build- 
ings, there  is  no  longer  much 
doubt  that  the  common  cold  is  an  in- 
fectious and  contagious  disease.  It  is 
true  that  medical  science  has  not  yet 
isolated  the  offending  germ ;  in  fact 
there  is  talk  of  its  being  "ultra-mic- 
roscopic"— that  is,  too  small  to  be 
seen  even  by  the  most  powerful 
modern  microscopes.  But  a  mass  of 
evidence  points  to  the  communica- 
bility  of  colds. 

It  is  common  knowledge  that 
colds  come  in  periodic  waves  during 
which  a  goodly  proportion  of  the 
populace  is  stricken  at  once.  These 
epidemics  do  not  necessarily  come  at 
the  coldest  season  of  the  year,  and 
are  therefore  obviously  not  very 
closely  related  to  the  thermometer 
reading  in  the  outer  world.  It  is 
said  that  Eskimos  and  others  who 
live  isolated  lives  in  the  northern 
wilds  do  not  get  colds  or  pneumonia 
in  spite  of  the  most  rigorous  expos- 
ure to  inclement  weather.  When 
brought  in  contact  with  the  world  at 
large,  however,  they  seem  no  more 
resistant  to  these  diseases  than  any- 
one else.  Every  observant  person 
has  had  the  experience  of  "catching 
cold"  shortly  after  intimate  contact 
with  a  friend  who  was  already  a  vic- 
tim of  this  universal  disease.  The 
moral  of  all  this  is  plain :  we  catch 
cold  from  one  another,  and  there  is 
usually  no  justification  for  blaming 
our  troubles  on  an  innocent  breath 
of  fresh  cool  air  wafted  in  through 
an  open  window. 

The  prevention  of  the  common 
cold  is  largely  a  matter  of  common 
sense  and  simple  sanitary  devices.  It 
goes  without  saying  that  all  influ- 


ences which  improve  one's  general 
health  will  increase  resistance  to  this, 
and  also  to  many  other  diseases.  Reg- 
ular habits,  fresh  air,  sufficient  sleep, 
enough  nourishing  food,  good  warm 
clothing,  and  avoidance  of  fatigue 
are  all  important.  But  a  most  vital 
factor  of  the  protection  is  an  intelli- 
gent avoidance  of  the  spread  of  the 
infectious  material  of  colds  to  one's 
own  mouth  and  throat. 

A  noted  sanitarian  struck  at  the 
center  of  the  problem  when  he  re- 
marked "If  human  saliva  were  blue, 
we  should  be  astonished  how  widely 
it  becomes  spread  through  our  en- 
vironment." It  has  been  shown 
that  during  coughing  and  sneezing, 
and  even  during  ordinary  speech,  a 
shower  of  tiny  droplets  of  moisture 
is  emitted  from  the  mouth.  Al- 
though they  are  too  small  to  be  seen, 
these  droplets  are  capable  of  carry- 
ing hordes  of  infectious  bacteria. 
The  smallest  of  these  droplets  prob- 
ably linger  in  the  air  for  a  short 
time  before  falling  to  the  ground.  If 
one  has  a  cold  and  wishes  to  protect 
his  fellows  from  acquiring  it,  he 
must  carefully  cover  his  mouth  and 
nose  with  a  handkerchief  while 
sneezing  or  coughing.  The  modern 
mother  will  realize  that  it  is  much 
more  important  to  keep  her  baby 
away  from  persons  with  colds  than 
to  swathe  it  in  mountains  of  blankets 
in  deference  to  the  age-old  horror  of 
drafts.  This  is,  of  course,  not  to  be 
construed  as  an  argument  against 
adequate  protection  of  a  baby's  ten- 
der body  by  snug  clothing  during  the 
chilly  season. 

Contact  with  the  world  away  from 
the  household  involves  inevitably  a 
considerable  amount  of  exposure  to 


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RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


the  virus  of  colds.  Shopping,  han- 
dling" money,  opening-  doors,  shak- 
ing hands,  and  so  forth,  expose  us 
to  possible  contamination.  It  should 
accordingly  become  a  habit  not  to 
put  the  fingers  needlessly  in  the 
mouth  or  nose.  Before  eating  or 
preparing  food  the  hands  should  be 
washed  with  soap  and  water.  Soap 
has  been  found  to  be  an  excellent 
disinfectant,  capable  of  killing  con- 
tagious material  with  reliability  and 
dispatch. 

HOT  BREADS  FOR 
BREAKFAST 

Twin  Mountain  Muffins 

2  cups  flour 

%  CUP  sugar 

*4  CUP  melted  butter 

1  egg 

1  cup  milk 

Yl  teaspoon  salt 

5  teaspoons  baking  powder 

Mix  and  sift  dry  ingredients  well 
together.  Combine  liquid  ingredi- 
ents and  add  to  the  dry  mixture  as 
quickly  as  possible.  Drop  by  spoon- 
fuls in  buttered  muffin  pans  and 
bake  25  minutes  in  hot  oven  400 
degrees  F. 

For  variation  use  half  white  flour 
and  half  whole  wheat  or  graham. 


The  addition  of  chopped  dates  or 
raisins  makes  a  pleasing  change. 

Pop-Overs 

1  cup  flour 

!/4  teaspoon  salt 
7/8  cup  milk 

2  eggs 

J/2  teaspoon  butter,  melted 

Mix  salt  and  flour  together;  add 
milk  gradually,  to  make  a  smooth 
batter.  Beat  whole  eggs  until  light 
and  add  to  the  mixture.  Add  butter. 
Beat  2  minutes  with  egg  beater,  turn 
into  hissing-hot  buttered  muffin 
pans.  Bake  35  minutes,  beginning 
with  a  hot  oven,  450  degrees  F.  and 
decreasing  gradually  to  moderate 
oven,  350  degrees  F.  as  pop-overs 
start  to  brown. 

Waffles 

2  cups  flour 

4  teaspoons  baking  powder 

1  teaspoon  salt 

2  teaspoons  sugar 
2  cups  milk 

2  eggs 

4  tablespoons  melted  fat 

Mix  and  sift  dry  ingredients. 
Add  milk  gradually,  egg  yolks  well 
beaten,  and  egg  whites  beaten  stiff. 
Cook  on  sufficiently  hot  waffle  iron 
until  well  puffed  and  delicately 
browned.     Serve  with  maple  syrup. 


For  Young  Mothers 

By  Holly  B.  Keddington 


TT/E  are  all  opening  the  door  to 
yy  1934.  What  will  that  door 
lead  us  into?  In  a  recent 
radio  sermon  the  subject  of  "Doors" 
was  discussed  in  this  manner :  What 
kind  of  door  are  you  ?  You  may  be 
the  very  pretentious  door  with  un- 
told possibilities — wealth,  beauty, 
service  and  strength,  a  door  made 
with  filigre  iron  outer  door  so  that  an 
outsider  is  struck  immediately  with 
wonder  at  its  pretentiousness.  Then 
you  may  be  the  hand-carved  door  of 
oak,  sturdy,  beautiful,  but  a  door  like 
the  other  which  lets  no  hint  of  its 
interior  show  through.  There  is 
next  the  door  of  the  ordinary  dwell- 
ing, with  a  wooden  frame,  firm  and 
solid  a  pane  of  glass  or  two  to  let 
out  a  gleam  of  light  to  a  passerby. 
Numerous  types  of  doors,  nearly  as 
many  as  types  of  people,  to  choose 
from,  until  we  come  to  the  last  door 
which  shows  signs  of  wear,  many 
scrubbings,  many  foot  falls  on  a 
worn  doorsill,  a  knob  that  shakes  a 
little  from  weak  and  strong  hands 
upon  it.  But  when  this  door  is  open- 
ed, we  find  warmth,  good-will,  sim- 
ple comfort,  happiness  and  a  wel- 
come that  lasts.  Each  visitor  leaves 
this  door  better  for  having  entered 
it.  So  then,  what  kind  of  a  door  are 
you? 

You  can  find  behind  this  portal  of 
1934  just  what  you  will.    Make  the 
most  of  the  possibilities  offered. 
*  *  * 

jyr  OTHERS  who  listen  to  the 
radio  at  special  times,  I  am 
sure,  get  much  help  from  the  sug- 
gestions given  there.  Pamphlets 
that  are  given  for  the  asking  may  be 
the  beginning  of  a  fine  little  library 


on  child  care  and  home-making. 
The  State  Boards  of  Health  have 
many  pamphlets  that  should  be  in 
every  home.  They,  too,  are  yours 
for  the  asking.  Many  articles  in 
magazines  are  splendid  but  we  can- 
not subscribe  to  everything.  How 
then,  would  it  be  for  each  Relief 
Society  to  have  a  library  of  such 
magazines  donated  by  members  so 
that  instead  of  being  burned  or 
thrown  away  some  other  persons  get 
from  them  the  good  suggestions.  If 
a  note  book  is  used  while  you  are 
reading,  the  magazines  may  be  pass- 
ed on  but  the  jist  of  the  article  is  at 
your  finger  tips. 

*  *  * 

1LJERE  is  a  cookie  recipe  for  that 
little  girl  who  likes  to  make 
things.  I  believe  she  could  do  this 
all  alone.  Maybe  those  boys  of 
yours  and  the  neighbors  might  try 
it  too: 

Ya  c  shortening 
2  c  sugar 
2  eggs  beaten 
1  c  raisins 
1  tsp  vanilla 
Vi  tsp  salt 
Yi   tsp  soda 
Yz  c  canned  milk 
Flour  to  make  soft  dough 

Roll,  cut  with  fancy  cutters  and 
bake  12  to  15  minutes  in  moderate 
oven  (325°). 

*  *  * 

TI 7E  all  know  how  harrassed  a 
mother  may  become  by  con- 
tinually being  indoors  with  a  same- 
ness of  seeing,  thinking  and  doing. 
We  know  also  it  is  within  her  power 
to  train  herself  to  a  calmness,  an 


44 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


evenness  of  disposition  and  a  self- 
composure.  These  few  little  words, 
if  studied,  may  help  a  lot : 

"All  through  this  day,  O  Lord, 
let  me  touch  as  many  lives  as  pos- 


sible for  Thee,  and  every  life  I  touch 
do  Thou  quicken,  whether  through 
the  words  I  speak,  the  letters  I  write, 
or  the  life  I  live.  And  with  all  let 
me  be  serene." 


Moral  Mountain  Ranges 

By  Carlton  Culmsee 


TRY  to  make  me !" 
That  was  the  retort  which 
my  father,  a  small-town  phy- 
sician, received  when  he  attempted 
to  persuade  a  Sunday  school  super- 
intendent of  the  necessity  of  obeying 
quarantine  regulations.  The  man 
was  a  hard  churchworker  and  highly 
respected  in  his  community,  but  heJ 
would  not  inconvenience  himself  to 
protect  the  health  of  others. 

A  family  whom  I  know,  look  with 
sincere  horror  upon  dancing  but  have 
been  known  to  appropriate  small 
articles  of  property  that  do  not  be- 
long to  them. 

An  elderly  lady  with  whom  I  stay- 
ed for  a  time  as  a  boy  would  not 
drink  coffee.  But  she  served  me  my 
first  drink  of  intoxicating  liquor. 

These  cases  exemplify  the  be- 
wildering uneveness  in  almost  every 
person's  morals.  Anyone  can  recall 
other  examples  showing  that  the 
average  human  being  has  no  "plane 
of  ethics"  but  a  moral  mountain' 
range  full  of  lofty  eminences  and 
shadowy  canyons.  Beside  a  pin- 
nacle of  virtue  sometimes  yawns  an 
astonishing  chasm  of  error. 

This  sketch  does  not  refer  to  out- 
and-out  criminals.  It  refers  to  peo- 
ple who  are  respectable  or  think  they 
are,  but  who  believe  that  com- 
promises with  Christian  ethics  are 
continually  being  justified  by  neces- 
sity. It  has  to  do  with  those  farmers 
who  sell  diseased  potatoes  as  healthy 
ones,  old  and  faulty  animals  as  sound 


ones ;  those  storekeepers  who  sell  de- 
fective articles  to  transients  or  who 
advertise  in  misleading  ways ;  those 
lawyers  and  bankers  whose  dealings 
must  frequently  be  euphemized  as 
"sharp  practices." 

Many  such  persons  exist.  Their 
shady  dealings  possess  in  many  in- 
stances the  dignity  of  ancient  usage. 
For  example,  caveat  emptor  has  been 
the  motto  of  horse-traders  from 
time  immemorial. 

And  then  there  are  a  great  many 
more  people,  upright  most  of  the 
time,  who  have  small  breaches  in 
their  ethical  armor.  I  know  a  right- 
eous and  excellent  lady.  Once  she 
was  observed  inclosing  a  letter  in  a 
parcel  post  package.  When  remind- 
ed that  she  was  violating  a  postal 
regulation,  she  smiled  ingenuously 
and  said,  "Oh,  they'll  never  know !" 

Sometimes  it  seems  that  every 
second  person,  for  a  lark,  has  pur- 
loined a  "souvenir"  spoon  or  salt 
cellar  or  towel  from  a  hotel  or  a 
dining  car.  Too  many  sweatshirts 
and  other  items  of  athletic  equipment 
vanish  from  college  training  quar- 
ters. Too  many  books  and  lunches 
and  rubbers  are  stolen  at  institutions 
of  higher  learning. 

New  Year's  is  a  good  time  for  us 
to  take  an  ethical  inventory  of  our- 
selves. If  we  scrutinize  our  stock 
of  scruples  keenly,  all  of  us  will  find 
at  least  a  few  empty  shelves.  And 
few  will  find  themselves  overstocked 
with  the  staple  principles  of  right 
living. 


Happenings 


By  Annie  Wells  Cannon 

HPHE  New  Year  is  like  the  dawn,  of  the  writer  and  critic,  John  Er- 

Face  the  dim  light  bravely,  for  skine,  appears  in  the  caste, 

the  sun  is  just  over  the  rim.  MISS    JENNIE    SCHOFIELD 

JV/TAUD    ADAMS,     famous    ac-  of    Utah,    is   recreational    di- 

tress,   remembered   her  birth-  rector  of  Morristown,  New  Jersey, 

place — Salt  Lake  City — with  a  gift  She  graduated  with  honors  from  the 

of  oil  portraits  of  herself,  painted  by  National  Recreation  school  in  New 


noted  artists.  The  pictures  now 
form  a  part  of  the  Art  Barn  collec- 
tion. 

A/TAXINE     ELLIOT     made     a 
recent  visit  to  the  scenes  of  her 


York,  last  year. 

A/TRS.    L.    M.   ALEXANDER'S 
book    "Candy,"   a    story    con- 
cerned   with    Negro    Life    in    the 
Savannah    river    valley,    was    the 


meteor-like  stage  career.  Though  $10,000  prize  winer  in  the  contest 
she  was  most  successful  and  greatly  conducted  by  the  Pictorial  Review 
admired,  she  experiences  no  regrets      and  Dodd-Mead  Company. 


for  the  old  life,  but  prefers  her 
beautiful  home  in  Cannes,  France, 
where  she  lives  in  retirement. 

jyjARIA  VICTORIA  CANDIA 
is  indeed  a  heroine.  As  chief 
nurse  in  the  Chaco  War,  her  fight 
against  suffering  and  disease  under 
most  frightful  conditions,  equals 
that  of  Florence  Nightingale  in  the 
Crimea. 

jV/TISS  JUANITA  MARTIN  of 
Geneva,  Illinois,  recently  sup- 
erintended a  big   construction   job 


PLIZABEH  FOREMAN 
LEWIS,  won  the  Newberry 
medal  for  the  most  distinguished 
contribution  to  American  literature 
for  children.  Her  story  "Young  Fu 
of  the  Yangtze,"  tells  of  the  experi- 
ences of  a  Chinese  boy  who  sees  old 
traditions  pass  before  modern  civili- 
zation. 

yERA     BRITTAIN'S     "Testa- 
ment of  Youth,"  a  story  of  the 
World  War  and  post  war  period,  is 
classed  as  the  best  story  yet  pro- 


with  such  efficiency,  that  the  mayor      duced  on  that  tragic  subject.     It  is 
and  citizens  of  her  home  town  gave      beautifully  and  truly  literary  in  com_ 


her  name  to  a  beautiful  park. 

CTRANGE  VICTORY/'  is  the 
title  of  the  little  volume  contain- 
ing 22  unpublished  poems  of  the 
late  Sarah  Teasdale.  "The  Shadow 
of  the  End"  seems  to  touch  these 


position.  A  story  to  be  read  with 
care  for  its  gripping  realism  and 
honesty. 

A/TADAM     COLETTE,     French 

novelist,  has  been  offered  the 

chair  of  French  literature  and  lan- 


lyrics  but  in  no  way  mars  their  love,  guage  by  the  Academy  of  Belgium. 

liness-  A  LICE  DUER  MILLER'S 

^URANIA  ROUNEROL   (Bob  ^  "Gowns    by    Roberta,"    Alice 

Ellerbeck,  a  Salt  Lake  girl)  has  Roosevelt's  "Crowded  Hours,"  "Af- 

produced    a    new    play,    "Growing  ter   Such   Pleasures,"   by  Dorothy 

Pains,"  which  is  making  quite  a  hit  Parker  and   "Mr.   Pete,"  by  Alice 

in  New  York  as  a  juvenile  play.  Hegan  Rice,  are  some  of  the  recent 

Besides  her  young  daughter  who  has  books   by   women   writers    claimed 

the  title  role,  Anne  Erskine,  daughter  among  the  best  sellers. 


Notes  to  the  Field 


To  Our  Class  Leaders 


A  RE  you  having  discussion  in  the 
lesson  work?  If  not,  your 
members  are  losing  rare  opportun- 
ity for  development.  Remember  our 
Relief  Society  sessions  are  not  just 
for  readings  or  lectures,  but  for  the 
most  complete  development  of  the 
members.  We  hear  that  some  teach- 
ers are  trying  to  put  over  so  much 


that  their  classes  go  away  in  a  maze. 
The  lessons  are  so  rich  that  the  wise 
teacher  will  give  a  general  idea  of  the 
complete  lesson  and  emphasize  what 
to  her  are  the  things  that  will  appeal 
most  strongly  to  her  class  and  that 
she  feels  will  be  of  most  value  to 
them  and  interest  them  most  keenly. 


Literature— Hebrew  Music 


'~PHE  Hebrews  lacked  the  artistic 
side  of  life,  but  they  empha- 
sized the  spiritual.  They  thought 
sculpture  was  irreligious  and  paint- 
ing fared  no  better.  Their  taber- 
nacle was  a  tent,  and  Solomon  had 
to  hire  a  foreigner  to  build  the  tem- 
ple. Their  natures  were  deficient  in 
dramatic  ability.  Their  only  artistic 
ability  was  lyric  poetry  and  extem- 
porized song.  The  harp  was  about 
the  only  instrument  used,  and  this 
was  small  and  portable  so  that  the 
player  carried  it  with  him  wherever 
he  went.  The  voice  transcended  the 
instrument,  so  Hebrew  music  was 
vocal. 

To  "prophesy"  meant  to  sing. 
Isaiah,  Jeremiah  and  others  sang 
their  prophecies.  Thus  music  was 
not  an  art  but  a  form  of  speech. 

The  psalms  were  in  two  parts — 
men  and,  women  responding  to  one 
another.  Sometimes  there  was  a 
solo  with  a  chorus  responding,  or 
two  groups  of  women  answering 
each  other. 

After  the  Israelites  passed  over 
the  Red  Sea,  "Miriam'  a  prophetess, 
took  a  timbrel  in  her  hand,  and  all 
the  women  went  out  after  her  with 


timbrel  and  dances"  The  Song  of 
Miriam,  Exodus  chapter  15.  verses 
20-21. 

The  Song  of  Moses — Ex.  15  :l-20. 

The  women  answered  one  another 
in  singing  when  Saul  and  David  re- 
turned from  the  battle  wfith  the 
Philistines. 

The  music  of  the  Hebrews  was 
not  harmonious.  Music  among  them 
was  a  voice  in  which  they  poured 
forth  their  souls.  These  poets  of 
God  sang  praises  and  the  might  of 
God  to  a  nation  filled  with  a  belief 
in  Deity,  and  this  is  why  "the  fame 
of  the  brightest  minnesinger  shrinks 
to  a  speck  before  the  majesty  of 
Isaiah." 

Read  the  "Song  of  Deborah" 
Judges  chapter  5. 

Sing — "Down  by  the  River's  Ver- 
dant Side"— Psalmody  No.  92. 
Social  Service 

"Try  It  Again"— S.  S.  Book,  156. 

Children  sing: 

"A  Story" — Primary  Songs,  79. 

"Come  Along,  Come  Along" — 
S.S.  Book,.  188. 

Suggestions  for  January : 
Theology  and  Teacher  Training. 
"Improve  The  Shining  Moments." 


NOTES  TO  THE  FIELD 


47 


"How  Firm  a  Foundation." 
"What  Shall  The  Harvest  Be." 
"Beautiful  Wjords  of  Love." 

Work  and  Business. 

Have  happy  music  and  a  cheerful 
program. 


''Bright  New  Year,"  Sunday 
School  Song  Book — 18o. 

"Catch  The  Sunshine,"  S.  S.  Book 
—14. 

"The  Quilting  Party,"  Pioneer 
Songs — 17. 

Rounds. 


Congratulations  to  our  Magazine  Agents 


\\T~E  wish  we  could  express  our 
appreciation  to  the  wonderful 
women  in  our  stakes  and  wards  who 
have  been  responsible  for  the  mag- 
nificent campaign  for  subscriptions 
to  our  Relief  Society  Magazine. 

The  resourcefulness  and  ingenuity 
of  our  women  found  most  clever  and 
attractive  methods  of  conducting 
this,  i We  have  always  felt  that  we 
had  in  Relief  Society  the  most  loyal 
and  enthusiastic  women  in  the  world 
— women  who  respond  to  every  type 
of  service  asked  of  them.  Naturally 
in  times  like  the  present,  when  tales 
of  distress  reach  us  from  every  side, 
we  have  not  been  surprised  to  hear 
of  heroic  efforts  to  feed  the  hungry 
and  clothe  the  naked,  but  our  sisters 
have  not  forgotten  that  "man  does 
not  live  by  bread  alone." 

Never  before  have  Nve  needed 
spiritual  guidance  and  education  as 
we  do  today,  to  face  new  and  chang- 
ing conditions,  and  help  us  to  solve 
the  difficult  problems  presented  by 


these  strenuous  times. 

Returns  are  not  complete,  but 
word  comes  that  Maricopa  Stake 
has  ten  wards  that  have  gone  over 
the  top;  Star  Valley  stake  reports 
Freedom  Ward ;  Fremont  stake, 
Rexburg  Second  Ward  has  equalled 
the  record  of  a  year  ago,  with  its 
100%  ;  Grant  stake,  Burton  Ward; 
Liberty  stake,  Eighth  and  Ninth 
Wards ;  Ensign  stake,  Twenty-sev- 
enth, Twentieth,  Twelfth-thirteenth 
and  Ensign  Wards,  were  among 
those  on  the  honor  roll.  We  know 
there  are  many  others,  and  shall  be 
very  happy  to  add  them  to  the  list 
if  they  will  but  let  us  have  the 
information  here  at  the  office. 
We  hope  the  enthusiasm  which  has 
carried  them  to  the  splendid  success 
this  Fall  will  hold  out  during  the 
New  Year.  From  our  hearts  we 
thank  them,  and  know  they  must  feel 
the  thrill  which  comes  from  success 
in  a  splendid  cause. 


Important 

COME  time  ago  special  permission 
was  given  to  sell  single  copies  of 
the  Magazine  in  a  stake.  The  pur- 
pose was  to  get  the  subscriptions 
started,  and  it  was  never  intended 
to  be  a  general  practice.  Unfortun- 
ately this  has  spread  to  such  an 
extent  that  it  threatens  to  disrupt  the 
Mailing  Department  of  the  Maga- 


Notice 

zine?  It  is,  therefore,  necessary  to 
discontinue  this  procedure. 

The  Deseret  Book  Store  has  the 
Relief  Society  Magtzine  for  sale 
along  with  other  Church  publica- 
tions, but  other  than  this,  no  single 
copies  of  the  Magazine  will  be  avail- 
able. 

Six  months  subscriptions  are  ac- 
cepted. 


48 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


W 


Birthday  Parties 

E  have  attended  a  number  of  simple,   within  reach  of  any  ward 

delightful  birthday  parties  in  and  still  as  attractive  as  they  can  be 

stakes  and  wards  and  have  found  made. 

nothing  more  pleasing  to  the  guests  Each  table  singing  songs  suggest- 

than   the   novelty   of   finding   their  ing   the   season,   creates  a  pleasant 

place   at   the    table    signifying    the  little  rivalry  adding  to  the  pleasure 

season  of  their  natal  day.    We  sug-  of  the  day. 
gest   that   the   decorations   be  kept 

Handwork 

VI/'E  enjoyed  meeting  supervisors  teacher  must  ascertain  the  needs  of 

of  handwork  and  to  see  the  her  locality  and  find  the  ability  of 

interest  being  taken  in  this  part  of  every  woman  in  her  ward  and  have 

our  work.    We  were  asked  by  some  them  teach  the  class  the  special  piece 

to  print  instructions  for  this  work,  of  handwork  in  which  she  excels, 
but  we  wish  to  say  again  that  every 

Warning 

Word  comes  to  us  that  a  young  have   been    defrauded   by   one   un- 
man is  soliciting  subscriptions   for  authorized  who  takes  the  money  and 
our    Magazine.      Only    our    ward  does  not  turn  in  the  subscription  to 
officers  are  authorized  to  take  sub-  the  Magazine  office, 
scriptions.      We    regret   that    some 


Literature  and  Music  Departments 
Combined  in  Oquirrh  Stake  Relief  Societies 


JUST  when  we  first  began  to  dream 
of  such  a  department  I  cannot 
remember,  exactly,  but  our  dreams 
were  prompted  by  many  things.  We 
believed  that  if  the  local  choristers 
and  organists  met  with  the  local  class 
leaders,  at  union  meeting,  and  heard 
our  lesson  discussed,  they  could  bet- 
ter interpret  it  with  their  music. 
Through  visiting  in  the  various 
wards,  we  discovered  that  some 
local  choristers  and  organists  were 
able  to  arrange  exceptionally  rich 
musical  backgrounds  for  certain  les- 
sons while  others  could  not ;  yet  at  a 
later  lesson  these  other  wards  had 
been  able  to  excel.  This  made  us 
feel  that  we  needed  a  place  where 


as  well  as  a  place  where  the  stake 
music  committee  could  suggest  their 
own 

With  the  local  choristers  and  or- 
ganists added  to  the  literary  depart- 
ment the  stake  chorister  and  organ- 
ist automatically  became  my  assist- 
ants, It  is  now  recorded  in  the  min- 
utes that  there  are  three  class  lead- 
ers instead  of  one  as  has  hitherto 
been.  We  meet  weeks  ahead  and 
plan  our  class  period  conducting  it 
almost  as  we  would  do  in  a  ward. 
The  chorister  announces  and  intro- 
duces all  music  used.  We  plan  what 
moment  it  should  be  given  to  be  most 
advantageous.  By  introduction  I 
mean   that   after   she   announces   a 


ideas  in  music  could  be  exchanged      selection  she  tells  them  something 


NOTES  TO  THE  FIELD 


49 


about  it  so  that  all  can  see  why  she 
has  chosen  it. 

As  an  example,  next  lesson  is 
""The  Roman  Point  of  View,"  and  we 
have  chosen  for  it  the  song,  "Lo,  the 
Conquering  Hero  Comes."  It  will 
he  given  after  Shakespeare's  Julius 
Ceasar.  From  the  choristers  notes 
I  give  here  a  line  or  two  of  her  in- 
troduction for  that  song. 
""Lo,  the  Conquering  Hero  Comes" 
is  taken  from  the  opera  Judas  Mac- 
ceabeus  by  Handel.  Judas  has  been 
away  to  war  and  returns  home  vic- 
torious and  glad,  etc.,  etc. 

There  is  other  music  of  course  for 
this  lesson  but  I  can  only  mention 
"The  Soldier's  Chorus"  from  Faust 
and  "Sound  An  Alarm." 

At  the  end  of  the  class  period  the 
stake  organist  suggests  music  that 


will  correlate  with  the  other  lessons 
of  the  month. 

We  have  had,  on  different  occa- 
sions some  very  pleasing  short  talks 
from  the  music  officers.  Two  of 
them  were  entitled:  Music  and  its 
Beginning  and  Music  and  its  place 
in  Literature. 

We  realize  this  is  a  new  field  and 
that  there  are  many,  undoubtedly, 
who  could  plan  and  carry  forward 
in  it  better  than  we.  Siill  it  has 
solved  some  of  our  problems  and  we 
hope  it  will  yet  solve  many  more. 
There  are  other  stakes  who  having 
heard  of  this  are  adopting  it  and 
are  enthusiastic  about  it.  We  wish 
them  success. 

Linnie  Fisher  Robinson, 
Lavina  Day  Neilson  and 
Everean  Solomon. 


Conventions  and  Conferences 


General  Board  members  visited  Relief 
Society  stake  conventions  and  confer- 
ences, which  were  held  in  the  stakes  dur- 
ing 1933,  as  follows : 

Alberta— Nettie  D.  Bradford 
Alpine — Cora  L.  Bennion 
Bannock — Julia  A.  F.  Lund 
Bear  Lake — Ida  Peterson  Beal 
Bear  River — Rosannah  C.   Irvine 
Beaver — Jennie  B.  Knight 
Benson — Inez  K.  Allen 
Big  Horn— Nettie  D.  Bradford 
Blackfoot— Elise  B.  Alder 
Blaine — Elise  B.  Alder 
Boise — Emeline  Y.  Nebeker 
Box  Elder — Marcia  K.  Howells 
Burley — Julia  A.  F.  Lund 
Cache — Rosannah  C.  Irvine 
Carbon — Kate  M.   Barker 
Cassia — Lotta   Paul   Baxter 
Cottonwood — Lotta   Paul   Baxter 
Curlew — Inez   K.  Allen 
Deseret — Julia  A.  F.  Lund 
Duchesne — Inez  K.  Allen 
East  Jordan — Lalene  H.  Hart 
Emery — Elise  B.  Alder 
Ensign — Hazel  H.  Greenwood 
Franklin — Annie  Wells  Cannon 
Fremont — Marcia  K.  Howells 
Garfield — Kate  M.  Barker 
Granite — Kate  M.   Barker 
Grant — x\mv  W.  Evans 


Gunnison — Marcia  K.  Howells 

Hollywood — Inez  K.  Allen 

Hyrum — Mary  C.  Kimball 

Idaho — Emeline  Y.  Nebeker 

Idaho  Falls— Elise  B.  Alder 

Juab — Rosannah  C.  Irvine 

Juarez — Ethel  R.  Smith 

Kanab — Cora  L.   Bennion 

Kolob— Ethel  R.   Smith 

Lehi — Louise  Y.  Robison 

Lethbridge— Nettie   D.    Bradford 

Liberty — Lotta  Paul  Baxter 

Logan — Julia  A.  F.  Lund 

Los?  Angeles — Inez  K.  Allen 

Lost  River — Kate  M.  Barker 

Lyman — Julia  A.  F.  Lund 

Malad — Emeline  Y.  Nebeker 

Maricopa — Ethel  R.  Smith 

Millard — Louise  Y.  Robison 

Minnidoka — Julia  A.  F.  Lund 

Moapa — Julia  A.  F.  Lund 

Montpelier — Amy  W.  Evans 

Morgan — Julia  A.  F.  Lund 

Moroni — Julia  A.  F.  Lund 

Mount  Ogden— Ethel  R.  Smith 

Nebo — Jennie  B.  Knight 

Nevada — Amy  W.  Evans 

North  Davis — Kate  M.  Barker  and  Cora 

L.  Bennion 
North  Sanpete — Hazel  H.  Greenwood 
North  Sevier — Kate  M.  Barker 
North  Weber — Hazel  H.  Greenwood 


50 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


Ogden — Amy  W.  Evans 

Oneida — Amy  W.  Evans 

Oquirrh — Lalene  H.  Hart,  Elise  B.  Alder 

and  Hazel  H.  Greenwood 
Palmyra — Rosannah  C.  Irvine 
Panguitch — Louise  Y.  Robison 
Parowan — Annie  Wells  Cannon 
Pioneer — Cora  L.  Bennion 
Pocatello — Jennie  B.  Knight 
Portneuf— Nettie  D.  Bradford 
Raft  River — Marcia  K.  Howells 
Rigby — Ida  Peterson  Beal 
Roosevelt — Elise  B.  Alder 
St.  George— Nettie  D.  Bradford 
St.  Johns — Jennie  B.  Knight 
St.  Joseph — Ethel  R.  Smith 
Salt  Lake — Amy  Brown  Lyman 
San  Francisco — Amy  Brown  Lyman 
San  Juan — Mary  C.  Kimball 
San  Luis1 — Mary  C.  Kimball 
Sevier — Cora  L.  Bennion 
Sharon — Inez  K.  Allen 
Shellev— Ethel  R.  Smith 


Snowflake — Jennie  B.  Knight 
South  Davis — Amy  Brown  Lyman 
South  Sanpete — Louise  Y.  Robison 
South  Sevier — Jennie  B.  Knight 
Star  Valley — Marcia  K.  Howells 
Summit — Nettie  D.  Bradford 
Taylor— Nettie  D.  Bradford 
Teton— Kate  M.  Barker 
Timpanogos — Annie  Wells  Cannon 
Tintic— Nettie  D.  Bradford 
Tooele— Ethel  R.  Smith 
Twin  Falls— Elise  B.  Alder 
Uintah— Mary  C.  Kimball 
Union — Emeline  Y.  Nebeker 
Utah— Mary  C.  Kimball 
Wasatch — Amy  Brown  Lyman 
Wayne — Louise  Y.  Robison 
Weber — Louise  Y.  Robison 
West  Jordan — Annie  Wells  Cannon 
Woodruff — Marcia  K.  Howells 
Yellowstone — Annie  Wells  Cannon 
Young — Mary  C.  Kimball 
Zion  Park — Louise  Y.  Robison 


Notes  from  the  Field 


Texas  Mission. 

CISTER  IRENE  N.  ROWAN, 
president  of  the  Texas  Mission 
Relief  Societies,  writes  as  follows: 
"Just  recently  I  have  been  able  to 
visit  four  of  my  Relief  Societies  here 
in  the  Mission,  all  in  Louisiana.  I 
was  happy  to  have  this  privilege,  and 
find  the  same  spirit  there  that  we 
find  in  our  Relief  Societies  at  home. 
They  are  anxious  to  do  all  they  can 
to  enlighten  their  minds  along  Relief 
Society  work.  I  was  really  surprised 
to  find  such  interest.  We  just  re- 
cently organized  the  Oak  Grove  Re- 
lief Society  in  Louisiana.  Some  of 
the  women  in  the  smaller  places  are 
trying  to  get  me  to  organize  a  Re- 
lief Society  for  them.  They  are 
quite  scattered  but  could  meet  twice 
a  month.  I  hope  we  can  outline 
something  for  them  that  will  suit 
their  condition.  I  feel  our  Relief 
Society  is  doing  a  very  good  work 
here  in  the  Mission.  The  majority 
are  studying  the  social  service  les- 
sons, something  they  have  never  had 
before  and  they  enjoy  them  very 
much.     We  are  able,  in  our  larger 


cities,  to  get  the  supplementary  ma- 
terial from  the  libraries  and  it  makes 
it  more  interesting. 

"During  the  summer  months  it 
gets  so  very  warm  here  that  the  ma- 
jority have  decided  to  hold  just  the 
first  two  meetings,  the  testimony  and 
work  and  business  meetings.  Some 
are  going  to  study  the  "Brief  His- 
tory of  the  Church." 

"Last  year  was  the  first  year  our 
Relief  Society  has  ever  held  a  branch 
conference.  We  outlined  the  pro- 
gram and  sent  it  to  them.  We  took 
up  the  social  service  part  of  our 
work  and  had  a  talk  given  on  the 
"Citizen  of  Tomorrow,"  and  a  short 
history  of  the  general  and  branch 
Relief  Societies,  a  musical  reading 
"I'll  go  where  you  want  me  to  go," 
and  the  little  playlet  "Home,"  writ- 
ten by  Sister  Ida  H.  Steed.  Other 
musical  numbers  were  rendered  by 
the  Relief  Society  women.  This 
conference  was  something  new  to 
them  but  they  thoroughly  enjoyed  it 
and  are  looking  forward  to  our  con- 
ference this  year." 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  OF  THE  CHURCH  OF 
JESUS  CHRIST  OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS 

Motto — Charity  Never  Faileth 

THE  GENERAL  BOARD 

MRS..  LOUISE   YATES   ROBISON President 

MRS.  AMY  BROWN  LYMAN First   Counselor 

MRS.   JULIA   ALLEMAN    CHILD Second    Counselor 

MRS.    JULIA    A.    F.    LUND  General    Secretary    and    Treasurer 

Mrs.  Emma  A.  Empey  Mrs.    Amy   Whipple    Evans  Mrs.  Ida  P.  Beal 

Miss  Sarah  M.  McLelland  Mrs».   Ethel  Reynolds  Smith  Mrs.  Katie  M.  Barker 

Mrs.   Annie   Wells   Cannon  Mrs.   Rosannah  C.  Irvine  Mrs.  Marcia  K.  Howells 

Mrs.   Jennie   B.   Knight  Mrs.   Nettie  D.   Bradford  Mrs.   Hazel   H.  Greenwood 

Mrs.  Lalene  H.   Hart  Mrs.   Inez  K.  Allen  Mrs.   Emeline  Y.   Nebeker 

Mrs.  Lotta  Paul  Baxter  Mrs.  Elise  B.  Alder  Mrs.  Mary  Connelly  Kimball 

Mrs.  Cora  L.  Bennion 

RELIEF   SOCIETY   MAGAZINE 

Editor            ............         Mary  Connelly    Kimball 

Manager Louise   Y.    Robison 

Assistant  Manager           .............  Amy  Brown  Lyman 


Vol.  XXI 


JANUARY,  1934 


No.  1 


EDITORIAL 


Greetings 


IN  behalf  of  the  General  Board 
of  Relief  Society,  we  extend  to 
all  officers,  workers  and  mem- 
bers, greetings  and  good  wishes  at 
this  sacred  season. 

Our  hearts  are  filled  with  gratitude 
for  the  accomplishments  of  the  past 
year,  in  our  chosen  fields  of  en- 
deavor— human  welfare,  education 
and  religion.  The  results  have  far 
exceeded  our  expectations,  and  we 
commned  you,  our  officers  and  mem- 
bers, for  the  part  you  have  played 
in  helping  to  bring  this  about.  We 
commend  you  for  your  loyalty  and 
devotion,  which  bring  to  the  organi- 
zation the  admiration  and  commen- 
dation of  all  who  are  familiar  with 
its  work.  You  are  doing  the  will  of 
the  Master;  you  are  following  His 
teachings  in  such  a  way  that  you 
will  be  richly  rewarded. 

We  realize  that  in  this  period  of 
world  adjustment,  with  its  perplex- 
ing problems,  its  lack  of  understand- 
ing, its  social  and  economic  unrest 
and  insecurity,  you,  as  Relief  So- 


ciety workers  in  your  various  com- 
munities are  called  upon  to  under- 
take added  and  unusual  duties  and 
responsibilities;  and  we  rejoice  in 
the  knowledge  that  you  have  dis- 
charged and  are  discharging  these 
duties  and  responsibilities  with  an 
unselfishness  and  efficiency  exhibit- 
ed only  by  those  who  enjoy  the  spirit 
and  inspiration  of  Him,  who,  by  His 
teachings  and  example,  projected 
the  thought  that  it  is  blessed  to  give 
and  to  serve. 

In  the  promotion  of  our  educa- 
tional work  with  its  associated  pro- 
jects, we  have  all  been  benefited. 
With  the  thought  ever  before  us  that 
"The  Glory  of  God  is  Intelligence" 
we  have  striven  for  continued  pro- 
gress. Exceptional  interest  and  ac- 
tivity are  evidenced  everywhere  by 
the  efforts  put  forth  by  officers,  class 
leaders  and  members,  for  intellect- 
ual development.  , 

Notwithstanding  all  these  unusual 
accomplishments,  during  this  year, 
our  outstanding  aim  has  been  as  in 


52 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


the  past,  to  build  up  faith  in  the  Gos- 
pel, to  have  our  members  conform 
strictly  to  its  teachings,  and  to  the 
standards  which  have  been  set  up  by 
the  Church  for  the  guidance  of  its 
people. 

In  conclusion  let  us  unite  in  an 
appeal  to  our  Heavenly  Father  for 
peace  and  goodwill  throughout  the 
earth,  for  national  and  international 


understanding,  for  security  for  all,. 
for  willingness  on  the  part  of  His 
children  to  abide  by  the  Golden 
Rule;  and  for  faith  to  seek  first  the 
Kingdom  of  God  and  all  other  things 
that  are  righteous. 

Louise  Y.  Robison, 
Amy  Brown  Lyman, 
Julia   Alleman    Child, 
General  Presidency. 


Farewell  1933—  Hail  1934 


J^ECEMBER  is  a  month  of  stock- 
taking. After  the  Holiday  rush 
all  the  stores  are  busy  listing  what 
they  have  on  hand  to  find  out  their 
present  condition.  It  is  well  for 
people  as  well  as  merchants  to  take 
stock.  They  should  look  over  their 
failures  and  achievements.  They 
should  not,  however,  let  the  mistakes 
depress  and  discourage  them,  but 
rather  let  their  failures  spur  them 
on  to  bigger  and  better  things.  We 
learn  by  the  things  we  suffer 
and  some  of  Life's  best  lessons  have 
been  taught  through  the  failures  and 
mistakes  we  have  made.  Stock  tak- 
ing will  reveal  that  while  we  may 
have  had  sorrows  and  privations, 
our  blessings  have  far  outnumbered 
the   hardships. 

JANUARY  is  a  month  for  looking 
ing  forward,  a  time  of  hope.  We 
trust  that  the  future  will  be  better 
than  the  past,  that  the  year  that  has 
just  dawned  will  bring  the  blessings 
longed  for  but  denied  in  the  past. 

HPHIS  is  a  wonderful  day  in  which 
to  live.  While  lawlessness  is 
seen  on  every  hand,  while  crimes  of 
appalling  cruelty  are  common  occur- 
rences, while  poverty  has  stalked 
through  the  earth,  while  war  clouds 
hover  over  many  lands,  yet  never 
has  there  been  so  many  opportun- 


ities for  growth  and  development. 
Universities  and  high  schools 
abound,  libraries  offer  the  wealth  of 
the  ages  to  those  who  are  ready  to 
receive,  extension  courses  and  lec- 
tures are  available,  radio  brings  to 
even  the  remote  places  the  'best 
speakers  and  musicians,  the  automo- 
bile has  made  travel  almost  univer- 
sal. 

The  great  Century  of  Progress 
exposition  at  Chicago  made  all  who 
visited  it  realize  how  marvelous  are 
the  advantages  of  today.  All  the 
manifold  inventions  of  the  ages,  all 
the  progress  of  the  century  are  en- 
joyed by  people  today. 

A  S  one  thinks  of  the  marvels  of 
the  past,  he  wonders  what  more 
the  future  can  bring.  But  judging 
by  what  the  past  few  years  have 
brought,  one  realizes  that  he  cannot 
foresee  the  marvels  that  the  next  few 
years  will  reveal. 

TXTE  realize  today  as  never  before 
that  we  must  constantly  re- 
adjust to  changing  conditions.  Many 
things  have  hardly  been  well  tried 
until  they  have  become  obsolete 
through  better  things  being  intro- 
duced. 

"New  occasions  teach  new  duties, 
Time  makes  ancient  good  uncouth, 


EDITORIAL 


53 


They  must   upward   still  and   on-  spend  all  one's  energy  on  carrying 

ward,  the  few  through.    We  suggest  that 

Who  would  keep  abreast  the  truth."  we  afl  try  to  : 

People  are  prone  to  make  many  Think  straight 

resolutions,  all  too  often  they  fail  to  Face  things  squarely, 

keep  any  of  them.    It  would  be  much  Act  honestly 

better  to  reduce  the  number  and  to  Bear  our  burdens  courageously. 


Eliza  Roxey  Snow  Memorial  Poem  Contest 


HpHE  General  Board  of  the  Relief 
Society  in  establishing  this 
poem  contest  as  a  memorial,  in  honor 
of  Zion's  early  poet  and  great  wo- 
man leader — Eliza  R.  Snow,  had  in 
mind,  not  ony  to  perpetuate  the  mem. 
ory  of  her  name  by  bringing  it  be- 
fore the  readers  of  the  Magazine. 
every  year  in  January  her  natal 
month,  but  also  to  encourage  Lat- 
ter-day Saint  women  to  cultivate  the 
gift  of  poetic  expression  and  the  high 
ideals,  she  herself  so  exemplified. 
Now  after  several  years  the  in- 
terest in  this  contest  is  just  as  pop- 
ular as  at  first,  and  there  is  noted  a 
marked  improvement  in  the  quality 
of  composition.  In  fact  the  contri- 
butions this  year,  are  of  such  excel- 
lence, that  it  is  with  great  regret  on 
the  part  of  the  contest  committee, 
that  there  is  not  sufficient  space  in  the 
Magazine  to  publish  more  than  the 
poems  selected  by  the  judges.  76 
poems  were  entered,  nearly  all  of 
such  merit  that  it  was  difficult  to 
celect  the  most  worthy.  Because  of 
this  fact  two  were  awarded  first  place 
:md  the  prize  divided. 


The  judges  were  Joseph  J.  Can- 
non, editor  of  the  Deseret  News, 
Miss  Alice  Louise  Reynolds,  pro- 
fessor of  English  at  the  Brigham 
Young  University  and  Mrs.  Amy 
W.  Evans,  member  of  the  General 
Board  of  the  Relief  Society. 

The  winners  for  which  the  first 
prize  was  divided  were  Mrs.  Clara 
L.  Parton  of  New  South  Wales, 
Australia  for  her  poem  "From  Out 
The  Ruins,"  and  Mrs.  Alberta  Huish 
Christensen  of  Long  Island,  New 
York  for  "Prayer  of  the  Trail". 
Second  Prize  was  awarded  Roxana 
Hase,  for  "Mirage"  and  honorable 
menton  to  "Life"  by  Blnche  Robbins 
of  Idaho,  "Shadows"  by  Vesta  P. 
Crawford  and  "Silver"  by  Mabel 
Spande  Harmer.  We  feel  sure  read- 
ers of  the  Magazine  wil]  er?joy  these 
beautiful  poems.  We  congratulate 
the  authors,  and  thank  all  who  en- 
tered the  contest. 

Annie  Wells  Cannon, 
Chairman,  Eliza  Roxey  Snow 
Memorial  Poem  Contest. 


My  Friend 

By  Edith  E.  Anderson 


I  like  you,  Friend, 
Because  you  understand 
That  when  I'm  grave 
Or  wrapt  in  solemn  thought, 


My  love  wanes  not ; 

You  know  the  love  you  gave 

Shall  not  be  banned 

By  mood  of  mine,  dear  friend. 


Lesson  Department 

Theology  and  Testimony 

(First  Week  in  March) 
Intelligence  and  Future  Life 


1.  Saved  by  Grace.  Many  Chris- 
tians prefer  to  believe  that  salvation 
is  a  free  gift  from  God,  quite  inde- 
pendent of  deserts,  and  given  to 
whomsoever  the  Lord  wills.  Ac- 
cording to  this  concept,  the  indi- 
vidual plays  but  little  part  in  the  mat- 
ter of  salvation.  It  is  the  gift  of 
God,  often  unearned  and  unde- 
served. To  obtain  it  one  must  re- 
ceive divine  favor.  The  gift  is  im- 
mediate and  complete.  It  delivers 
the  individual  from  the  punishment 
and  power  of  sin,  and  thus  exempts 
from  spiritual  death.  In  support  of 
this  belief  its  advocates  cite  the  fol- 
lowing statement  of  the  Apostle  Paul 
to  the  saints  at  Ephesus :  "For  by 
grace  are  ye  saved  through  faith ; 
and  that  not  of  yourselves ;  it  is  the 
gift  of  God :  not  of  works,  lest  any 
man  should  boast."  (Ephesians  2: 
8,9.) 

2.  It  is  not  the  purpose  of  this 
discussion  to  question  the  statement 
that  salvation  is  a  free  gift  from 
God,  indeed  rather  to  emphasize  it. 
It  is  doubtful  that  even  man's  fond- 
est admirers  entertain  the  thought 
that  he  alone  has  sufficient  power  to 
carry  himself  back  into  the  presence 
of  God.  On  the  contrary,  his  im- 
potence in  this  respect  is  widely  ad- 
mitted. If,  therefore,  man  ever  at- 
tains such  heights,  he  can  do  so  only 
by  means  of  divine  help. 

3.  It  can  hardly  be  agreed,  how- 
ever, that  Deity  would  distribute 
this  gift  to  the  good  and  bad  alike. 
If  such  were  the  case,  justice  would 
disappear.  The  attitude  of  the 
Savior  in  this  respect  may  be  likened 


to  that  of  a  philanthropist  who  de- 
cided to  offer  a  free  fellowship  at  a 
great  educational  institution.  Being 
the  giver,  he  naturally  possessed  the 
right  to  name  the  conditions  under 
which  the  fellowship  should  be  of- 
fered. Good  character,  high  scholar- 
ship, and  ability  to  get  along  well 
with  associates,  were  among  the 
principal  qualifications  specified. 
The  amount  of  the  fellowship  and 
the  extent  of  its  duration  were  also 
named  by  the  endower.  Now,  it 
cannot  be  doubted  that  such  a  gift 
is  absolutely  free,  even  though  the 
one  receiving  it  is  required  to  meet 
certain  rigid  specifications.  Just  so, 
salvation  is  a  free  gift  from  God. 
It  would  be  far  more  unreasonable 
for  Deity  to  distribute  the  gift  of 
salvation  indiscriminately  among  the 
good  and  the  bad,  than  it  would  be 
for  the  philanthropist  to  give 
scholarships  to  poor  students  as  well 
as  to  good  ones.  Thus,  although  sal- 
vation is  a  free  gift  from  God,  those 
who  receive  it  must  comply  with  the 
conditions  upon  which  it  is  given. 

4.  The  Nature  of  Intelligence. 
"Intelligence"  is  widely  defined  by 
dictionary  authority  as  readiness  of 
comprehension,  ability  to  exercise 
higher  mental  functions,  discern- 
ment, capacity  to  understand,  etc. 
This,  however,  is  inadequate,  since 
an  individual  might  possess  all  these 
qualifications,  and  yet  at  times  act 
very  unintelligently.  For  example  ■ 
a  physician  or  dietitian,  who  fully 
understands  the  deleterious  effects 
of  alcohol,  would  not  be  regarded  as 
intelligent  if  he  frequently  resorted 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


55 


to  its  use.  Similiarly,  Satan  cannot 
be  regarded  as  intelligent,  even 
though  he  is  thoroughly  familiar 
with  the  truths  of  the  gospel.  Thus, 
intelligence  connotes  not  only  a 
thorough  understanding  of  matters 
but  the  capacity  to  act  properly  in  the 
premises.  If  the  physician  were 
truly  intelligent  he  would  never  re- 
sort to  the  use  of  alcoholic  beverages. 
Likewise,  if  Satan  were  intelligent 
he  would  not  oppose  the  cause  of 
God. 

5.  The  Lord  has  defined  intel- 
ligence, as  "light  and  truth"  or  the 
"light  of  truth"  (Doc.  and  Cov.  93 : 
37-29)  Jesus  said,  "I  am  the  Light 
of  the  World :  he  that  followeth  me 
shall  not  walk  in  darkness,  but  shall 
have  the  light  of  life."  (I  John  8  :12) 
Truth  is  defined  by  the  Savior  as 
"knowledge  of  things  as  they  are, 
and  as  they  were,  and  as  they  are  to 
come."  Doc.  and  Cov.  93 :  24.  Intel- 
ligence, then,  involves  a  knowledge 
of  things  as  they  are,  coupled  with  a 
sufficient  quantity  of  the  Spirit  of 
God  to  act  in  accordance  with  wis- 
dom and  good  judgment. 

6.  Future  Life,  Future  life  is  a 
continuation  of  the  present  one,  in- 
fluenced in  a  very  literal  sense  by  the 
deeds  performed  while  on  the  earth. 
It  is  not  a  condition  of  sinless  bliss 
or  agonizing  damnation  thrust  upon 
the  individual  by  a  capricious  god. 
In  the  begining,  Deity,  with  our  ap- 
proval, outlined  a  plan  by  which  man 
could  be  brought  back  into  his  pres- 
ence ;  the  progress  made  possible 
thereby  was  predicated  upon  compli  - 
ance  with  law.  Concerning  this,  the 
Lord  subsequently  said:  "There  is 
a  law,  irrevocably  decreed  in  heaven 
before  the  foundations  of  this  world, 
upon  which  all  blessings  are  predi- 
cated— and  when  we  obtain  any  bles- 
sing from  God,  it  is  by  obedience  to 
that  law  upon  which  it  is  predicated." 

(D.  and   C.   130:20,  21.)     Again: 


"Whatever  principle  of  intelligence 
we  attain  unto  in  this  life,  it  will 
rise  with  us  in  the  resurrection.  And 
if  a  person  gains  more  knowledge 
and  intelligence  in  this  life  through 
his  diligence  and  obedience  than  an- 
other, he  will  have  so  much  advant- 
age in  the  world  to  c  o  m  e." 
(D.  andC.  130:18,19.) 

7.  The  widely  accepted  belief 
among  sectarians  that  sinful  man 
can  be  forgiven  of  his  transgressions 
and  transferred,  in  the  resurrection, 
to  a  state  of  endless  bliss  is,  of 
course,  a  mistake.  Experience  has 
taught  us  that  man  cannot  enjoy  the 
things  for  which  he  is  not  prepared. 
The  savage  cannot  appreciate  the 
values  of  the  spectroscope ;  neither 
can  the  sinful  man  feel  at  ease  in  the 
presence  of  God.  The  Lord  has 
pointed  out  that,  "He  who  is  not 
able  to  abide  the  law  of  a  celestial 
kingdom  cannot  abide  a  celestial 
glory.  And  he  who  cannot  abide  the 
law  of  a  terrestrial  kingdom  cannot 
abide  a  terrestial  glory ;  And  he  who 
cannot  abide  the  law  of  a  telestial 
kingdom  cannot  abide  a  telestial 
glory ;  therefore  he  is  not  meet  for  a 
kingdom  of  glory.  Therefore  he 
must  abide  a  kingdom  which  is  not 
a  kingdom  of  glory."  (D.  and  C. 
88 :22-24. )  Man's  position  tf ter  the 
resurrection  will,  therefore,  he  de- 
termined by  his  ability  to  comply 
with  the  laws  of  God. 

8.  Man  Cannot  be  Saved  in  Ignor- 
ance. Man  will  be  truly  saved  and 
exalted  in  the  kingdom  of  God  when 
he  is  placed  beyond  the  influence  of 
all  agencies  that  deter  his  progress ; 
in  other  words,  when  he  is  thorough- 
ly redeemed  from  the  power  of  sin. 
And  sin,  it  should  be  noted,  "is  the 
transgression  of  the  law."  (I  John 
3  :4.)  When,  therefore,  man  is  able 
to  obey  (and  control)  all  law,  and 
thus  place  all  enemies  under  his  feet, 
he  will  be  verily  and  actually  saved. 


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RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


9.  Already  man  has  made  progress 
toward  this  end.  Through  his  intel- 
ligence he  is  now  able  to  control 
many  of  the  laws  of  nature.  To  il- 
lustrate: He  flies  from  place  to 
place,  even  from  continent  to  conti- 
nent, and  sometimes  around  the 
earth,  at  will ;  he  speaks  to  the  ends 
of  the  earth ;  he  lengthens  the  span 
of  human  life ;  and  he  explores  to 
distances  heretofore  unknown.  This 
he  does  by  familiarizing  himself  with 
the  laws  of  nature  and  compelling 
them  to  obey  his  will,  and,  so  far  as 
it  appears,  his  progress  has  scarcely 
more  than  begun.  In  this  connec- 
tion, it  is  easy  to  understand  that 
"Man  is  saved  no  faster  than  he  gets 
knowledge,  for,"  continues  the 
Prophet,  "if  he  does  not  get  knowl- 
edge, he  will  be  brought  into  captiv- 
ity by  some  evil  power  in  the  other 
world,  as  evil  spirits  will  have  more 
knowledge,  and  consequently  more 
power  than  many  men  who  are  on  the 
earth."  (History  of  the  Church, 
Vol.  4,  p.  588.)  Again:  "The  man 
who  has  the  most  knowledge  has  the 
greatest  power."  (Ibid.  Vol.  5,  p. 
392.) 

10.  (Just  here  it  should  be  paren- 
thetically noted  that  knowledge  alone 
has  no  saving  power,  otherwise  even 
Satan,  the  archenemy  of  truth,  would 
be  saved.  To  be  effective,  it  must 
be  coupled  with  wisdom  and  ability 
to  act  in  harmony  with  the  right. 
Thus,  while  it  is  undebateably  true 
that  man  cannot  be  saved  in  ignor- 
ance and  that  he  is  saved  no  faster 
than  he  gains  knowledge,  yet  it 
should  be  kept  in  mind  that  knowl- 
edge alone  does  not  save.) 

11.  The  fact  that  man  cannot  be 
saved  in  ignorance  is  easily  under- 
stood upon  a  moment's  thought. 
Consider,  for  example,  the  case  of  a 
resurrected  being  coming  in  contact 
with  an  evil  spirit  possessing  more 
knowledge  than  he.  The  resurrected 
being  would  at  once  be  at  a  disad- 


vantage and  possibly  be  led  astray. 
Or  consider  the  case  of  a  resurrected 
being  who  was  not  familiar  with  the 
manner  in  which,  say,  the  world  was 
made.  Plainly,  he  himself  could  not 
make  one,  thus  limiting  his  power 
of  creation.  If  man  is  to  become 
master  of  heaven  and  earth,  he  can- 
not be  ignorant  of  the  processes  in- 
volved therein. 

12.  Marts  Future  Possibilities. 
The  risen  Redeemer  spoke  unto  his 
disciples  in  Galilee,  saying:  "All 
power  is  given  unto  me  in  heaven 
and  in  earth."  (Matthew  28:18.) 
The  Latterday  Saints  are  taught  to 
believe  that  they  too,  through  obedi- 
ence to  all  the  laws  of  God,  may 
eventually  reach  this  transcendent 
goal.  It  is  the  Utopia  of  human 
existence ;  it  is  the  goal  divine.  Cer- 
tain critics  have  said  that  such  an 
ambition  is  a  disparagement  of  the 
dignity  and  power  of  God.  Such, 
however,  is  not  the  case,  for  man  is 
an  actual  child  of  the  Father  and 
therefore  possesses  the  undeveloped 
potentialities  of  Him  who  created 
him.  Moreover,  a  Diety  who  can 
elevate  man  to  the  position  of  god- 
head demands  greater  respect  than 
one  who  keeps  man  at  a  level  lower 
than  his  own. 

13.  Concerning  those  who,  in  the 
hereafter,  continue  to  obey  his  word 
the  Lord  says  :  "They  shall  pass  by 
the  angels,  and  the  gods,  which  are 
set  there,  to  their  exaltation  and 
glory  in  all  things,  as  hath  been 
sealed  upon  their  heads,  which  glory 
shall  be  a  fulness  and  a  continua- 
tion of  the  seed  forever  and  ever. 
Then  shall  they  be  gods,  because 
they  have  no  end ;  therefore  shall 
they  be  from  everlasting  to  everlast- 
ing, because  they  continue ;  then 
shall  they  be  above  all,  because  all 
things  are  subject  unto  them.  Then 
shall  they  be  gods,  because  they  have 
all  power,  and  the  angels  are  sub- 
ject  unto  them.     Verily,   verily,   I 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


57 


say  unto  you,  except  ye  abide  my  It  merely  provides  that  man  shall  be- 

law  ye  cannot  attain  to  this  glory/'  come  acquainted  with  the  laws  of 

(D.  and  C.  132:19-21.)  God  and  conduct  his  life  in  harmony 

14.  It  is  only  by  means  of  a  knowl-  therewith.  Nothing  could  be  simpler, 

edge  of  things  as  they  are,  coupled  more  god-like  or  divine, 
with  right  living,  that  this  goal  can 


be  attained.  This  is  intelligence.  In- 
telligence is  the  only  means  by  which 
man  can  return  to  the  presence  of 
the  Father  and  partake  of  his  glory. 
Without  it  he  cannot  be' saved.  For 
this  reason  Latter-day  Saints  are 
unusually  interested  in  the  acquisi- 
tion of  truth  and  its  utilization.  No 
truth  in  the  universe  is  too  obscure 
or  unimportant  to  command  atten- 
tion.    All  truth  comes  from   God. 


whether  it  be  from  the  rocky  foun-      is  not  preoared? 


Suggestions  for  Discussion  and 
Review 

1.  In  what  respect  is  salvation  a 
free  gift  from  God? 

2.  Distinguish  between  intelli- 
gence and  knowledge,  wisdom,  apti- 
tude, comprehension,  learning, 
familiarity. 

3.  Why,  in  your  judgment,  is  man 
unable  to  enjoy  things  for  which  he 


dations  of  the  earth  or  the  voice  of 
the  prophet,  for  Deity  is  all-power- 
ful and  supreme,  throughout  the 
endless  expanse  of  space.  The  voice 
of  God  has  declared  that  "This  is  mv 


4.  In  what  respect  do  those  who 
have  the  most  knowledge  have  the 
most  power? 

5.  Why  is  intelligence  the  only 
means  by  which  man  can  regain  the 


work  and  my  glory — to  bring  to  pass      presence  of  the  Father  ? 
*the  immortality  and  eternal  life  of  6.  Will    knowledge    alone    save? 

man."  The  way  has  been  prepared.      Why  not? 


Teachers'  Topic 

ENDURING   SATISFACTIONS  OF  LIFE 


"Man  is  that  he  might  have  joy." 
—2  Nephi  2:25. 

What  is  joy?  Joy  is  the  fruits  of 
righteous  living.  Shakespeare  says  : 
"The  purest  treasure  mortal  times 
afford  is  spotless  reputation."  How 
is  that  treasure  won?  It  comes  by 
living  today  and  every  day  like  a 
man  of  honor.  "It  is  slowly  built 
upon  purity,  integrity  and  courage." 

Enduring  satisfactions  do  n  o  t 
come  from  wealth,  power  and  fame. 
These  may  all  vanish  as  dew  before 
the  sun.  Wealth  and  social  position 
count  for  nothing,  unless  united 
with  purity  of  thought  and  life, 
honesty  of  purpose,  and  high  ideals. 

Family  love — the  mutual  love  of 
husband  and  wife,  of  parents  and 


children,  of  brothers  and  sisters,  is 
not  only  the  chief  source  of  happi- 
ness, but  the  chief  spring  of  action, 
and  the  safeguard  from  evil  Theo- 
dore Roosevelt  said  :  "Every  rightly 
constituted  woman  or  man  must  feel 
that  there  is  no  such  ample  reward  to 
be  found  anywhere  in  life  as  the 
reward  of  children,  the  reward  of  a 
happy  family  life.  We  cannot  get 
along  at  all  as  a  nation  if  we  have 
not  the  right  kind  of  home  life.  Such 
a  life  is  not  only  the  supreme  duty, 
but  also  the  supreme  reward  of 
duty." 

The  realization  of  the  natural  and 
legitimate  enjoyments  in  family  life 
depends  on  the  possession  of  physical 
and  moral   health.     Health  is  one 


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RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


indispensable  foundation  for  the  en- 
during satisfactions  of  life. 

The  reading  and  study  of  good 
books  will  bring  happiness  and 
joy  in  our  lives.  Charles  W. 
Elliot  says :  "Ten  minutes  a  day 
devoted  affectionately  to  good  books, 
such  as  the  Bible  or  Shakespeare, 
will  in  thirty  years  make  all  the  dif- 
ference between  a  cultivated  man  and 
an  uncultivated  man  ;  between  a  man 
mentally  rich  and  a  man  mentally 
poor.  Books  are  the  quietest  and 
most  constant  of  friends ;  they  are 


the  most  accessible  and  wisest  of 
counsellors,  and  the  most  patient  of 
teachers." 

The  greatest  happiness  and  satis- 
faction comes  through  service.  Love 
of  our  fellowmen  is  a  test  of  our 
love  of  God,  and  a  willingness  to 
be  of  real  service  to  our  fellowmen 
is  a  test  of  that  love. 

Jesus  said:  "Inasmuch  as  ye  do 
it  unto  the  least  of  these  my  brethren, 
ye  have  done  it  unto  me." — Matthew 
25 :40. 


Literature 

(Third  Week  in  March) 
Life  and  Literature 


The  Literature 

"My  word  shall  not  pass  away." 
—Mark  13:31. 

The  Bible  walks  the  way  of  all  the 
world  with  familiar  feet  and  enters 
land  after  land  to  find  its  own  every- 
where. It  has  learned  to  speak  in 
hundreds  of  languages  to  the  heart 
of  man.  It  comes  to  the  palace  to  tell 
the  monarch  that  he  is  the  servant 
of  the  Most  High,  and  into  the  cot- 
tage to  assure  the  peasant  that  he 
is  the  son  of  God.  Children  listen 
to  its  stories  with  wonder  and  de- 
light, and  wise  men  ponder  them  as 
parables  of  life.  It  has  a  word  of 
peace  for  the  time  of  peril,  a  word 
of  comfort  for  the  day  of  calamity, 
a  word  of  light  for  the  hour  of 
darkness.  Its  oracles  are  repeated 
in  the  assembly  of  people,  ana  its 
counsels  whispered  in  the  ear  of  the 
lonely.  The  wicked  and  the  proud 
tremble  at  its  warning,  but  to  the 
wounded  and  the  penitent  it  has  a 
mother's  voice.  The  wilderness  and 
the  solitary  place  have  been  made 
glad  by  it,  and  the  fire  on  the  hearth 
has  lit  the  reading  of  its  well-worn 


of  the  Bible  (2) 

page.  It  has  woven  itself  into  our 
deepest  affections  and  colored  our 
dearest  dreams ;  so  that  love  and 
friendship,  sympathy  and  devotion, 
memory  and  hope,  put  on  the  beau- 
tiful garments  of  its  treasured 
speech,  breathing  of  frankincense 
and  myrrh. 

"Above  the  cradle  and  beside  the 
grave  its  great  words  come  to  us  un- 
called. They  fill  our  prayers  with 
power  larger  than  we  know,  and  the 
beauty  of  them  lingers  on  our  ear 
long  after  the  sermons  which  they 
adorn  have  been  forgotten.  They 
return  to  us  swiftly  and  quietly,  like 
doves  flying  from  far  away.  They 
surprise  us  with  new  meanings,  like 
springs  of  water  breaking  forth  from 
the  mountain  beside  a  long-trodden 
path.  They  grow  richer,  as  pearls 
do  when  they  are  worn  near  the 
heart." 

The  Hebrew  Classics 

The  books  of  the  Bible  which  have 
been  styled  as  classics  are  the  Books 
of  Song  and  Devotion,  and  the 
Books  of  Wisdom. 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


59 


The  Devotional  books  of  the  Old 
Testament,  The  Book  of  Psalms, 
The  Book  of  Lamentations,  and  The 
Song  of  Songs  are  poetic  in  form. 
The  earliest  Hebrew  literature  was 
poetic.  Fragments  of  it  are  found 
embedded  in  the  historical  books  of 
the  Bible.  "The  Song  of  Lamech," 
Genesis  4  :23-24,  is  one  of  the  oldest 
fragments  of  Hebrew  verse.  It  is 
interesting  to  note  that  this  historic 
remnant  carries  the  chief  character- 
istic of  Hebrew  poetry,  recurrence 
of  thought  or  parallelism, 

"Adah  and  Zillah,  hear  my  voice, 
Ye  wives  of  Lamech,  hearken  unto 
my  speech." 

The  most  magnificent  survival  of 
primitive  Hebrew  poetry  is  the 
"Song  of  Deborah."  Israel's  de- 
liverance from  the  Canaanites  came 
through  the  courage  of  this  brave 
woman.  The  poem  is  a  song  of 
triumph,  sung  antiphonally  by  an- 
swering choruses  of  men  and  women, 
an  exalted  ballad  form.  The  poem 
describes  the  desolation  of  Israel, 
the  gathering  of  the  tribes,  the  battle, 
and  the  retribution  of  Israel ;  it 
closes  with  a  song  of  thanksgiving 
to  Jehovah  for  his  help. 

The  later  Hebrew  poetry  consists 
chiefly  of  songs  of  praise.  The 
Psalms,  three  hundred  and  fifty, 
were  formally  ascribed  to  David. 
The  Book  of  Psalms,  as  we  now  have 
it,  is  an  anthology  of  songs  of  praise 
selected  from  the  collections  of  vari- 
ous writers  and  arranged  for  temple 
worship.  John  Milton  whose  relig- 
ious faith  and  poetic  mastership 
made  him  the  poet  of  Eternal  Provi- 
dence said  of  the  Book:  "Not  in 
their  divine  argument  alone,  but  in 
the  art  of  composition  the  Psalms 
may  be  easily  made  to  appear  over 
all  kinds  of  lyric  poetry  incompar- 
able." 

The  great  requisite   for  the  ap- 


preciation of  the  Psalms  is  an  under- 
standing of  their  spiritual  qualities. 
The  deep  and  genuine  love  of  nature 
as  the  Hebrews  beheld  in  it  the  glory 
of  God : 

"The  heavens  declare  the  glory  of 
God; 
And    the    firmament    showeth    his 
handiwork."  Psalm  19. 

The  sense  of  the  Eternity  of  God  : 

"Before  the  mountains  were  brought 

forth, 
Or  ever  thou  hadst  formed  the  earth 

and  the  world, 
Even  from  everlasting  to  everlast- 
ing, thou  are  God. 

*  *  * 

For  a  thousand  years  in  thy  sight 
Are  but  as  yesterday  when  it  is 
past, 
And  as  a  watch  in  the  night. 

5f«      2fS      JfC 

We  bring  our  years  to  an  end  as  a 
tale  that  is  told." 

The  intense  joy  of  knowing  God 
and  being  permitted  to  serve  him  : 

"As  the  hart  panteth  after  the  water- 
brooks,    so    panteth   my    soul 

after  thee,  O  God  !" 

*  *  * 

"Let  the  words  of  my  mouth,  and  the 
meditation  of  my  heart  be  ac- 
ceptable in  thy  sight, 
O    Lord,    my    rock    and    my    re- 
deemer." 

Not  all  the  psalms  are  alike  in 
their  lyric  qualities,  some  are  simple 
expressions :  "The  Shepherd's 
Song"  expressing  joy  at  the  good- 
ness of  God,  Psalm  23.  Others  are 
in  reality  exalted  harmonies ;  "The 
Eternal  Word"  expressing  joy  at 
God's  demand  for  righteousness, 
Psalm  49.  There  are  many  natural 
songs  among  the  Psalms  ;  "The  Song 
of  Thunder,"  Psalm  28,  "A  Love 
Song,"    Psalm    45.      Some    of    the 


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RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


Psalms:  27,  42,  51,  63,  91,  103,  107, 
139,  are  among  the  noblest  lyrics  of 
all  literature  making  the  book  of 
Psalms  the  immortal  song-book  of 
the  ages.  The  dominant  note  of  the 
Psalms  is  one  of  rejoicing.  The 
problems  of  life  are  faced,  but  trust 
lifts  the  soul  into  singing  joy: 

"Bless  the  Lord,  O  my  soul, 
And  all  that  is  within  me 
Bless  His  holy  name." 

A  small  group  of  songs  announc- 
ing the  Messianic  ideal  is  found  in 
the  book  of  Isaiah ;  "The  Prince  of 
Peace,"  Isaiah  9:2-7,  "The  Ideal 
Ruler,"  Isaiah  11 :1-10,  "An  Ideal 
of  Justice,"  Isaiah  2:2-4,  "A  Song 
of  Hope,"  Isaiah  40:1-11,  "And 
Exalted  People."  Isaiah  52:13-53. 

No  list  of  Bible  poetry  would  be 
complete  without  recording  the  chief 
songs  of  the  New  Testament :  "The 
Magnificat,"  Luke  1 :46-55,  "Bene- 
dictus,"  Luke  1:68-79,  "Gloria  In 
Excelsis,"  Luke  2:29-31,  "T  h  e 
Hymn  of  Love,"  I  Corinthians  13. 

The  Song  of  Songs  is  an  Oriental 
poem  of  rare  beauty.  The  setting 
of  the  poem  is  dramatic.  The  author, 
a  late  writer  influenced  by  Greek 
and  Oriental  thought,  is  singing  the 
praises  of  the  loyalty  of  love.  The 
book  has  been  one  of  the  most  diffi- 
cult to  understand.  Many  sources 
and  many  interpretations  have  been 
given  to  the  song  as  a  result.  There 
is  no  justification  of  attributing  the 
authorship  to  Solomon  because  his 
name  occurs  frequently,  because  the 
evidence  of  thought  and  style  place 
the  authorship  about  the  third  cen- 
tury B.  C.  There  is,  however,  justi- 
fication of  a  symbolical  interpreta- 
tion of  the  poem,  an  allegory  exalt- 
ing divine  love  over  earthly  love. 
The  songs  are  exquisite  pictures 
imaging,  brooks,  hills,  vineyards, 
and  meadows,  full  of  the  color  and 
music  of  nature. 


"For,  lo,  the  winter  is  past,  the  rain 
is  over  and  gone ; 

"The  flowers  appear  on  the  earth ; 
the  time  of  singing  of  birds  is 
come. 

"The  fig  tree  putteth  forth  her  green 
%s, 
And  the  vines  with  the  tender  grape 

give  a  good  smell. 
Arise,  my  love,  and  come  away. 

"My  beloved  is  mine  and  I  am  his. 

"Until  the  day  break,  and  the 
shadows  flee  away,  turn  my 
beloved,  and  be  thou  like  a 
roe  or  a  young  hart  upon  the 
mountains  of  Bether." 

The  story  of  the  cycle  of  songs  is 
very  simple.  Solomon  saw  and 
wooed  a  beautiful  maiden.  In  his 
palace  he  sought  to  dazzle  her  with 
his  splendor  and  power.  The  maid- 
en, already  in  love  with  a  simple 
shepherd  of  the  hills,  remained  true 
to  her  humble  lover  and,  finally  re- 
pulsing the  king,  went  back  to  her 
shepherd.  The  meaning  of  the 
poem  is  beautifully  expressed  in  the 
lines  at  the  close  : 

"Set  a  seal  upon  thine  heart,  as  a 
seal  upon  thine  arm :  for  love  is 
strong  as  death." 

"Many  waters  cannot  quench  love, 
neither  can  the  floods  drown  it :  if  a 
man  would  give  all  the  substance  of 
his  house  for  love,  it  would  utterly 

be  condemned." 

The  power  of  Hebrew  thought 
is  the  power  of  Hebrew  poetry — 

"The  word  becomes  flesh  and  dwells 
among  us  and  we  behold  its  glory." 

The  Books  of  Wisdom 

The  Book  of  Proverbs,  the  Book 
of  Job,  and  the  Book  of  Eccleciastes 
are  the  so  called  "wisdom  books"  of 
the  Bible.  The  sage,  or  scholar,  had 
his  place  in  guiding  the  life  of  the 
Hebrews.     The  task  of  the  scholar 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


61 


was  to  seek  wisdom.  Wisdom  for 
the  Hebrew  was  to  understand  God 
and  his  ways.  Wisdom  was  God's 
best  gift  to  man,  the  reward  of 
obedience. 

The  Book  of  Proverbs  has  been 
explained  as  a  library  of  maxims 
containing-  the  wisdom  of  the  cen- 
turies. This  anthology  of  Hebrew 
wisdom  dates  from  the  period  of 
Jewish  contact  with  Greek  thought. 
A  collection  of  aphorisms  a  brief 
expressive  statement  of  a  truth,)  the 
book  is  a  handbook  to  successful 
living.  The  profoundest  insight  and 
the  highest  moral  value  characterize 
its  expression  making  many  of  its 
statements  jewels  of  truth  "To  be 
righteous  is  wisdom ;  to  be  wicked 
is  folly"  may  be  said  to  be  the  theme 
running  through  the  book. 

The  Book  of  Ecclesiastes  is  a 
series  of  personal  essays  or  mono- 
logues by  an  individual  in  search  of 
the  secret  of  life  as  was  Goethe's 
Faust.  The  authorship  of  the 
book  was  originally  ascribed  to 
Solomon,  but  literary  scholars  are 
agreed  that  it  was  written  about  200 
B.  C.  The  problem  of  what  makes 
life  worthwhile  is  the  problem  of  the 
book.  The  book  shows  very  definite- 
ly the  influence  of  Greek  thought 
upon  the  Hebrews.  The  author, 
who  styles  himself,  Koheleth,  makes 
a  daring  attempt  to  investigate  the 
current  opinions  concerning  the  ac- 
tual value  of  life.  We  see  the  meet- 
ing of  two  systems  of  thought. 
Koheleth,  a  man  of  learning,  has 
lost  the  hope  that  has  characterized 
his  race  in  the  past,  and  he  has  not 
yet  learned  of  the  new  hope  for  man, 
individual  immortality.  He  is  dis- 
illusioned. His  is  a  noble  sadness, 
yet  he  never  gives  up  his  faith  in 
God.  Two  voices  are  heard  through- 
out the  book,  one  of  joy  and  one  of 
despair.  Wisdom,  pleasure,  wealth, 
and  power  are  all  experienced,  but 


the  writer  finds  no  abiding  satisfac- 
tion—"Vanity  of  vanity,  all  is 
vanity."  Koheleth  does  however, 
find  the  secret  of  successful  living — 
"Whatsoever  thy  hand  findeth  to  do, 
do  it  with  thy  might."  Twenty 
centuries  later  Carlyle  preached  the 
same  doctrine,  "Blessed  is  the  man 
who  has  found  his  work."  "The 
Book  of  Ecclesiastes,"  closes  with  an 
exquisite  poem  containing  the  lines  : 

"Remember  also  thy  Creator  in  the 

days  of  thy  youth." 
"And  the  dust  returneth  to  the  earth, 
As  it  was : 
And  the  spirit  returneth  unto  God 
Who  gave  it." 

The  Book  of  Job  has  been  called 
the  "greatest  poem  in  the  world's 
literature,  towering  up  alone,  far 
away  above  all  the  poetry  of  the 
world."  The  author  of  his  great  poem 
is  unknown,  the  author  has  re- 
mained completely  anonymous.  The 
book  is  a  masterpiece  of  art.  The 
problem  of  the  book  is  the  oldest  and 
most  insoluble  problem  that  men 
have  ever  tried  to  solve — the  problem 
of  human  suffering.  The  treatment 
of  the  problem  is  remarkable.  In- 
stead of  discussing  it  as  a  modern 
philosopher  would  do,  the  author 
uses  the  dramatic  method,  a  drama 
without  any  action  confined  to 
speech.  The  book  bears  no  specific 
reference  to  Hebrew  life  and 
thought  hence  its  universality  of 
spirit. 

The  form  of  the  "Book  of  Job" 
is  a  poetic  drama.  The  prologue 
presents  the  hero,  Job,  a  partriarchal 
figure,  rich  in  flocks  and  herds,  rich 
in  family,  and  rich  in  integrity. 
Satan,  the  adversary,  seeing  Job 
the  "perfect  and  the  upright  man" 
suggests  a  test  for  him.  Catas- 
trophes fall  on  Job  yet  he  praises 
God.  When  the  celestial  council 
meets  again,  God  exults  in  the  in- 


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RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


tegrity  of  Job.  Satan  suggests  a 
more  severe  test.  Job  is  smitten 
with  the  most  dreaded  of  diseases, 
leprosy.  Being  now  an  outcast,  Job 
went  and  sat  outside  the  city  a  prey 
to  his  misery. 

The  friends  of  Job,  Eliphaz, 
Bildad,  and  Zophar  come  to  him  in 
his  extremity.  For  seven  days  and 
nights  they  sit  in  silence  and  mourn 
for  him.  Job  breaks  out  in  maledic- 
tion at  his  suffering.  The  friends  in 
turn  offer  their  wisdom  to  Job. 
Eliphaz  dwells  upon  the  goodness  of 
God,  Bildad  upon  the  justice  of  God, 
Zaphor  upon  the  wisdom  of  God. 
Voicing  the  beliefs  of  the  day,  their 
conclusion  is  that  Job's  suffering  is 
but  the  punishment  for  his  sins, 
"they  that  plow  iniquity,  and  sow 
trouble,  reap  the  same." 

Job   rejects   the   opinions    of   his 
friends  crying  out,  "I  have  under- 
standing  as   well   as   you — will   ye 
speak  unrighteously  for  God?    The 
friends  answer  with  another  cycle  of 
arguments:     Eliphaz  affirming  that 
the  punishment  for  sin  comes  from 
the  sinner's  own  conscience ;  Bildad 
condems  mankind  in  general ;  Zophar 
claims  that  retribution  must  efface 
the  sin.    Job  answers  each  argument 
in  turn.     Now  we  see  a  new  hope 
awaking  in  Job.     The  self-evident 
prosperity    of    the    wicked    breaks 
down  the  argument.     Job  rises  to  a 
stronger  faith  in  God  as  he  declares 
"I  know  that  my  redeemer  (Vindi- 
cator)   liveth,    and    that    He    shall 
stand  at  last  upon  the  earth,  and  af- 
ter my  skin  hath  been  thus  destroy- 
ed, yet  in  my  flesh  shall  I  see  God !" 
A  third  cycle  of  speeches  ensues. 
Eliphaz  draws  up  a  series  of  accusa- 
tions against  Job  and  urges  repent- 
ance,  Bildad  explains  the  ways  of 
Nature ;  Zophar  acclaims  the  value 
of    wisdom.      Job   is   left   alone,    a 
tragic  figure,  robbed  of  his  wealth, 
bereaved  of  his  children,  deserted  by 


his  wife,  repudiated  by  his  friends, 
stricken  by  a  loathesome  disease,  and 
as  it  seems  to  him  cast  off  by  God. 
In  the  manner  of  his  religion  by  the 
solemn  "oath  of  clearing,"  the  He- 
brew "ideal  of  righteousness,  a  form 
of  confession,  Job  lays  bare  his  case 
to  God.  A  young  man,  Elihu,  hear- 
ing Job's  oath  of  clearing,  is  moved 
to  speak  to  Job.  Elihu  presents  to 
Job  and  his  friends  the  theory  that 
suffering  is  one  of  God's  voices  by 
which  He  teaches  man.  Thunder 
clouds  darken  the  sky,  supernatural 
brightness  parts  the  darkness  and  the 
voice  of  God  is  heard  : 

"Where  was  thou  when  I  laid  the 
foundations  of  the  earth? — Declare 
if  thou  has  understanding — Who  de- 
termined the  measures  thereof,  if 
thou  knowest  ?  Who  laid  the  corner- 
stone thereof,  when  the  morning 
stars  sang  together,  and  all  the  sons 
of  God  shouted  for  joy."  Job  an- 
swers "I  have  uttered  that  which  I 
understood  not.  I  had  heard  of 
thee  by  the  hearing  of  the  ear,  but 
now  mine  eyes  seeth  thee." 

"A  noble  book;  all  men's  book,  a 
noble  universality."  It  speaks  to 
man  of  God's  way.  Job's  progress 
from  doubt  to  certitude  is  a  pattern 
for  all  men.  As  sublime  sorrow  at 
not  knowing  God  yields  to  sublime 
reconciliation  at  finding  God,  the 
mighty  note  of  Hebrew  faith  "Know 
God"  is  given  to  man  for  "His  is  the 
kingdom,  the  power  and  the  glory 
forever.     Amen." 

Suggestions  for  Study 

A.  Materials: 

1.  The  Story  of  the  World's 
Literature.  Chapter  4 — 
Macy. 

2.  The  Modern  Reader's  Bible. 
— Moulton. 

3.  The  English  Bible  As  Liter- 
ature.— Dinsmore. 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


63 


4.  Creative  Religious  Literature. 
— Culler. 

B.  Program : 

1.  Music. 

2.  Discussion. 

a.  The  Nature  and  Content  of 
the  Hebrew  Classics. 

3.  Review  with  Selections. 
a.  The  Psalms. 


b.  The  Book  of  Proverbs. 

c.  The  Book  of  Ecclesiastes. 

d.  The  Songs  of  Solomon. 

C.  Method: 

Let  the  beauty  of  expression  and 
the  majesty  of  thought  bear  their 
own  message.  Appreciation  is  the 
purpose  of  the  three  lessons  of  the 
series  on  the  Bible. 


Social  Service 

(Fourth  Week  in  March) 
Socialized  Conduct 


In  "Personality"  page  7,  is  found 
this  sentence  :  "Many  children  create 
behavior  disturbances  over  which 
they  themselves  have  little  volitional 
control  but  which  are  chalked  up 
against  them  as  wilful  misbehavior." 
Not  only  is  there  a  problem  of  wil- 
fulness involved  in  this  statement 
but  there  is  also  the  implied  definition 
of  "misbehavior."  Postively  this 
calls  for  a  definition  of  "good"  or 
"desired"  behavior.  Every  such 
definition  is  stated  in  terms  of  the 
relations  of  people  with  each  other — 
good  behavior  usually  means  be- 
havior which  is  acceptable  in  a  group 
— socialized  behavior.  Thorn  de- 
fines it  as  follows : 

"The  well-adjusted  personality, 
which  characterizes  a  happy  and 
efficient  man  or  woman  is  a  harmoni- 
ous blending  of  these  varied  emo- 
tions and  character  traits,  resulting 
in  self-control  and  habits  of  con- 
formity. This  type  of  individual 
habitually  takes  into  consideration 
those  with  whom  he  comes  in  con- 
tact, either  in  the  home,  in  the  com- 
munity, or  in  business.  His  attitude 
is  such  toward  his  friends,  neigh- 
bors, and  co-workers  that  he  is  an 
asset  to  society.  His  relationships 
are  happy  and  productive  of  good." 


(Thorn,  Everyday  Problems  of  the 
Every  Day  Child,  p.  135). 

This  lesson  has  as  its  first  aim  the 
building  up  of  a  real  feeling  for  the 
breadth  of  meaning  implied  in 
"social"  or  "good"  conduct.  The 
second  aim  is  to  call  attention  to 
several  of  the  detailed  items  in  the 
practical  problem  of  socializing  chil- 
dren. The  issue  of  the  lesson  is 
raised  vitally  by  the  following  inci- 
dent : 

A  Utah  mother  went  to  the  juve- 
nile court  to  intercede  for  her  boy. 
He  had  been  guilty  of  stealing  vari- 
ous articles,  last  of  all,  an  automo- 
bile, and  of  sexual  irregularities. 
She  said  to  the  court :  "He  is  a  good 
boy.  He  doesn't  smoke  and  he  helps 
willingly  at  home." 

Suggestions  for  Procedures 

1.  Take  time  to  point  out  the 
faulty  interpretation  implied  in  the 
above  incident  and  to  show  that  part 
of  this  mother's  troubles  may  be 
found  in  her  early  guidance  along 
such  a  narrow  line. 

2.  Assign  the  reading  guide,  call- 
ing attention  to  the  preparation  of 
specific  lists  of  material  for  use  in 
the  class, 


64 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


3.  Discuss  the  reading  guide  care- 
fully. 

4.  Assign  for  brief  two-minute 
reports  the  following  topics  from 
Report  of  White  House  Conference : 

Limitations  of  the  modern  family 
in  socializing  the  child,  pp.  139-140. 

Keeping  the  social  relations  of  the 
family  up-to-date.  pp.  147-148. 

Social  values  in  school  classifica- 
tion, pp.  170. 

Groups  that  influence  youth, 
pp.  248ff. 

The  old  and  the  new,  pp.  342ff. 
(This  report  may  be  allowed  a  few 
minutes  more  time.) 

5.  The  class  leader  should  call  at- 
tention in  a  definite  clear  way  to  as 
many  of  the  specified  items  in  the 
supplementary  material  as  time  will 
permit.  Encourage  the  class  mem- 
bers to  study  the  material  as  indi- 
cative of  the  many  factors  there  are 
in  the  process  of  socialization. 

Reading  guide  for  class  mem- 
bers :    Personality,  pp.  7-10. 

In  controlling  behavior  it  is  neces- 
sary to  diagnose  the  causes.  Note 
the  four  causes  discussed  on  page  7. 
Look  up  a  definition  of  the  specific 
diseases  mentioned. 

Note  carefully  the  opposite  treat- 
ments proposed  for  misbehavior 
caused  by  "emotional  instability"  and 
"Wilfullness." 

If  statistics  show  greater  de- 
linquency among  children  somewhat 
dull  is  the  explanation  because  they 
are  dull  or  because  of  the  social 
treatment  they  receive  ? 

The  author  speaks  of  "aggressive 
misbehavior."  Make  a  list  of  specific 
acts  that  you  would  put  in  this  class 
of  conduct.  Make  a  list  of  things 
that  children  do  that  would  be  called 
"misbehavior"  but  which  is  not 
"aggressive."  Use  this  list  to  inter- 
pret the  statement  on  page  9  regard- 
ing the  differences  between  boys  and 
girls. 


The  author  points  out  the  fact 
that  prevention  of  unsocial  conduct 
depends  on  early  diagnosis.  Just 
what  responsibility  is  put  on  teachers 
and  parents  in  connection  with  this  ? 

Study  your  own  work  at  home  in 
order  to  answer  question  7  on  page 
10. 

Do  you  know  personally  of  cases 
similiar  to  those  described  in  prob- 
lems 1  and  3? 

Questions  5  and  8  are  really  an- 
swered better  in  lessons  14  and  11 
respectively. 

Supplementary  Material : 

1.  Socialization  is  a  process  of 
acquiring  a  series  of  specific  desir- 
able reactions,  not  gaining  posses- 
sion cf  a  trait  such  as  honesty,  self- 
control,  etc.  On  this  point  Dr.  Mark 
A.  May  said  before  the  Chicago 
Association  for  Child  Study  and 
Parent  Education  in  1928 : 
"The  correlations  between  lying, 
stealing,  and  cheating  all  run  so  low 
that  it  would  be  quite  impossible  to 
predict  one  from  the  other." 

"Even  among  different  forms  of 
cheating  the  correlation  are  so  low 
that  it  is  quite  impossible  to  predict 
with  any  reasonable  degree  of  ac- 
curacy whether  a  pupil  will  cheat  in 
doing  a  puzzle  by  knowing  whether 
he  cheated  in  arithmetic." 

"The  results  show  that  there  is  no 
such  a  thing  as  a  unified  trait  of 
honesty." 

Of  the  effect  of  knowing  what  is 
right  the  article  reporting  the  above 
address  continues : 

"The  upshot  of  all  is  that  knowl- 
edge, as  taught  in  the  conventional 
way,  does  not  determine  conduct. 
This  does  not  mean  that  knowledge 
taught  differently,  or  different  kinds 
of  knowledge  may  not.  In  groups 
there  seems  to  be  a  positive  correla- 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


65 


tion  between  the  group  average  in 
moral  knowledge  and  group  con- 
duct." 

2.  Selfishness. 

William  Henry  Pyle  in  his  book 
"Training  Children,"  says: 

"Probably  the  most  prominent 
aspect  of  our  original  nature  is  its 
selfishness.  It  is  selfishness  that 
causes  most  of  the  misery  and  un- 
happiness  in  the  world.  And  this  is 
why  the  teachings  of  Jesus  prove  to 
be  the  most  important  ethical  doc- 
trine that  has  ever  been  proclaimed 
to  man.  It  is  selfishness  that  brings 
the  most  sin  and  crime  and  pain  and 
sorrow.  It  is  kindness  and  thought- 
fulness  that  bring  the  most  jov." 

(P.  14). 

Specific  forms  of  unsocial  acts  are 
associated  with  selfishness: 

a.  Lying  grows  out  of  environ- 
mental conditions,  and  is  largely 
imitative. 

b.  Control  of  stealing  is  dependent 
upon  three  social  factors  in  the  home 
and  other  social  institutions : 

Theft  must  not  serve  the  end  for 
which  it  was  inteded. 

Restitution  must  be  by  the  effort 
of  the  child. 

The  child's  property  rights  are  to 
be  respected. 

c.  Jealousy  is  a  normal  reaction  in 
children  between  the  ages  1  to  5. 

"It  is  often  aroused  in  a  child  by 
constantly  praising  and  holding  up 
a  brother  or  sister  as  a  model,  or 
persistently  pointing  out  shortcom- 
ings and  defects  in  the  child  who  is 
inclined  to  be  jealous.  Nothing  is 
more  disastrous  than  playing  the 
merits  and  abilities  of  one  child 
against  another.  It  causes  feelings 
of  bitterness,  resentment,  inferiority, 
and  inadequacy."     Thorn  p.  177. 

The  treatment  is  to  be  based  on 
instruction  in  unselfishness,  evidence 
of  fairness  in  family  organization, 


and  opportunities  to  share  with  and 
do  for  others. 

d.  Of  anger  Thorn  says : 

"THiere  are  centain  anti-asocial 
tendencies  that  manifest  themselves 
from  time  to  time  in  the  process  of 
a  child's  normality.  A  spineless  sort 
of  lad  it  would  be  who  never  got 
angry;  How  dull  and  apathetic 
would  be  the  child  who  never  demon- 
strated he  had  a  will  of  his  own  by 
being  disobedient;  how  peculiar  the 
child  whose  curiosity  did  not  at  some 
time  or  other  lead  to  destructiveness ! 
How  colorless  would  be  the  mental 
content  of  the  youthful  mind  that 
did  not  elaborate  upon  its  imagina- 
tion !  One  would  find  that  the  child 
without  some  element  of  sin  in  his 
personality  makeup  would  be  as  un- 
responsive to  his  environment  and 
as  devoid  of  human  interest  as  the 
jellyfish."     136. 

The  danger  from  anger  lies  in 
chronic  irritability  and  continued  ex- 
pressions which  indicate  satisfactions 
from  them.  If  the  child  craves  at- 
tention and  gets  a  bribe  he  will  con- 
tinue to  show  anger.  Parents  and 
teachers  should  always  seek  the 
stimulating  cause.  It  may  be  remote 
in  play,  or  school,  or  may  be  deliber- 
ate display. 

3.  Obedience  has  to  do  with  the 
relationships  of  children  with  adults. 
Socialization  develops  this  into  a 
respect  for  law,  custom  and  official 
authority.  The  change  is  essentially 
one  of  a  growing  willingness  and 
power  to  conform.  Apparent  dis- 
obedience may  be  a  form  of  self  as- 
sertion or  a  healthy  natural  reaction 
in  the  process  of  growing  up.  For 
the  sake  of  safety  and  well-being 
children  need  to  follow  instructions 
literally  in  many  things.  These 
should  be  taught  as  specific  habits. 
Any  attempt  to  develop  a  general 
trait  of  obedience  may  stifle  all 
curiosity,  persistence,  and  aggressive 


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activity  In  no  case  are  parents  jus- 
tified in  forcing  obedience  in  order 
to  give  them  a  sense  of  personal  satis- 
faction of  authority.  The  psychol- 
ogy of  obedience  is  interesting. 
Thorn's  statement  indicates  the  prob- 
lem for  parents.  Obedience  is  not 
provided  for  in  original  nature.  It 
comes  as  a  result  of  social  exper- 
ience. 

"Not  infrequently  one  finds  adults 
with  a  tremendous  resentment  to- 
ward all  authority,  which  represents 
a  reaction  to  severe  disciplinary 
methods  of  early  life. 

"Wie  must  keep  in  mind  that  in 
administering  punishment  we  are  al- 
ways meeting  the  problem  by  ap- 
pealing to  the  child's  fear  of  bodily 
harm,  and  as  such  it  has  little  effect 
in  helping  him  to  direct  his  activities 
along  social  channels  and  helping 
him  to  think  of  life  in  relation  with 
those  with  whom  he  has  to  live.  The 
child  will  be  happier  and  more  effi- 
cient if  he  learns  obedience,  even 
though  very  slowly,  by  planning  his 
life  about  the  demands  of  the  group, 
whether  it  be  at  home,  on  the  play- 
ground or  at  school."  Thorn  128-129. 

"The  value  of  obedience  is  not 
found  in  the  ability  of  the  child  to 
respond  explicitly  to  the  commands 
of  those  who  are  in  authority,  but 
rather  in  his  ability  to  conform  to 
standards  that  he  has  acquired  of 
fair  play  and  good  sportsmanship 
towards  his  parents,  playmates,  and 
teachers."  Thorn  131. 

4.  Shyness. 

From  all  classes  of  homes,  more 
often  from  among  the  older  mem- 
bers of  the  family  come  the  tragic 
cases  of  unhappiness  due  to  timidity, 
fear  and  shyness.  While  this  is  not 
always  a  disadvantage  it  carries  with 
it  enough  potential  unhappiness  to 
warrant  its  careful  consideration  by 
parents  and  teachers.  It  should  be 
kept  in  mind  that  most  children  who 


are  markedly  timid  in  the  teens  were 
shy  at  younger  ages.  Miss  Jean  E. 
Alger  states  the  problems  and  sum- 
marizes some  suggestions  for  pre- 
vention and  treatment. 

(Jean  E.  Alger:  Does  Shyness 
Handicap  your  Child. — Parents 
Magazine,  June  1932,  p.  26.) 

"We  consider  as  shy  the  child  who 
is  ill  at  ease  and  perhaps  awkward 
in  the  presence  of  others ;  the  child 
who  says  little,  blushes  and  looks 
away  from  the  person  to  whom  he  is 
talking,  the  child  who  peeks  into  a 
room,  sees  strangers  and  immediate- 
ly disappears ;  and  the  child  who  pre- 
fers to  play  or  work  alone.  It  might 
be  said  that  the  greatest  danger  in 
a  child's  being  shy  is  the  possibility 
that  he  may  be  misunderstood.  Some 
have  been  thought  to  be  lazy,  care- 
less, stubborn,  or  stupid.  In  reality 
they  were  shy.  Timid  and  appre- 
hensive children,  when  competing 
with  a  group  of  forty  in  school  may 
be  thought  retarded  or  lacking  in 
ability.  A  boy  may  be  called  'afraid' 
by  others  when  he  is  really  not  afraid 
but  does  not  know  how  to  mix  with 
the  crowd.  Perhaps  the  teacher  may 
become  discouraged  with  the  child 
and  feel  that  it  is  a  reflection  upon 
her  ability  to  be  unable  to  strike  a 
keynote  of  interest.  The  shy  boy  or 
girl  who  wants  to  be  a  good  fellow 
may  be  thought  to  be  different, 
peculiar  or  unfriendly." 

Suggestions  for  treatments 

"To  shy  children  of  any  age  harsh 
or  embarrassing  methods  are  seldom 
successful,  and  this  is  especially  true 
during  the  adolescent  period. 

"It  is  perhaps  best  not  to  push  the 
shy  child  forward  in  order  to  eradi- 
cate his  shyness  or  to  cover  up  your 
own  sensitiveness  when  there  are 
guests  in  your  home.  If  he  is  timid 
about  expressing  himself,  allow  him 
to   talk   to   a   small,   more   familiar 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


67 


group  first.  In  the  presence  of 
strangers  let  him  say  his  'How  do 
you  do'  and  be  gone;  and  if  your 
younger  child  makes  a  more  pleasing 
appearance  than  his  older  brother 
or  sister  try  to  remember  that  here 
are  two  distinct  individuals.  To 
compare  them  may  make  the  shy  one 
only  more  retiring. 

''Begin  early  to  let  him  play  with 
others  outside  of  the  home. 

If  the  child  does  not  early  learn  to 
play  with  others,  yours  will  be  a  diffi- 
cult problem  if  you  try  to  help  him 
to  get  along  well  with  groups  when 
he  has  reached  the  age  of  nine  or  ten 
or  later. 

"It  is  of  primary  importance  to 
discover  the  shy  child's  interests  and 
cultivate  those  interests  so  that  in 
some  situation — he  is  self  confident 
and  senses  a  mastery  and  security." 

5.  Ridicule  and  Socialization. 

"Laughing  at  a  child's  sober  at- 
tempts to  cope  with  life  as  he  finds 
it  is  one  of  the  surest  ways  of  mak- 
ing him  withdraw  within  himself  and 
keep  his  plans  and  difficulties  secret. 
He  reacts  to  the  implied  contempt 
for  him  and  his  undertakings  by 
protecting  himself  from  future  ex- 
posure to  derision.  If  his  clumsy  at- 
tempts to  use  new  hard  words,  meet 
with  laughter,  he  is  embarrassed, 
and  becomes  loathe  to  experiment 
with  fascinating  new  words,  before 
his  elders.  His  vocabularly  is  then 
limited  during  just  those  years  when 
he  cares  most  for  words.  The  feel- 
ing of  self-consciousness  when  using 
unusual  words  may  persist  into  ma- 
turity, even  throughout  life. 

"In  like  manner,  the  child  who 
voices  his  deepest  convictions,  or 
painfully  thought  out  conclusions, 
only  to  find  himself  discounted  be- 
cause he  has  fallen  short  of  the  ac- 
cumulated wisdom  of  the  ages,  learn- 
ed parrotwise  by  his  scoffers,  must 
retreat  into  the  inmost  recesses  of 


his  own  consciousness  to  pursue  his 
individual  thinking  in  peace.  The 
patronizing  adult  cannot  come  nigh, 
for  the  child  is  sensitive  and  prizes 
his  dignity."  (Grove — Wholesome 
Childhood,  pp.  127-128.) 

6.  Cojurtesy  and  Social  refine- 
ments of  manner. 

Not  "a  child  should  be  seen  and 
not  heard"  but  a  child  should  be  both 
seen  and  heard  and  taught  how  to# 
behave  as  a  regular  part  of  his  bring- 
ing-up.  The  harrowing  scenes  of 
childhood  mis-entertaining  guests  or 
being  warned  what-not-todo  when 
going  on  a  visit  represent  parental 
consciousness  but  not  parental  ac- 
tion. In  a  recent  article  is  found  the 
following  bit  of  suggestion : 

(Martha  Pratt  Haislip  :  Is  Your 
Child  a  Good  Visitor,  Child  Welfare 
— May  1932,  p.  5l6ff.) 

"I  thought  of  the  many  children, 
of  ages  ranging  from  nine  to  six- 
teen, who  had  visited  in  our  family. 
Many  of  our  visitors  had  been 
charming  youngsters,  well-bred, 
pleasant,  and  delightful  additions  to 
the  household." 

The  Child  should  learn  a  few  prac- 
tical lessons  to  practice  while  visiting. 

"Make  himself  at  home — be  ready 
to  conform  to  the  general  routine  of 
family  life  in  the  home  where  he  is 
a  visitor. 

"A  good  visitor  eats  what  is  set 
before  him.  If  he  does  not,  he 
makes  no  mention  of  the  fact  that 
he  does  not  like  certain  foods. 

"He  must  be  sufficient  unto  him- 
self for  a  part  of  each  day.  He 
should  read  or  rest — so  that  his 
youthful  host  or  hostess  may  feel 
free  to  pursue  his  or  her  amusements 
without  feeling  burdened  by  the 
visitor's  company  .every  minute." 

Small  duties  assumed  by  him  are 
appreciated. 

Tact  and  kindness  should  be  shown 


68 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


to  older  members  of  the  family. 

Appreciation  should  be  shown  by 
unaffected  enthusiasm. 

7.  The  basis  of  the  socialization  is 
essentially  imitation  and  guided 
participation.  How  people  act  the 
general  social  elements  of  the  en- 
vironment, and  the  chance  to  take 
part  naturally  are  the  elements  that 
effect  the  results.  The  chief  models 
•are  living  ones,  although  literature 
and  history  may  help. 

In  early  childhood  the  stages  of 
development  of  courtesy  are  outlined 
as  follows : 

(Pyle:  Training  Children.) 
Courtesy  habits. 

As  early  as  possible : 

Greetings. 

Introductions. 

Thank  you. 

If  you  please. 
4th  year  or  before: 


Not    to   interrupt    conversations 
without  apology. 

Not  to  pass  in  front  of  another 
person. 
As  early  as  possible  : 

Rising  when  guest  or  older  person 
enters  room. 

Removing  hats  in  room  or  church. 

Giving  girls  and  ladies  precedence. 

Apology — pardon  me — accidental 
occurance. 

American  flag — national  anthem. 

Visiting  manners. 

Obedience. 

'  'Little  by  little,  month  by  month, 
the  prompt,  willing  and  cheerful 
helping  of  others  can  be  developed. 
During  the  third  year  some  progress 
can  be  made,  more  during  the  fourth 
and  still  more  during  the  fifth.  By 
the  sixth  birthday  the  habit  of  will- 
ing helpfulness  should  be  fairly  well 
fixed/* 


Our  Privilege 

By  Edna  J.  Gardiner 


A  S  the  beginning  of  a  New  Year 
dawns,  the  thought  of  every  Re- 
lief Society  member  turns  toward 
her  annual  dues. 

We  are  of  earth,  "earthy"  so  it 
is  only  natural  that  we  should  com- 
plement our  spiritual  sustenance 
with  the  temporal,  in  obeying  this 
one  law  of  our  Relief  Society  organ- 
ization. 

Many,  many  years  ago,  at  this 
same  period,  Joseph  and  Mary  in 
their  journey  to  Jerusalem  sought  to 
obey  law.  And  at  this  time,  the 
greatest  blessing  that  has  come  to 
humanity,  was  given  to  the  world. 


Let  us,  too,  rejoice  that  in  obeying 
this  one  law  of  our  "dues"  the  doors 
of  the  Kingdom  are  opened  to  us 
as  Relief  Society  women,  and  knowl- 
edge and  power  and  spiritual  guid- 
ance will  be  ours  through  all  the  en- 
suing year. 

As  ours  is  a  national  organization, 
its  scope  is  a  broad  one.  It  is  mar- 
velous to  feel  that,  whether  at  home 
or  abroad,  so  small  a  requirement 
can  entitle  us  as  members  to  all  the 
Relief  Society  has  to  offer. 

The  Glory  of  God  is  Intelligence, 
and  the  Relief  Society  sends  out  its 
plea, — "Come,  let  us  study  and  serve 
together." 


—  —  — .  -     ... —  . 


— -  .-II  ■  p — '-  — 


Happy 
New  Year 


and  remember  that  we  are 

equipped    to    handle    your 

printing  and  binding  needs 

economically  and  well. 

W$t  Mtmtt  JJeto*  Preste 


MUSIC  PRINTERS— PRINTERS 
BINDERS— RULERS 


Why  Should  I  Subscribe  for 
the  Relief  Society  Magazine? 

For  $1.00— 

I  receive  one  year's  training  in  every  walk  of  life. 


What  Should  I  Give  My  Friend  for  a  Present? 

The  Relief  Society  Magazine 

I  give  her  a  MONTHLY  reminder  of  my  love.    The  joy  of  my  gift 

lasts  throughout  the  year. 


When  Buying  Mention  Relief  Society  Magazine 


GET  ON  THE  RIGHT  SIDE  IN  1934 

Plan  A  Family  Program  For  Future  Success. 
A  Beneficial  Policy  Covers  Every  Detail  For 
The  Security  Of  Your  Family  And  Yourself. 

Cave     Oafely  —    Oy  sterna  tically  — 

MAKE  YOUR  LIFE— YOUR  INSURANCE— BENEFICIAL 


1NHFKMLI» 


E.  T.  Ralphs,  general  manager 


HEBBR    J.     GRANT 

Ai   W.    IVINS 

J.    REUBEN    CLARK.    JR. 


Directors 

geo.   j.    cannon 
jos.  ,  f.  smith 
e.  t.  ralphs 


B.  P.    GRANT 
DAVID  a.     MCKAY 
A.  B.  C.  OHLSON 


Relief  Society 
fAagaztne^ 


Volume  XXI 


FEBRUARY,  1934 


No.  2 


WE  HEARTILY  RECOMMEND 


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When  Buying  Mention  Relief  Society  Magazine 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Organ  of  the  Relief  Society  of  the  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints 


Vol.  21  FEBRUARY    1934  No.  2 


CONTENTS 

Portrait  of  Dr.  Grace  Raymond  Hebard   Frontispiece 

When  Little  Things  have  Fortified  the  Way    Bertha   A.   Kleinman  69 

A  Pathbreaker  in  Woman's  Activities Lorene  Pearson  71 

The  Mirage  (Prize  Poem  with  Portrait  of  the  Author)    Roxana  T.  Hase  76 

Anne   Brent,    Helpmate    Elsie    C.    Carroll  78 

Not  Too  Late   Bertha  Tolman  Gardner  81 

Your  Home  Beautiful Mabel  Margaret  Luke  82 

A  Working  Plan  • Mildred  Tobler  88 

Pioneer  Sugar   Ezra  J.   Poulsen  90 

Happenings    Annie   Wells    Cannon  91 

Relief   Society   Pageant    92 

Building  a  Diet    Lucy   Rose   Middleton  93 

One  Eventful  Night    Isabelle   Blake  95 

A  Prayer  Elsie  E.  Barrett  97 

For  Young  Mothers Holly  Baxter  Keddington  98 

Notes  from  the  Field   99 

Notes  to  the  Field   102 

Editorial — A   Valuable   Practice    104 

1933  a  Record  Year  for  Women   105 

New  Books 106 

Our  Handbook 107 

Sorrow   Carrie  Tanner  107 

Les'son  Department    108 

Treat  the  Members  of  Your  Family  Like  Strangers  Vera  L.  Plant  126 


PUBLISHED  MONTHLY  BY  THE  GENERAL  BOARD  OF 

RELIEF  SOCIETY 

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FOR  ALL  SEASONS 

Selected   from  our   extensive   line   of   L.   D.    S.    Garments   we   suggest   the   following 

numbers  for  all  seasons  wear : 

No.     1  New    Style,   ribbed    lgt.   wgt.  ber.  Men's  new  or  old  style....$.300 

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In  ordering,  be  sure  to  specify  whether  old  or  new  style  garments,  short  legs  and 
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SALT  LAKE  CITY.  UTAH 


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THREE  BROTHERS,  OR  THREE  WISE  MEN,  ZION  NATIONAL  PARK 


Socially 
Correct 

and 

Always 
Appropriate 


Congratulations  by  Postal  Lelegraph 

Whether  it  be  to  the  happy  mother  and  proud 
father  of  the  baby  just  arrived  ...  or  to  someone 
whose  birthday  it  is  today  ...  or  to  the  joyful  couple 
just  married  ...  or  to  dear  friends  who  are  celebrating 
their  wedding  anniversary  —  the  congratulatory 
telegram*  is  always  appropriate  and  appreciated. 
Moreover,  it  is  extremely  easy  to  send  a  telegram — 
just  go  to  your  telephone,  ask  the  operator  for  Postal 
Telegraph,  and  dictate  your  message  —  the  charges 
will  appear  on  your  regular  telephone  bill. 

*   Congratulatory  telegrams  are  delivered  on  specially  designed  blanks  in  special  em-elopes. 


THE  INTERNATIONAL  SYSTEM 


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n  O  Mr  to  increase 

YOUR  LIFE 
EARNINGS 


Charts  prepared  by  Edward  W. 
Lord,  Dean  of  the  College  of  Busi- 
ness Administration  at  Boston  Uni- 
versity, show  that  the  high  school 
graduate  earns  a  total  life  income  of 
$78,000.00.  The  graduate  of  the 
college  or  technical  school  earns  a 
total  life  income  of  $150,000.00. 

A  college-grade  business  course, 
after  high  school,  will  help  you  in 
securing  a  beginning  position,  and 
increase  your  life  earnings. 

Many  graduates  of  this  school  now 
hold  responsible  executive  positions. 
Write  or  call  L.  D.  S.  Business  College 
for  further  details  of  our  plan  for 
training  and  placing  high  school 
graduates  in  the  field  of  business. 

Address 

L.  D.  S.  BUSINESS 
COLLEGE 

SALT  LAKE  CITY 

A  Visit  to  our  School  Will 
Convince  You — 

When  Buying  Mention  Relief  Society  Magazine 


When  Little  cUhin^s  have 
Fortified  the  Wctf 

By  Bertha  A.  Kleinman 

The  weighty  tasks  of  power  and  endurance, 

I  am  not  called  to  shoulder  every  day, 
These  I  shall  meet  with  courage  and  assurance, 

When  little  things  have  fortified  the  way. 

The  ensigns  lifted  over  spire  and  steeple, 

The  hero  strokes  that  blazon  land  and  sea, 
The  sacrifice  for  kindred,  tongues  and  people, 

Are  not  for  toilers  of  the  soil  like  me. 

For  me  the  little  wearisome  exactions, 

The  grilling,  drilling  hourly  demand, 
The  duty  filled  and  beauty  drained  transactions, 

That  over  yet  and  over  must  be  planned. 

Tis  thus  the  threads  are  felted  into  cable, 

The  timbered  coil  that  harnesses  the  sea ; 

To  do  at  best  the  little  I  am  able, 

I  shall  not  fail  when  big  things  summon  me. 


jgXgJ 


DR.  GRACE  RAYMOND  HEBARD 


The 


belief  Society3  eMa^azine 


Vol.  XXI  FEBRUARY,  1934  No.  2 


A  Path-Breaker  in  Woman's  Activities 

By  Lorene  Pearson 

WE   THINK   of   pioneers   as  in  spite  of  obstacles.     Only  this  as- 

those  brave  men  and  wo-  pect  of  ardent  life-long  activity  set 

men    who   took    household  her  apart  from  the  younger  men  and 

goods,  weapons  and  a  plough  and  women   hurrying   to   eight   o'clock 

trekked  out  into  the  wilderness  to  classes. 

establish   homes.      But    there   were  Carrying  her  seventy  years  very 

others,  quite  as  fearless  and  as  ten-  lightly  upon  her  shoulders  Dr.  Grace 

acious  of  purpose  as  these  frontiers-  Raymond  Hebard  ascended  the  steps 

men.    They  were  the  trailmakers  in  and    disappeared    into    Old    Main 

the  fields  of  activity  for  women —  Building. 

brave  pioneers  in  a  new  world.  Climbing  the  stairs  to  her  rooms 
Among  these  women  there  are  on  the  second  floor,  I  reviewed  what 
none,  perhaps,  more  worthy  of  the  I  knew  of  her  life.  At  the  age  of  nine 
name  of  "pathbreaker"  than  Dr.  she  was  left  fatherless  on  the  fron- 
Grace  Raymond  Hebard.  A  child  of  tier  of  Iowa.  And  although  she  had 
rugged  pioneers  she  had  trekked  her  the  advantage  of  an  unusual  spiritual 
way  courageously  into  new  fields  for  influence,  her  father  having  been  a 
the  fairer  sex,  step  by  step,  to  the  minister,  she  also  had  the  disad- 
head  of  the  Department  of  Political  vantage  that  attends  a  family  of  a 
Economy,  Finance  and  Sociology  missionary — little  remuneration  for 
in  the  University  of  Wyoming.  services.  By  dint  of  much  manage- 
It  was  with  this  knowledge  of  the  ment  the  mother  and  her  four  child- 
distinguished  woman  that  I  drew  ren  moved  to  the  University  town  of 
near  Old  Main  Building  on  the  Uni-  Iowa  where  the  children  were  edu- 
versity  campus.    Students  were  hur-  cated. 

rying  to  classes,  tripping  up  the  old  AT  a  very  early  age  Grace  Hebard 

stone  steps  with  the  enviable  enthu-  recognized   the   limitations   set 

siasm  of  youth.     Then  I  noticed  a  upon  the  activities  of  women ;  it  was 

woman,  walking  along  at  the  same  an  unheard  of  ambition  that  a  girl 

rapid  pace,  a  familiar  brief  case  held  should  want  to  or  should  even  be  able 

firmly  under  her  arm.     She  was  as  to  compete  in  the  economic  world 

eager  in  attitude  as  the  students  but  with  men.    But  here  was  a  vast  field, 

there  was  a  difference ;  every  move-  a   wilderness   to   women,    why  not 

ment  spoke  of  accomplishment,  of  strike  out  and  break  a  path  for  others 

the  joy  of  extended  determination  to  follow?  Once  her  mind  was  made 


72 


RELIEF   SOCIETY   MAGAZINE 


up  nothing  could  deter  her  from 
fighting  the  thing  through  to  its  con- 
clusion— a  necessary  attribute  to  the 
successful  pioneer. 

Her  first  definite  step  in  this  direc- 
tion was  to  register  in  the  Univers- 
ity in  the  College  of  Engineering. 
This  action  was  attended  by  the  usual 
doubts  and  admonishings  that  attend 
every  new  movement.  But  without 
swerving  in  the  least  from  her  pur- 
pose the  young  woman  graduated  in 
1882,  receiving  the  first  Bachelor  of 
Science  degree  ever  given  to  a  wo- 
man by  that  institution.  She  was 
employed  immediately  in  the  Capitol 
of  Wyoming  at  Cheyenne,  as  a 
draftsman  in  the  Surveyor  General's 
office. 

But  she  was  not  content — pioneers 
never  are — with  just  one  new 
achievement,  not  when  there  were 
so  many  things  that  needed  doing  in 
the  new  state.  Gradually  her  in- 
terest became  active  in  educational 
affairs.  She  was  appointed  a  trustee 
for  the  University  of  Wyoming  and 
removed  to  Laramie,  having  com- 
pleted nine  years  of  service  as  a 
draftsman.  She  was  the  first  woman 
to  be  a  trustee  of  Wyoming's  institu- 
tion of  higher  learning;  another 
break  into  the  wilderness  of  activities 
for  women 

Miss  Hebard  received  a  Doctor 
of  Philosophy  degree  from  Illinois 
Wesleyan  in  1893  in  preparation  for 
her  future  services  to  the  University. 
She  has  been  with  the  University  to 
the  present  time,  first  as  trustee,  then 
as  librarian,  teacher  and  professor 
and  finally  as  head  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Political  Economy  and 
Finance. 

Standing  on  the  landing  for  a  mo- 
ment out  toward  the  Snowy  Range 
glistening  in  the  morning  sunlight 
12,000  feet  above  the  tides,  I  recalled 
the   numberless   activities    she    had 


undertaken  in  addition  to  her  teach- 
ing and  executive  work.  In  1898  she 
was  admitted  to  the  Wyoming  bar, 
the  first  woman  to  have  the  privilege 
of  practicing  law  in  the  state;  in 
1914  she  was  accorded  the  right  to 
appear  before  the  Supreme  Court  of 
the  state.  And  not  all  these  activities 
were  confined  to  serious  fields;  she 
was  the  first  woman  to  hold  golf  and 
tennis  championships  in  the  state. 

'^'OT  long  after  her  arrival  at  the 
University  she  turned  her  in- 
terest to  the  undeveloped  field  of 
Wyoming  and  Western  history  and 
Government,  with  special  emphasis 
on  their  educational  value.  There 
was  obviously  a  gtea;t  need  for 
histories  and  Civics  to  provide  the 
school  children  and  students  with 
lore  of  their  own  west  and  state. 
Perceiving  this  need  Dr.  Hebard  set 
out  upon  the  tremendous  task  of 
alleviating  it.  Indefatigably  she 
continued  her  research,  here  and 
there  wherever  a  clue  led  her.  She 
traveled  to  interview  people,  to  lo- 
cate diaries,  letters,  pictures  for  her 
books.  As  a  result  she  published 
Pathbreakers  From  River  to  Ocean, 
which  has  gone  through  its  sixth  edi- 
tion, testifying  to  the  gap  it  filled  in 
the  educational  world.  Other  texts 
on  Civics  and  Government  of  Wyo- 
ming, and  references  for  teaching 
history  by  counties  in  the  state  were 
added  to  her  lists. 

A  story  is  told  of  a  trip  she  made 
to  the  town  of  Lander,  Wyoming, 
a  long  trip  in  the  time  of  teams  and 
wagons.  Dr.  Hebard  maintained 
that  Thomas  Fitzpatrick  was  the  first 
white  man  to  cross  the  Rocky 
Mountains,  South  Pass,  near 
Lander,  is  not  obviously  a  low  point 
and  might  easily  be  crossed  without 
the  realization  that  the  back-bone  of 
the  mountains  had  been  reached. 
Clues    in    her    research    led    Miss 


A    PATHBREAKER 


73 


Hebard  to  the  conclusion  that  Fitz- 
patrick  had  gone  over  South  Pass 
without  realizing  it.  To  test  this 
theory  out  for  herself,  she  hired  a 
team  and  buggy  and  was  driven  over 
the  Pass.  Even  when  she  was  look- 
ing for  it  she  did  not  know  when  the 
high  point  was  reached  and  descent 
begun  on  the  west  slope.  Her  theory 
was  entirely  tenable.  This  is  a  sam- 
ple of  her  thoroughness  in  investiga- 
tion. 

I-JER  later  years  have  been  em- 
ployed, outside  the  heavy 
schedule  of  teaching,  in  preparing 
books  of  research  on  early  western 
history.  Her  latest  and  ninth  book, 
Saca jawed,  has  just  come  off  the 
press.  The  story  of  the  Indian  wo- 
man guide  to  the  famous  expedition 
of  Lewis  and  Clark  in  1804-06  is  one 
of  thrilling  interest.  Practically  no- 
thing was  known  of  Sacajawea  after 
she  left  the  employ  of  the  Captains 
until  Dr.  Hebard  disclosed  her  later 
years,  her  burial  place  in  Wyoming 
and  her  unknown  record  of  service 
to  the  United  States  in  the  second 
half  of  her  life,  in  this  unique  book. 

I  recalled  as  I  came  to  the  door 
of  her  office  an  interesting  story  con- 
nected with  her  earlier  life.  Her 
publisher,  wishing  to  confer  on  cer- 
tain problems  in  connection  with  her 
text  books,  came  one  day  to  her 
Laramie  residence.  Dr.  Hebard 
answered  the  door.  "I  have  come," 
said  the  gentleman,  "to  see  Dr. 
Hebard.    I  wonder  if  he  is  in." 

Even  when  told  he  could  not  be- 
lieve that  a  woman  had  been  writing 
the  books  on  American  government 
and  civics,  or  that  a  woman  should 
have  a  Doctor  of  Philosophy  degree, 
nor  that  one  so  young  could  have 
either  distinction.  It  was  a  com- 
mentary on  the  unusualness  of  Dr. 
Hebard's  achievements. 

I    could   readily   understand    the 


publisher's  incredulity  as  I  opened 
the  door  and  faced  this  woman  path- 
breaker.  But  once  inside  there 
seemed  nothing  at  all  unusual  about 
the  matter.  Dr.  Hebard  "belong- 
ed." The  unusual  aspect  lay  in  her 
own  determination  and  hard  work. 

She  was  busily  at  work  on  a  new 
book,  her  shoulders  still  erect,  as  I 
came  in.     Her  plain,  neat  suit  sug- 
gested that  her  major  interest  was  in 
other   things   than    self-adornment. 
On  a  chair  nearby  lay  the  brief  case 
that  is  familiar  to  all  who  meet  her 
on  the  street  or  on  the  walks  be- 
tween the  Campus  and  her  home. 
On  the  walls  were  innumerable  maps, 
some  of  her  own  drafting.    An  old 
ox-yoke,  relic  of  the  great  westward 
migration,  took  its  place  against  the 
wall  with  rows  of  books.    Out  of  the 
windows  could  be  seen  the  rugged 
mountains    that    border    the    high 
Laramie  Valley  on  all  but  one  side. 
It  was  significant  that  Dr.  Hebard 
should  be  connected  with  the  Uni- 
versity placed  highest  in  altitude  in 
the  United  States;  beyond  the  edge 
of  the  town  the  country  had  a  wild, 
unconquered  aspect,  quite  the  setting 
for  a  woman  who  welcomed  strug- 
gles as  necessary  to  any  career  of 
distinction. 

J}R.  HEBARD  rose  from  her 
work,  a  straight,  wiry  woman, 
energy  in  every  movement.  In  a 
crisp,  concise  voice,  used  so  long  to 
command  attention,  she  asked  my 
mission.  Many  years  of  interrup- 
tions had  left  no  irritation  to  my  re- 
quest for  an  interview.  We  were 
seated  immediately  ready  to  begin 
our  talk. 

I  realized  almost  instantly  that 
here  was  no  dreamer.  Her  hands 
were  long  and  capable,  the  hands  of 
the  craftsman,  handling  the  instru- 
ments of  the  engineer.  Her  features 
had  the  keeness  of  the  practical  peo- 
ple who  pioneered  successfully  as  the 


74 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


frontiers  moved  westward.  Seven 
generations  ago  an  adventuring  fore- 
father landed  at  Salem,  Massa- 
chusetts. The  ruggedness  and  per- 
severance of  the  successive  genera- 
tions of  frontiersmen  were  all  writ- 
ten in  the  face  of  Dr.  Hebard. 

When  I  ventured  that  the  doors 
of  most  professions  had  been  closed 
to  women  when  she  began  her  career, 
she  replied  in  that  delightful  vein  of 
humor  that  runs  through  her  con- 
versation, "The  doors  hadn't  yet 
been  pushed  open  by  women,  that 
was  all." 

OEHIND  this  facetious  remark  I 
caugth  a  glimpse  of  the  in- 
domitable spirit  that  makes  for 
greatness.  No  man  or  woman  has 
had  distinction  come  to  them  with- 
out infinite  labor,  great  sacrifices  and 
above  all  the  determination  to  ac- 
complish a  task  set  out  to  do.  And 
added  to  this  the  courage  to  branch 
out  into  new  fields.    She  said  to  me, 

"Many  people  today  think  there 
are  no  more  opportunities  to  pioneer 
since  free  land  has  all  been  fenced 
in.  The  fields  of  thought  and  science 
and  history  have  scarcely  been 
scratched ;  education  has  much  to 
offer  for  the  person  interested  in  the 
improvement  of  teaching;  I  could 
go  on  indefinitely  in  almost  any  di- 
rection and  point  out  new  things  to 
be  done." 

Confronting  her  there  behind  the 
manuscripts  and  notes  on  her  desk 
I  felt  the  truth  of  her  words ;  when 
she  was  young  there  must  have  been 
many  people  who  could  see  no  op- 
portunities. And  although  my  first 
impression  of  Dr.  Hebard — that  she 
was  no  dreamer — ,  still  seemed  true, 
I  could  see  that  she  had  vision ;  only 
foresight  could  have  guided  her  to 
so  many  distinguished  accomplish- 
'  ments. 

I   asked,   "What  has  been   your 


guiding    principle    through    your 
lifer 

"Investigation,"  she  said.  "I  have 
believed  nothing  until  I  have  worked 
it  out  for  myself." 

Her  alert  expression,  her  capable 
hands  lying  restlessly  among  her 
papers  combined  to  give  substantial- 
ity to  her  words.  How  many  people, 
I  thought,  accept  the  dictates  of 
others  without  qestioning  the  ad- 
visibility  of  following  them.  She 
continued, 

"As  long  as  you  imitate  someone 
else  you  are  not  progressing.  If  you 
want  to  get  ahead  and  do  something 
worthwhile,  you  will  have  to  use 
your  own  initiative.  I  suppose  it  has 
something  to  do  with  faith  in  the 
validity  of  your  own  ideas."  After 
a  moment's  reflection  she  added, 
"But  don't  think  branching  out  for 
yourself  is  easy.  The  paths  through 
primeval  forests  have  usually  been 
laboriously  hewn  out  with  a  hand 
ax." 

We  were  interrupted  by  one  of 
her  students.  He  had  come  in  with 
a  clipping  which  carried  informa- 
tion he  thought  he  might  like  to 
work  on  in  the  historical  field.  Dr. 
Hebard  encouraged  him,  as  inspired 
teachers  can,  to  go  on  with  his  in- 
terest. He  went  out  afire  with  a 
vision  of  his  project.  It  cannot  be 
adequately  reported  how  much  en- 
thusiasm for  work  comes-  from  as- 
sociation with  this  woman.  To  be 
in  her  presence  for  a  few  moments 
is  to  leave,  potent  with  stimulation 
to  set  out  on  a  new  path  with  zeal 
and  joy.  It  was  evident  that  here 
was  no  ordinary  teacher;  here  was 
an  urgent  force  that  inspired  better 
effort. 

Later  I  had  the  rare  privilege  to 
be  admitted  to  Dr.  Hebard's  house. 
It  is  a  quaint  roomy  structure  painted 
in  a  soft  gray  with  a  bright  rust 
colored  roof;  symbolic,  I  thought, 


j 

i 
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! 

1 

■»  -      •    i  _; 

2*-:  ■     '     KJ 

■jL  — -i 

4k 

■  f 

SB 

H'/uff&  'i 

■■■  .. .  ,    : 

liBl 

- 

:■  ■'!■%;   ' 

The  Shoshone  Indians  gathered  to  hear  Dr.  Hebard  give  the  dedicatory  address  at  the  un- 
veiling of  the  tablet  for  the  Bishop  Randall  Chapel  (the  log  buildng  in  the  picture)  in 
commemoration  of  the  day  in  1873  when  the  famous  Bishop  himself  baptized  four  of 
Sacajawea's  grandchildren. 


of  the  beauty  and  wisdom  of  her 
years  of  work,  gray — thoughtful, 
and  of  her  never  failing  freshness 
and  eagerness  of  the  student  just  be- 
ginning life,  bright — visionary. 

Inside  the  house  there  is  the  in- 
stant atmosphere  of  repose,  the  com- 
forting quiet  of  a  refuge.  On  the 
walls  are  rare  pictures  of  historical 
value,  and  works  of  art.  Bright  In- 
dian rugs  are  scattered  on  the  floor 
before  easy  chairs  that  invite  the  be- 
holder to  pause  and  read  the  rare 
books  in  the  bookcases  by  the  door. 

T  KNEW  that  every  Christmas  the 
house  became  gay  with  the  laugh- 
ter of  young  girls.  It  has  become  a 
tradition  that  all  the  girls  in  the 
dormitories  who  are  unable  to  go  to 
their  own  homes  for  the  holidays  are 
to  have  Christmas  dinner  with  Dr. 
Hebard.  After  the  feast  there  is  a 
picture  show  and  then  candy-mak- 
ing in  the  kitchen  of  the  gray  house 
with  the  bright  rust-colored  roof. 

But  the  real  heart  of  the  house  is 
Dr.  Hebard's  study.  Here,  in  what 
her  housekeeper  calls  "the  jungle," 
are  the  multitudinous  notes  of  the 
book  she  is  engaged  upon.  Here, 
in  the  mellowed  late  afternoon  light, 
you  sense  the  sweetness  of  the  hours 
of  patient  work  she  has  devoted  to 
the   saving  of  historical   treasures. 


On  her  desk  lay  a  volume  of 
Sacajawea,  just  from  the  publisher. 
It  was  the  result  of  thirty  years  of 
work  and  many  of  the  hours  spent 
in  its  preparation  were  consummated 
here,  in  the  heart  of  her  house. 

From  the  window  of  the  study  is  a 
view  of  her  lovely  garden,  cultivated 
with  great  difficulty  in  this  high  al- 
titude, but  flourishing,  as  everything 
that  she  has  touched. 

It  was  obvious  that  all  these  ac- 
complishments, the  books,  the  active 
interests  in  suffrage,  the  garden,  the 
tireless  and  endless  help  given  to 
students,  came  not  from  an  idle  life. 
She  must  have  spent  tremendous 
effort  every  day  of  her  existence  to 
have  realized  them  all.  "Yes,"  she 
admitted,  "I've  wasted  no  time  sleep- 
ing in  the  mornings." 

She  showed  me  some  of  her  most 
priceless  historical  treasures.  Turn- 
ing the  leaves  of  the  remarkable 
diary  of  John  Hunton,  a  man  who 
was  directly  connected  with  Fort 
Laramie  on  the  Oregon  trail  for 
many  years,  a  glow  of  satisfaction 
colored  her  face.  "There  is  great 
happiness,"  she  said,  "in  knowing 
that  you  have  saved  something  of 
value  from  obscurity.  Perhaps 
that  is  the  chief  reward  of  the  path- 
breaker,  because,  of  course,  he  is  a 
discoverer." 


rQ\e  eMira^e 

By  Roxana  T.  Hase 
Awarded  Second  Prize  in  the  Eliza  Roxey  Snow  Poetry  Content 

Around  me  miles  and  miles  of  trackless  sands, 

Glistening,  sifted,  wasted,  desert  lands. 

My  throat  grows  parched,  death  stalks  my  weary  wake 

When  through  half-blinded  eyes  I  glimpse  a  lake. 

A  lake !  God  grant  that  I  may  reach  its  brink 

And  in  its  cooling  depths  my  hot  face  sink 

To  wet  my  lips,  my  throat,  my  red-rimmed  eyes, 

I  summon  flagging  strength  to  gain  the  prize 

But  ever  just  ahead  it  beckons  me 

Elusive  as  the  white-caps  of  the  sea. 

Baffled,  I  fall ;  Dear  God,  must  I  die  so  ? 

Never  again  a  cooling  draught  to  know? 

Shall  desert  vultures  feed  on  me  ere  night  ? 

In  fancy  now  I  see  their  circling  flight. 

I,  who  so  love  this  life,  I  cannot  die 

Here  on  these  wretched  wastes  alone  to  lie 

And  bleach  until  white  phantom  hands 

Stretch  forth  and  cover  me  with  drifting  sands 

I  clutch  at  glistening  grains,  desperately  crawl 

Till  flesh  can  stand  no  more,  blindly  I  fall. 

Is  this  the  end  ?    I  feel  my  senses  reel 

Crazily,  like  a  ship  with  broken  keel. 

This  then,  is  death  :  Oblivion  wraps  me  'round 

My  blanket,  blazing  sky,  my  couch,  the  torrid  ground. 

Then  suddenly  a  cry,  and  someone  tips 

A  canteen  to  my  parched  and  swollen  lips, 

Cools  my  hot  face ;  my  throbbing,  aching  brow, 

I  struggle  slowly  back  from  chaos  to  the  now 

Still  thinking  of  that  lake,  then  as  my  senses  clear 

I  know :    'Tis  the  mirage,  the  desert  traveler's  fear ! 

How  like  mirages  are  the  things  of  life 
So  near  and  yet  so  far,  so  filled  with  strife. 
Success  seems  brightly  glittering  just  ahead 
But  when  we  reach  that  spot  we  find  it  fled. 
Passions,  fortunes,  pleasures,  mirages  all  are  they 
Vain  hollow  nothings  beckoning  us  astray 
Until  we  quaff  that  all-sustaining  draught — 
Salvation's  Truths — all  else  must  come  to  naught. 
The  worthwhile  things  are  added  when  we've  learned 
To  follow  Him  whose  teachings  once  were  spurned. 


ROXANA  T.  HASE 


m 


Anne  Brent,  Helpmate 


By  Elsie  C.  Carroll 


III 


ANNE  spent  a  sleepless  night 
after  Suzanne's  special  de- 
livery letter  came,  but  in  the 
morning  her  mind  was  made  up.  She 
must  go  to  Boston  at  once.  She 
must  get  there  before  the  evening 
of  September  first  when  the  Ana- 
conda was  to  sail — with  Suzanne  and 
that  professor  who  had  made  her 
believe  that  companionate  marriage 
was  the  only  kind  in  which  one  could 
keep  the  individual  soul  "free  and  in- 
violate." 

The  letter  had  said  : 

"Mother  this  is  the  only  time  in  my  life 
it  has  ever  been  hard  for  me  to  write  to 
you.  ^  You  have  always  been  so  under- 
standing I  could  feel  sure  you  would 
know  what  I  meant  even  if  I  didn't  know 
how  to  say  it.  But  I  can't  feel  sure  that 
I  can  make  you  understand  what  I  must 
tell  you  now.  But  I  want  to  make  you 
understand,  Mother,  for  T  don't  want  to 
hurt  you  and  Daddy. 

"I  have  told  you  something  about  Hugo 
— Prof.  Louring,  the  exchange  professor 
who  has  tieen  teaching  here  the  last 
quarter.  I  wish  you  knew  him,  Mother. 
He  is  wonderful !  He  sees  life  in  such 
a  big,  broad  way — not  in  the  petty,  per- 
sonal way  most  of  us  look  at  it.  He 
realizes  how  important  it  is  for  the  growth 
of  the  individual,  for  one  to  rise  above 
the  restraints  of  the  little  conventions1 
and  traditions  that  choke  and  smother 
most  lives,  and  keep  them  from  reaching 
the  heights  they  might  attain. 

"If  you  could  only  hear  him  talk,  you 
would  thrill  to  the  new  outlook  he  gives 
to  life,  as  I  do.  He  has  made  me  want 
to  be  true  to  my  highest  possibilities.  He 
has  made  me  determined  to  keep  my  soul 
and  my  life  free  and  he  has  helped  me 
find  the  strength  to  meet  the  consequences 
of  my  convictions. 

"Mother,  I  am  going  to  Europe  with 
Hugo.  We  have  been  drawn  to  each  other 
since  the  first  time  we  met.  We  have 
discovered  that  we  are  soul  mates;  that 
we  can  stimulate  and  each  help  the  other 
in  the  career  that  will  bring  our  fullest 
development.     He  will  bring  me  in  con- 


tact with  the  great  artists  of  the  old 
world,  and  I  will  have  opportunities  I 
have  never  dreamed  of. 

"That  is  just  what  you  want  for  me 
isn't  it  ?  You  and  father  have  worked  and 
sacrificed  to  give  me  this  year  in  Boston, 
and  I  do  appreciate  it.  Without  it  I  never 
would  have  known  what  my  possibilities 
are.  I  would  never  have  found  Hugo  nor 
the  courage  to  be  a  free  soul. 

"This  is  the  part  that  I  am  afraid  will 
hurt  you  and  Dad.  We  are  not  going  to 
be  married  in  the  ordinary  way.  That 
would  cheapen  a  love  like  ours.  It  would 
bind  and  hamper  our  freedom.  Our  love 
is  our  marriage  bond.  We  don't  need  any 
other,  and  if  we  imposed  one  upon  our- 
selves, it  would  destroy  some  of  the 
beauty  of  our  complete  trust  in  each  other. 
Ours  will  be  the  most  sacred  of  all  ties 
because  it  will  be  free. 

"We  will  s'ail  on  the  Anaconda,  Sep- 
tember the  first  at  10  o'clock  in  the  even- 
ing. I  am  sending  this  airmail,  special 
delivery,  hoping  to  receive  your  blessing 
before  I  go.  You  will  try  to  understand, 
won't  you  Mother,  and  help  Dad  to  see 
that  it  is  all  right. 

"I  love  you  all  and  I  don't  want  to  make 
you  unhappy,  but  I  must  be  true  to  my- 
self— and  to  Hugo. 

"Give  me  your  blessing  mother,  and  tell 
me  it  is  all  right 

"Suzanne." 

All  right !  Those  words  had  taken 
the  form  of  a  great  chasm  into  which 
Suzanne  was  about  to  fall. 

Anne  had  paced  her  room  trying 
to  decide  what  to  do. 

She  couldn't  explain  a  thing  like 
that  in  a  telegram  to  Peter.  If  she 
merely  wired  for  him  to  come  home, 
what  good  could  that  do?  If  she 
waited  for  him  to  come,  it  would  be 
too  late  to  do  anything. 

But  how  she  needed  Peter.  She 
needed  the  strength  and  the  calmness 
he  always  commanded  in  times  of 
crises. 

Her  mind  went  back  across  the 
years  since  they  first  discovered 
Suzanne's  gift.    How  they  had  plan- 


ANNE   BRENT;   HELPMATE 


79 


lied  and  saved  to  give  her  her  chance  ! 
And  it  had  led  to  this. 

Why  did  life  play  such  queer 
pranks  on  people? 

At  times  during  the  long  night, 
Anne  would  feel  hysteria  coming  up- 
on her.  She  couldn't  endure  the 
thought  of  her  little  girl  three  thou- 
sand miles  away  on  the  brink  of  this 
ruin.  Then  she  would  force  herself 
into  calm  thinking.  She  must  decide 
what  was  best  to  do. 

She  composed  telegrams  and 
feverish  letters.  But  she  tore  them 
up.  There  seemed  to  be  only  one 
thing  to  do.  That  was  to  try  to  reach 
her  girl  before  it  was  too  late ;  to  see 
her  and  talk  to  her,  to  make  her  com- 
prehend what  she  was  doing. 

As  soon  as  it  was  morning,  Anne 
began  making  her  preparations. 
She  called  Jim  Harker,  the  manager 
of  the  store,  and  told  him  she  must 
have  some  money,  that  Suzanne — 
was  not  well  and  she  must  go  to 
Boston.  She  phoned  for  a  reserva- 
tion on  the  train  and  arranged  for 
her  ticket.  She  packed  her  traveling 
bag.  She  made  out  a  schedule  for 
each  of  the  children — things  for 
which  they  must  be  responsible. 

When  Gloria  and  Quint  came 
down,  surprised  at  being  called  earli- 
er than  usual,  she  made  the  same  ex- 
planation that  she  had  to  Jim,  "Su- 
zanne isn't  well.  I  am  going  to 
Boston." 

''And  she  seemed  so  happy  in  her 
last  letter"  exclaimed  Gloria,  "raving 
about  her  French  professor.  What's 
the  matter?" 

"I  hope  it  isn't  as  serious  as  it 
seems,"  Anne  answered  evasively. 

ALTHOUGH  most  of  Anne's 
mind  was  employed  with  her 
anxiety  about  Suzanne,  there  was  a 
little  corner  of  it  still  worfrying 
about  Quint.  Would  he  have  added 
temptations  with  her  and  his  father 


both  away  ?  Would  his  bed  be  emp- 
ty at  three  or  four  o'clock  in  the 
morning?  Anne  sometimes  thought 
that  the  joys  of  parenthood  were 
pitifully  outweighed  by  the  anxieties 
and  worries.  At  other  times,  how- 
ever, she  was  sure  that  the  pride 
and  satisfaction  derived  from  an 
outstanding  accomplishment  of  some 
member  of  the  family,  or  the  happi- 
ness of  the  every-day  companion- 
ships within  the  home  walls  was 
greater  than  anything  else  in  the 
world. 

When  she  was  ready  to  start  to  the 
station,  Quint,  who  was  to  take  her 
in  the  car  was  being  hurried  so  they 
would  have  time  to  call  at  Jim 
Harker 's  for  the  money.  "I  really 
should  have  asked  Jim  to  have  a 
little  more,"  Anne  said.  "One  never 
knows  what  unexpected  expenses 
may  arise  on  a  trip  like  this." 

Quint  hesitated  a  moment  in  the 
hall,  then  said,  "Wait  a  minute" 
and  dashed  up  stairs.  When  he  came 
down  he  handed  a  worn  purse  to  his 
mother. 

"Maybe  this  will  help  if  you  get  in 
a  tight  place.  There's  seventeen  dol- 
lars and  a  half  in  there."  Then 
noting  the  quick  look  of  alarm  that 
leaped  to  Anne's  eyes,  his  face  color- 
ed and  he  explained  awkwardly. 
"It's  all  right,  Mom.  I  earned  it — 
nights.  Judge  Thomas  got  us  boys 
the  job  of  watching  old  lady  Doak's 
place.  I  nearly  always  had  my  shift 
from  eight  to  nine  so  I  thought  I 
wouldn't  even  tell  you  till  I  had 
enough  to  buy — maybe  something 
nice  for  your  birthday."  Anne's 
heart  was  pounding  with  relief  and 
tenderness. 

"You  said  you  nearly  always 
watched  from  eight  to  nine.  Was  it 
later  sometime?" 

"Gosh,  once  Tom  was  sick  and  his 
mother  came  to  the  store  to  see  if  I'd 
take  his  shift — from  two  to  four.    I 


80 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


thought  sure  you'd  hear  me  and  I'd 
have  to  explain." 

Anne's  arm  went  around  the  boy 
and  she  wiped  her  eyes. 

"You  don't  care,  do  you  Mom? 
What's  the  matter?" 

"I'm  just  happy,  that's  all,  son. 
This  money  will  make  me  feel  safe. 
If  I  don't  need  it  you  shall  have  it 
back." 

When  she  bade  Quint  goodbye  at 
the  station  she  said,  "If  you  should 
have  to  take  a  late  shift  at  Mrs. 
Doak's  while  I'm  gone,  I  believe  you 
had  better  explain  to  Gloria." 

A  S  the  train  speeded  Anne  across 
the  continent,  she  tried  to  main- 
tain an  appearance  of  composure. 
The  first  night  she  slept  from  sheer 
exhaustion.  But  the  next  day  she 
was  in  a  fever  of  anxiety.  During 
the  night  there  had  been  a  delay  of 
four  hours  due  to  a  cloud  burst  some, 
where  ahead.  Her  train  was  sched- 
uled to  reach  Boston  shortly  after 
noon  on  September  the  first.  Now 
it  would  be  five  o'clock.  What  if 
there  should  be  more  delays? 

And  on  the  morning  of  the  last 
day  her  fear  was  realized  The  train 
ground  to  a  stop  where  there  was  no 
sign  of  a  station,  and  after  a  half 
hour's  wait,  the  conductor  came 
through  and  explained  that  there 
had  been  a  collision  on  the  track  a 
few  miles  farther  on  and  they  would 
have  to  wait  for  the  track  to  be 
cleared. 

Although  part  of  the  previously 
lost  time  had  been  made  up,  Anne 
was  frantic  with  anxiety. 

The  minutes  dragged  into  an  hour  ; 
then  into  another.  Finally  she 
sought  the  conductor.  "I  must  get 
to  Boston  before  ten  o'clock.  It's 
most  urgent,"  she  said.  "Isn't  there 
some  way  I  could  go  on  ?" 

"Not  that  I  know  of,  lady.  There's 
an  airport  about  fifty  miles  back. 
But  if  we  wired  for  a  taxi  to  take  you 


there,  you  would  likely  have  used 
more  time  than  we'll  have  to  wait 
here."  He  promised  to  telegraph 
again  to  see  how  much  longer  they 
would  be. 

Anne  tried  to  hold  on  to  herself, 
but  she  kept  wondering  what  she 
would  do  if  she  did  not  get  there 
until  after  the  boat  had  sailed.  She 
wondered,  too,  what  she  would  do  if 
Suzanne  defied  her;  if  that  terrible 
man  scoffed  at  her  and  carried  her 
girl  away  before  her  very  eyes.  It 
all  seemed  like  a  horrible  nightmare. 

At  last  the  train  moved  again.  As 
the  distance  shortened,  Anne  tried  to 
determine  just  what  she  should  do, 
what  she  should  say  when  she  stood 
face  to  face  with  her  girl.  She 
couldn't  treat  Suzanne  as  a  child. 
She  must  not  antagonize.  What 
should  she  do? 

At  last  she  gave  up  trying  to  plan. 
Maybe  God  would  help  her  when  the 
moment  came. 

She  dreaded  the  professor.  He 
must  have  some  unusual  power  to 
have  swept  a  girl  like  Suzanne  off 
her  feet.  She  had  always  been  so 
steady  and  sensible.  Too  sensible, 
Anne  sometimes  thought,  to  get  as 
much  pleasure  from  life  as  Gloria 
would  get. 

HpHE  train  pulled  in  at  the  Boston 
Station  at  8:39.  Anne  was 
slightly  bewildered  by  the  strange- 
ness of  the  place,  but  she  put  aside 
her  feeling  of  timidity  and  incom- 
petence and  found  a  taxi.  As  she 
gave  the  address  to  the  driver,  a  new 
fear  clutched  her.  They  might  have 
gone  already  to  the  boat.  Perhaps 
even  yet  she  would  continue  this  mad 
race  and  arrive  at  the  dock  only  to 
see  the  ship  sailing  away. 

When  she  reached  the  boarding 
house  and  asked  if  Miss  Suzanne 
Brent  was  in,  she  was  informed 
that  she  was  leaving  in  a  very  short 
time  to  sail  for  Europe. 

"I'm  her  mother,"  Anne  explained 


ANNE  BRENT,  HELPMATE  81 

and  she  was  led  to  the  stairway  and  clear  laugh. 

directed  to  Suzanne's  room.  "God  please  tell  me  how  to  do  it," 

She  paused  at  the  door    One  hand  she  breathed  as  she  knocked  at  the 

was  gripping  her  purse  and  small  door.    "Help  me  save  my  girl !" 
traveling  bag.  The  other  she  pressed  The  door  opened  and  she  stood 

against  her  pounding  heart.  looking  into  the  questioning  eyes  of 

From  within  came  the  sound  of  a  tall,  handsome,  stranger, 
voices;  a  man's  voice  and  Suzanne's  {To  be  continued) 


cNot  Too  Late 

By  Beatrice  Tolman  Gardner 

It  has  been  said  that  at  forty 

One's  best  years  have  passed  by, 
But  that  Milton,  Goethe,  Dante  and  others  made  good 

In  later  life  we  cannot  deny. 
Instead  of  picturing  life  as  a  hilltop, 

Wihere  we  slowly  climb  up,  then  descend ; 
Why  not  call  it  a  series  of  terraces, 

Each  higher  than  the  last  to  the  end. 
Make  it  true  by  the  fine  art  of  living, 

With  effort  and  insight  for  growth ; 
Youth  is  for  faith,  old  age  for  trust, 

And  to  reach  the  ultimate  goal  we  must  have  both. 
Youth  is  dogmatic,  exclusive,  intolerant, 

And  satisfied  only  by  deeds ; 
While  age  has  learned  pity,  patience,  charity, 

And  is  interested  in  humanity's  needs. 
Then  let  us  not  feel  that  life's  best  work  is  over 

And  that  we  are  on  life's  hopeless  decline ; 
We  are  older,  richer  and  better, 

Experience  has  made  us  sublime. 
Let  this  richness  of  knowledge  and  understanding, 

Help  us  to  serve  the  whole  race ; 
To  make  the  world  better  and  kinder, 

A  blessing  that  time  can't  efface. 


Your  Home  Beautiful 


By  Mabel  Margaret  Luke 


XI — Slip-Covers  and  Decorative 
Textiles 

WEAVING  is  perhaps  the  old- 
est of  all  arts.  This  is  evi- 
denced in  the  very  ancient 
textiles  that  are  preserved  in  mu- 
seums and  art  galleries,  and  in  the 
paintings  in  Egyptian  tombs  at  least 
five  thousand  years  old  which  depict 
weavers  at  their  looms.  Indeed  we 
also  have  abundant  proof  in  the 
Bible  that  Egypt,  Palestine,  Assyria 
and  other  countries  of  the  East  were 
all  famous  for  their  linens,  many 
handsomely  embroidered,  at  least 
one  thousand  years  before  Christ. 
Silks  are  very  ancient  in  the  Orient, 
and  over  a  thousand  years  ago  they 
were  made  in  Europe.  A  little  later 
Italy  and  France  began  the  manu- 
facture of  wool  tapestries  and  vel- 
vets. The  most  famous  Gobelin 
and  Flemish  tapestries  came  from 
this  period.  From  this  time  on 
weaving  advanced  rapidly  and 
damasks,  brocades,  linens,  and  other 
fabrics  were  produced  until  today 
there  is  a  marvelous  array  of  textiles 
available,  both  in  Europe  and  Amer- 
ica from  which  we  may  choose,  gov- 
erned always  by  appropriateness 
and  most  of  us  more  or  less  by  price. 
Can  you  realize  how  cold,  barren 
and  harsh  our  homes  would  be  with- 
out the  use  of  textiles — curtains, 
rugs,  drapes,  upholstery?  Textiles 
soften  hard  lines,  they  enliven  a 
room  and  add  warmth  and  grace. 
They  have  a  vitalizing  influence. 
More  than  this  they  deaden  or  absorb 
sound.  Have  you  ever  noticed  the 
noise  and  resonance  of  a  room  at 
housecleaning  time  when  all  the  rugs 
were  out  and  curtains  down  ?  It  has 
an  empty  sound.     This  is  noticeable 


to  a  smaller  extent  even  when  the 
curtains  are  down.  With  them  all 
back  in  place  we  can  breathe  easily 
once  more,  the  charm  and  homelike 
quality  have  returned.  Home  deco- 
ration would  be  impossible  without 
textiles,  and  their  correct  employ- 
ment is  one  of  the  most  important 
single  factors  in  interior  decora- 
tion. 

/~~PEXTILES  have  certain  qualities 
which  must  be  taken  into  con- 
sideration when  choosing  them  for 
your  home.  These  qualities  are 
texture,  scale,  movement,  pattern 
and  color.  Texture  comes  from 
the  Latin  and  means  weave,  and  is 
certainly  the  most  outstanding  char- 
acteristic of  any  textile.  It  refers 
to  the  roughness  or  smoothness,  or 
to  the  feel  and  appearance  of  the 
material.  Next  in  importance  is 
scale  because  the  design  must  not 
only  harmonize  with  the  character 
of  the  room,  but  to  the  size  as  well. 
Large  patterns  must  not  be  used  in 
small  rooms  nor  on  small  articles. 
The  weave  of  the  material  also  gives 
it  a  certain  weight-scale,  making  it 
heavy  or  light  in  appearance  and 
this  weight  effect  must  be  taken  into 
consideration  when  selecting  textiles. 
For  instance,  a  deep  pile  weave  looks 
heavier  than  one  of  smooth  surface. 
Therefore,  a  small  room  should  con- 
tain very  little,  if  any  deep  textured 
material  or  it  will  appear  stuffy — tne 
texture  would  be  out  of  scale  with 
the  size  of  the  room.  If  the  material 
is  patterned  the  pattern  should  agree 
in  scale  with  the  texture,  that  is,  if 
the  pattern  is  large  there  should  be 
a  heavier  weave,  or  a  small  close 
weave  suggests  a  small  pattern.     It 


YOUR    HOME    BEAUTIFUL 


83 


might  be  said  in  passing,  however, 
that  a  design  will  appear  larger  on 
a  smooth,  close  weave  than  on  a 
rough,  or  open  weave.  Weave,  to 
a  certain  extent,  modifies  the  value  of 
a  pattern,  it  seems  to  sink  into  the 
weave  and  is  not  so  apparent.  Close 
weaves  such  as  satin,  because  of  the 
smoothness  and  compactness  of  its 
surface,  reflect  the  light  while 
loose  weaves  absorb  it.  This  fact 
must  be  taken  into  consideration  in 
the  use  of  textiles  in  rooms  without 
much  light. 

If  there  is  design  in  the  textile  be 
sure  that  the  movement  is  in  the 
right  direction  or  that  there  is  not 
too  much  movement.  Often  a  de- 
sign, distracting  in  itself,  will  look 
very  nice  when  hung  in  folds  so  that 
the  eye  is  not  pulled  in  any  one 
direction. 

In  color  one,  of  course,  is  govern- 
ed principally  by  the  scheme  of  the 
room  and  the  suitability  to  period. 
If  you  have  no  definite  scheme  in 
mind  for  your  room  many  sugges- 
tions may  be  secured  from  the  tex- 
tiles themselves — a  yard  of  cretonne, 
a  square  of  Chinese  embroidery,  an 
Oriental  prayer  rug,  or  a  beautiful 
tapestry  may  be  magnified  into  a 
fine  room  scheme  by  following  the 
suggested  combinations  of  hues  for 
your  room's  furnishings  and  acces- 
sories. 

'TWERE  are  three  fundamental 
weaves — -plain,  twill  and  satin. 
The  first  is  one  in  which  the  weft 
threads  go  over  and  under  the  warp, 
as  in  scrim,  burlap,  muslin,  etc.,  or 
a  ribbed  effect  is  produced  by  coarse 
wefts  and  fine  warps  as  in  rep  and 
poplin.  In  a  twill  weave  there  are 
three  sets  of  warp  threads  which 
show  in  diagonal  lines.  In  a  satin 
weave  there  are  five  or  more  warp 
threads  which  are  the  only  threads 
shown  on  the  right  side. 


Velvet  is  woven  in  such  a  way 
that  there  is  a  high  standing  pile 
above  ,the  ground  of  the  good's. 
Trade  names  have  been  given  to 
fabrics  coming  under  this  classifica- 
tion to  distinguish  the  different 
weaves :  Velvet  is  a  closely  woven 
fabric,  with  a  short-standing  pile, 
either  cut  or  looped.  Velour  has  a 
more  open  weave,  short  pile,  and 
usually  contains  little  silk.  Plush 
has  an  open  weave  and  deeper  pile 
than  velour,  but  contains  no  silk  and 
is  the  least  expensive  type.  Frieze 
is  a  velvet  weave,  made  of  linen, 
wool  and  other  yarn  in  which  the 
pile  is  looped  and  uncut.  It  is  very 
suitable  and  smart  for  upholstery, 
being  used  on  fine  furniture  to  a 
greater  extent  than  mohair,  a  ma- 
terial made  from  the  hair  of  Angora 
goats,  and  very  similar  to  plush. 

Damask  is  a  fabric  in  which  the 
lines  of  the  weave  in  the  background 
run  in  one  direction  and  the  lines 
of  the  pattern  in  a  contrasting  direc- 
tion, usually  at  right  angles.  The 
pattern  on  both  sides  is  alike  but 
the  colors  are  reversible. 

Brocatelle  is  a  damask  weave 
woven  in  such  a  way  that  the  figures 
stand  out,  resulting  in  an  embossed 
design. 

Brocade  is  woven  embroidery  in 
which  the  threads  of  the  design  are 
floated  over  on  the  reverse  side. 

Hand  blocked  linen  can  be  recog 
nized  by  the  unevenness  of  color,  or 
by  irregularities — the  edges  of  the 
pattern  are  very  seldom  even. 
Hand-blocked  linens  require  much 
time  and  skill  in  the  making  and, 
therefore,  are  very  expensive.  One 
can,  however,  frequently  secure 
machine-blocked  linens  that  are  very 
lovely. 

Chintz  is  a  printed  cotton  fabric 
of  close  weave  and  usually  small 
pattern.  It  is  of  Hindu  origin  and 
means  "many  colored."    Cretonne  is 


84 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


a  printed  cotton,  linen  and  cotton  or 
linen  fabric,  usually  of  coarse  tex- 
ture and  larger  scale  pattern.  It 
comes  from  the  French  word  Cre- 
tan, a  French  village  noted  for  its 
weaving.  The  terms  are  often  used 
interchangeably.  The  original  cre- 
tonne, however,  usually  contained 
linen  in  some  part  of  its  composition, 
and  the  pattern  was  larger  than  the 
English  chintz.  Chintz  may  be 
glazed,  cretonne  never  is. 

Toile  de  Jouy  is  a  linen  or  cotton 
closely  woven  material  on  which  are 
printed  landscape  scenes.  The  fig- 
ures are  usually  set  far  apart  a  great 
deal  of  the  background  appearing. 
It  derived  its  name  from  the  town 
of  Jouy  in  France  where  it  was  first 
manufactured.  It  is  very  lovely  in 
Colonial  interiors. 

When  referring  to  a  piece  of 
goods  it  is  called  by  its  weave  no 
matter  of  what  material  it  is  made. 
For  instance,  damask  refers  to  the 
weave  and  it  may  be  of  cotton,  linen 
silk  or  wool,  or  any  combination  of 
them. 

COWING  to  lack  of  space  it  is 
impossible  to  take  up  in  detail 
distinguishing  characteristics  o  f 
every  type  of  material.  However, 
a  few  suggestions  on  buying  might 
be  given : 

When  buying  materials  for  glass 
curtains  draw  out  a  thread  or  two. 
If  they  will  pull  out  in  either  direc- 
tion it  is  scrim  or  voile.  Grenadine, 
gauze  or  marquisette  differ  in  that 
threads  can  be  pulled  out  in  one 
direction  only,  and  nets  are  locked  in 
both  directions  and  are  the  firmest 
and  strongest  of  the  group,  will  last 
longer  and  launder  better.  They 
are  most  expensive  so  be  sure  you 
get  net  when  you  pay  for  it. 

In  buying  chintz  or  cretonne  cau- 
tion should  be  observed.  The  cheap- 
er fabrics  are  apt  to  fade  quickly, 


and  if  of  stiff  texture  will  hot  hang 
gracefully.  Do  not  be  misled  by  the 
name,  for  instance,  tapestry  cretonne 
refers  only  to  the  pattern ;  linenized 
cretonne  will  provide  a  satisfactory 
substitute  for  linen  if  it  is  bought 
at  cretonne  prices.  Guard  against 
jute-filled  cretonne. 

Sunlight  is  injurious  to  most  silks. 
They  should,  therefore,  be  lined, 
Soft  textured  silks  will  wear  better 
than  the  stiff,  or  filled  silk.  Again, 
do  not  be  misled  by  assuming  a  ma- 
terial is  silk  if  called  damask,  velvet 
or  taffeta. 

Tapestry  is  a  heavy,  hand-woven 
ribbed  fabric  in  a  plain  weave,  alike 
on  both  sides.  On  the  wrong  side  it 
may  have  an  occasional  loose  thread. 
Tapestry  may  be  made  of  wool  or 
cotton  and  if  chosen  with  care  will 
become  a  heirloom  in  your  family. 
Many  fabrics  are  called  tapestry 
because  of  their  design,  not  weave. 
When  buying  avoid  the  common 
type  in  which  the  background  is 
loosely  woven  from  soft  yarns  and 
will  not  wear  with  the  body  of  the 
cloth.  Always  in  selecting  tapestries 
the  furniture  and  room  in  which  it 
is  to  be  used  must  be  considered. 

Before  buying  textiles  it  is  wise- 
est  to  try  out  several  pieces  in  the 
place  where  they  are  to  be  used,  in 
both  artificial  and  natural  light.  What 
looks  well  in  the  shop  may  not 
be  at  all  suitable  to  the  article  on 
which  it  is  to  be  used  or  to  the  room. 
It  is  always  advisable  to  experiment. 

HpHE  best  upholstered  furniture 
is  sold  with  denim  covering,  the 
finer  covering  to  be  chosen  by  the 
buyer  to  suit  himself  and  his  home. 
In  the  home,  too,  we  must  often 
meet  the  problem  of  recovering  old 
furniture.  In  choosing  a  material 
with  which  to  do  this  one  must  con- 
sider, form,  style  and  wood  of  the 
article  to  be  covered,  the  amount  of 


YOUR    HOME    BEAUTIFUL 


85 


wear  it  is  to  have,  the  sort  of  room 
in  which  it  is  to  be  used,  and  scale, 
color  and  texture.  It  should  be 
selected  because  of  its  beauty, 
harmony  of  color  and  appropriate- 
ness of  design,  and  the  quality  of 
texture  and  its  ability  to  retain  its 
luster  and  beauty  through  years  of 
wear.  For  example,  a  Louis  XVI 
chair  in  ivory  enamel  and  gilt  would 
be  incongruous  if  covered  in  a  rough 
tapestry  in  dark,  rich  colors.  Such 
a  chair  would  call  for  a  brocade  in 
light,  delicate  tints,  or  a  thin-striped 
silk,  or  a  light  colored  satin,  and 
would,  of  course,  be  used  in  a  draw- 
ing room  or  boudoir.  The  tapestry 
would  be  more  suitable  on  a  sturdy 
chair  of  English  Oak.  Common 
sense  will  guide  one  in  choosing 
material  for  use.  One  would  not 
choose  a  lovely  damask  of  delicate 
coloring  in  a  room  which  has  con- 
stant and  hard  usage. 

Anyone  who  is  handy  can  do  up- 
holstering or  recovering  work  at 
home.  A  few  directions  might  be 
of  value.  To  upholster  a  chair  seat 
the  first  thing  to  do  is  to  remove 
all  the  old  upholstery  and  web 
strongly  crossing  over  so  that  there 
are  at  least  four  strong  strips, 
stretched  tightly.  Cover  with  can- 
vas and  tack.  Loop  a  string  from 
one  tack  to  another.  Lay  on  the 
cleaned  stuffing  evenly,  under  the 
strings  and  in  the  center.  An  under 
covering  the  proper  size  should  be 
tacked  over,  the  back  corners  cut  to 
fit  the  uprights,  and  pulled  down  as 
tightly  as  possible.  Then  the  final 
covering  is  tacked  on.  It  may  be 
finished  with  a  banding  and  studs 
if  desired.  Loose  seats  are  handled 
in  the  same  way  except  the  final  cov- 
ering is  tacked  on  the  under  side  of 
the  seat,  beginning  at  the  center  and 
working  toward  the  corners  which 
are  doubled  and  tacked  back.  ' 

In    covering    an    easy   chair    the 


front  of  the  chair  back  is  covered 
first  and  tacked  the  shape  of  the 
chair,  the  wings,  if  any,  being  cover- 
ed in  the  same  way,  then  the  arms, 
the  material  being  tacked  on  the  un- 
der side,  the  back  of  the  uprights 
and  round  the  polished  wood,  using 
fine  gimp  pins.  The  back  of  the 
wings  are  then  covered  and  tacked 
to  the  back  upright.  The  seat  is 
next  covered,  the  material  being 
tacked  close  to  the  moulding,  then 
a  piece  is  pinned  to  the  outside  back 
and  stitched  on.  The  tacked  edge 
at  the  moulding  is  covered  with  a 
banding  of  the  material  long  enough 
to  go  around  the  chair. 

Time  was  when  slip  covers  were 
strictly  utilitarian  affairs,  bulky  in 
fit  and  drab  in  coloring,  whose  only 
purpose  was  to  protect  the  furniture 
from  dust  and  dirt  during  vacation 
time.  Now,  however,  brilliant  in 
hue  and  interesting  in  pattern  they 
lend  a  decidedly  decorative  note  to 
any  room.  They  furnish  color,  con- 
ceal worn  upholstery,  unify  odd 
pieces,  provide  variety  in  furnishing, 
restore  to  use  furniture  worn  or 
discarded  because  of  unpleasing  de- 
sign, and  finally  protect  the  furn- 
iture. Cheerful  new  slip  covers  pro- 
vide a  spring  tonic  for  tired  rooms 
and  will  change  the  spirit  of  the  en- 
tire house,  giving  it  an  air  of  cool- 
ness and  freshness.  ■  Although  they 
are  especially  suitable  for  summer- 
time dress  some  people  very  success- 
fully keep  furniture  in  slip  covers 
the  year  around.  This  should  not 
be  done  if  the  chair  or  couch  frames 
are  very  lovely. 

The  material  chosen  should  be 
close  in  weave  so  that  dust  will  not 
penetrate  readily,  and  firm  so  it  will 
not  stretch  or  pull  out  of  place. 
Color  fastness  is  desirable.  Glazed 
chintz  is  a  particularly  suitable  fab- 
ric as  dirt  cannot  penetrate  the 
glazed  finish.     Other  materials  suit- 


86 


RELIEF   SOCIETY   MAGAZINE 


able  for  slip  covers  arte  Belgian 
linens,  either  natural  or  with  stripes, 
cretonne  in  floral  and  modernistic 
designs,  sateen  (in  some  rooms  black 
sateen  with  bright  colored  piping  and 
cushions  is  very  smart),  cotton 
mohair,  rep,  block-printed  linens, 
Toile  de  Jouy,  rayon  taffeta,  checked 
or  plain  gingham,  white  linen  (bound 
in  black)  or  mixtures  of  linen,  cotton 
and  silk  are  all  good.  They  may  be 
bound  in  contrasting  colors,  and  may 
have  flounces,  box-plaited  or  ruffled, 
or  plain — the  latter  is  really  the 
smartest. 

All  furniture  need  not  be  covered 
with  the  same  material  unless  it  needs 
tying  together.  It  would  prove  mo- 
notonous in  a  large  room  and  over- 
powering in  a  small  one.  Harmony 
there  must  be,  but  always  harmony 
without  monotony.  The  use  of  two 
or  more  materials  which  will  combine 
well  is  best.  For  instance,  in  a  small 
room  individuality  might  be  intro- 
duced by  using  a  plain  material  on 
the  davenport  and  perhaps  one  chair, 
with  two  or  three  small  chairs  or 
stools  in  decorative  materials.  In  a 
room  that  needs  pulling  together  it  is 
often  satisfactory  to  have  the  slip 
covers  of  the  couch  or  chair  of  the 
same  material  as  the  drapes. 

^PO  make  slip  covers  take  accurate 
measurements  before  buying  ma- 
terials. Pre-shrink  the  material  be- 
fore cutting.  Then  cut  and  fit  them 
on  the  furniture.  If  the  material  has 
a  large  design  be  sure  to  center  it  ac- 
curately on  the  back  and  seat  of  the 
piece  being  covered.  If  a  narrow 
material  is  used  join  piecings  on  a 
lengthwise  thread  and  match  designs 
carefully.  Selvedge  edges  should  be 
snipped  to  prevent  drawing.  Press 
open.  Place  lengthwise  thread  ver- 
tically on  back,  and  from  front  to 
back  on  seat.  Place  material  on 
chair  or  couch  and  pin,  allowing  at 


least  one  inch  for  seams.  Be  sure 
to  allow  plenty  of  material  to  tuck 
in  under  cushions  and  side  arms  so 
it  will  stay  in  place.  Narrow  tape 
or  ribbon  may  be  used  for  binding. 
On  upholstered  chairs  and  sofas  slip 
covers  may  be  made  without  fasten- 
ings or  have  snap  fasteners  at  one 
side  of  the  back.  Side  chairs  are  of- 
ten covered,  especially  in  summer- 
time to  give  an  appearance  of  com- 
fort and  prevent  clothing  from  stick- 
ing to  the  varnish  in  hot  weather. 
They  are  best  made  with  black  and 
seat  covers  fastened  separately,  with 
snap  fasteners  or  tape.  Slip  covers 
to  fit  tightly  over  the  tops  of  the 
tables  are  very  smart  for  summer- 
time. Out-of-door  furniture,  tables 
and  chairs,  may  have  covers  of 
waterproof  material.  Small  seat 
pads  of  gingham,  chintz  or  oilcloth 
may  be  made  for  kitchen,  bedroom 
or  breakfast  nook  chairs  and  fastened 
by  means  of  tapes  tied  at  the  four 
corners. 

Portiere  curtains  are  a  means  of 
introducing  textiles  into  a  room,  pro- 
viding variety  and  interest,  and  of 
relieving  the  bareness  of  an  opening. 
All  arches  or  opening  do  not  need 
them.  If  rooms  are  small  an  effect 
of  spaciousness  will  be  gained  by 
their  omission  as  they  tend  to  divide, 
rather  than  unite  rooms.  Portiers 
should  be  made  of  two  thickness  of 
material,  back  to  back,  preferably 
with  an  interlining  of  outing  flannel. 
They  should  have  a  double  heading 
to  conceal  the  pole.  They  may  be 
suspended  within  the  opening,  or 
from  the  face  of  the  casings.  In  the 
latter  case  it  is  desirable  to  have  two 
pairs,  one  for  each  room,  each  lined 
with  the  color  of  the  other.  This 
method  is  used  where  there  are  fold- 
ing doors.  The  coloring  of  the 
portiers  should  be  the  same  as  that 
of  the  window  drapes  or  related. 
One  may  be  patterned,  the  other  a 


YOUR    HOME    BEAUTIFUL 


87 


solid  color  of  one  of  its  principal 
tones.  Materials  suitable  for  por- 
tieres are  moires,  failles,  velours, 
linens,  damasks,  chenilles,  crewel 
cloth,  shikii  silk  and  other  similar 
fabrics.  Portieres  should  be  pulled 
back  to  either  side  when  not  in  use 
so  as  not  to  obstruct  the  passageway. 

QOVERING  the  walls  with  fab- 
rics is  entirely  appropriate  in 
certain  rooms.  In  a  room  where 
texture  is  necessary  coarse  or  ir- 
regular weaves  may  be  used.  Ele- 
gance is  given  by  the  use  of  velvets, 
brocades  and  damasks.  Such  ma- 
terials are  used  above  a  dado.  To 
tack  them  on  batten  strips  which  are 
then  fastened  to  the  wall  is  a  better 
method  than  to  fasten  them  directly 
on  the  wall.  Fabrics  with  oiled  fin- 
ish which  are  now  available  in  many 
delightful  designs,  and  Japanese 
grass  cloth  are  very  durable  and  at- 
tractive. Wall  coverings  and  the  ap- 
propriateness of  different  designs  to 
particular  rooms  were  discussed 
more  fully  in  a  previous  lesson. 
Wall  hangings  will  be  discussed  in 
connection  with  pictures. 

Textiles,  of  course,  should  be  used 
in  moderation.  There  should  be 
enough  of  the  natural  wood  and 
enough  of  the  architectural  lines  evi- 
dent to  give  firmness  and  strength 
to  the  room.  Pattern  too,  should  be 
used  with  discretion.  Contrast  in 
texture,  color  and  pattern  is  most 
desirable,  although  that  contrast 
must  be  harmonious  and  suitable. 

Some  suggestions  for  combining 


materials  in  rooms  are  :  In  a  Colonial 
room  with  mahogany  furniture  of  the 
Georgian  type  we  might  use  damask 
on  one  chair,  brocade  or  satin,  on 
couch,  another  chair  might  be  cov- 
ered with  needlepoint.  In  a  bedrom, 
curtains  of  Toile  de  Jouy  in  violet 
would  harmonize  with  coral  moire 
on  bed  and  chair.  Drapes  of  Old 
India  prints  in  cream,  red,  blue  and 
green  would  be  harmonious  with 
rose  damask,  brown  satin,  blue  frieze 
and  green  taffeta  in  the  upholstery. 
In  either  case  the  floor  might  be  cov- 
ered with  a  wool  rug  of  heavier  and 
deeper  texture,  yet  if  a  rough  or 
rugged  texture  rug  were  used,  or  one 
of  cheap  cotton  introduced  there 
would  be  immediate  conflict. 

The  study  of  fabrics  is  a  never 
exhausted  one.  It  is  a  story  that  is 
romantic  and  intermingled  with  the 
history  of  the  world's  civilizations. 
Many  delightful  things  have  been 
left  to  us  from  the  ages  that  have 
passed  to  furnish  inspiration  for 
those  of  today.  There  are  also  many 
modern  designs  that  are  unsurpassed 
for  loveliness.  But  there  has  been  a 
demand  for  cheap  things  and  this  de- 
mand has  been  supplied  at  the  ex- 
pense of  quality.  It  is  better  to  go 
without  than  to  use  a  cheap,  tawdry 
imitation.  Again  let  me  repeat — use 
cotton,  which  is  real  and  only  what 
it  pretends  to  be,  rather  than  a  cheap 
silk  that  is  only  a  poor  imitation  of  a 
fine  brocade  or  damask.  Be  as  hon- 
est in  your  decoration  as  you  are  in 
your  character.  Let  your  home  real- 
ly reflect  you. 


A  Working  Plan 

By  Mildred  Tobler 

TN  this  era  of  plans  and  plans  for  Community  Welfare  organization. 

helping  other  folks,  three  stakes  Last  year,  $5,600  was  distributed 

in   the   church   of   Jesus   Christ   of  from  the  office  to  those  in  need  in 

Latter-day  Saints  have  an  unusually  Utah   Stake,  however,  this  amount 

efficient  "way  out"  for  the  dependent,  included  some  funds  distributed  for 

These  are  Utah  Stake,  Kolob  Stake,  the  county.     In  the  last  seven  jears 

and  Maricopa  Stake.  an  average  of  sixty  families  a  month 

The  objective  of  the  work  is  to  have  befn  either  completely  or  par- 
build  the  morale  of  the  needy,  to  tially  taken  care  of  by  the  Commun- 
make  them  self-supporting,  by  giving  ltY  Welfare.  Some  of  these  cases 
them  temporary  aid  and  furnishing  have  needed  only  temporary  aid,  as 
them  with  employment  if  possible.  the  temporarily  unemployed  and  the 

_,        ,       .         1,    ,         1  seasonally  unemployed ;  while  others 

The  plan  has  all  the  advantages  haye  ired  permanent  help-or- 

of  ordinary  charity  work ;  with  none  phans>  children  without  parentSj  or  ' 


of  its  disadvantages. 

The  work  in  Utah  Stake  is  under 
the  direction  of  President  T.  N. 
Taylor  and  Sister  Achsa  E.  Paxman, 
president  of  the  Utah  stake  Relief 
Society.  Under  Mrs.  Paxman  is  a 
corps  of  enthusiastic  workers,  who, 
through  their  desire  to  help,  have 
eliminated  nearly  all  the  overhead 
cost  usually  necessary  to  such  an 
organization. 

The  Community  Welfare  organi- 
zation takes  the  place  of  the  regular 
Relief  Society  charity  work  in  the 
wards  except  that  it  is  centralized  as 
a  stake  institution.  In  a  sense,  its 
effects  are  more  far-reaching,  for  it 
serves  both  members  and  non-mem- 
bers of  the  church. 

One  would  never  dream,  when 
visiting  the  little  office  in  the  Utah 
Stake  Administration  building  with 
its  sole  occupant,  Mrs.  Emily  Niel- 
sen, distributor  of  help,  that  such  a 
complete  work  is  being  carried  on. 
Mrs.  Nielsen  also  takes  care  of  the 
Burial  Clothes  and  this  department 


children  with  disabled  parents. 

HPHE  money  for  these  enterprises 
is  obtained  from  voluntary  con- 
tributions from  members  of  the 
stake.  The  stake  stages  a  drive  for 
funds  every  six  months,  and  each 
ward  is  assessed  a  certain  amount, 
the  amount  being  determined  by  the 
membership  and  their  ability  to  pay. 
These  funds  are  sent  to  the  Com- 
munity office  so  that  every  needy 
family  in  the  stake  is  uniformly  cared 
for.  This  provides  for  a  standard 
distribution  among  all  the  wards. 
Bishops  and  Relief  Society  Presi- 
dents cooperate  in  all  the  plans  of  this 
Community  Welfare  organization. 

The  Community  Welfare  work  is 
very  well  organized. 

LIVERY  ward  in  the  stake  has  a 
Social  Welfare  Aid  who  makes 
investigations.  A  complete  record 
of  their  findings  is  made  and  filed 
at  the  central  office.  This  includes 
the  names  of  those  in  the  family  who 
practically  pays  the  expenses  of  the      are   capable   of   helping  to   support 


A   WORKING  PLAN 


89 


the  family,  physical  and  mental  con- 
dition of  the  father  and  mother,  and 
any  relatives  who  might  be  able  to 
help  them. 

No  help  is  given  without  an  in- 
vestigation, except  in  extreme  cases, 
when  people  are  without  food,  or 
fuel.  In  these  instances  an  emer- 
gency order  is  sent  and  an  investiga- 
tion made  after. 

Whenever  possible  the  Community 
Welfare  provides  opportunities  for 
work,  a  chance  for  a  member  of  the 
family  to  go  to  school  and  learn  a 
vocation  by  which  he  may  earn  a 
living,  thus  increasing  his  confidence 
in  himself  and  in  his  ability  to  help 
to  better  provide  for  his  family. 

Jobs  for  School  boys  and  girls  are 
usually  filled  upon  recommendation 
of  the  Community  Welfare  organi- 
ation. 

Red  Cross  clothing  materials  and 
flour  were  distributed  by  the  Dept. 
last  winter.  The  county  cooperates 
with  them  in  all  ways,  giving  aid  on 
their  recommendation,  and  supple- 
menting their  funds,  because  their 
efficiency  and  dependability  in  distri- 
buting money,  food,  and  clothing  to 
the  right  people  is  well-known.  When 
families  are  known  to  be  lax  in  man- 
aging their  incomes  appropriated  by 
the  organization,  their  groceries,  fuel 
and  clothing  are  sent  to  them  instead 
of  money. 

The  central  and  final  objective  is 
to  reclaim  the  individual's  ability  to 
earn,  to  make  him  feel  responsible 
for  filling  his  niche  in  the  scheme  of 
things. 

ONE  of  the  most  unusual  and  help- 
ful divisions  of  the  work  is  taken 
care  of  by  a  health  program.  When 
operations  are  needed,  patients  are 
sent  to  the  hospital  without  charge, 
the  welfare  organization  paying  for 


the  materials  and  hospitalization, 
the  physicians  cooperating  with  their 
time  and  skill. 

One  little  boy  was  eight  years  old 
and  still  in  the  first  grade.  He  was 
a  teacher's  problem,  disinterested, 
slow,  unwilling  to  learn.  A  com- 
munity welfare  worker  sent  him  to 
a  physician  to  be  examined.  It  was 
found  that  his  tonsils  were  very 
badly  diseased.  They  were  removed 
six  months  ago.  Now,  he  is  at  the 
head  of  his  class,  confident,  ready 
to  work,  and  very  interested.  His 
teacher's  greatest  problem  is  to  find 
something  for  him  to  do. 

Several  children  with  defective  vi- 
sion were  furnished  with  glasses, 
which  increased  their  interest  in 
school  and  their  standard  in  classes. 

A  man  with  a  large  family  had 
been  unemployed  for  several  years. 
His  personal  appearance  was  seri- 
ously affected  by  very  bad  teeth 
which  he  hadn't  had  money  enough 
to  have  fixed.  Upon  being  sent  to 
a  dentist  and  furnished  with  new 
teeth,  his  enthusiasm  and  his  desire 
to  work  returned.  He  searched  for 
work  incessantly,  something  he  had 
given  up  finding  years  ago.  Finally, 
he  got  a  respectable  job  at  a  living 
wage  and  is  back  in  the  harness  and 
happy  again,  with  a  new  lease  on  life. 

Mothers  are  being  grven  prenatal 
care  so  that  children  are  being 
brought  into  the  world  without  the 
handicaps  caused  from  undernour- 
ished and  worried  mothers.  "Mater- 
nity bundles"  are  distributed  to  the 
mothers  who  would  not  otherwise 
be  able  to  clothe  their  infants  nor 
furnish  proper  bed  linen. 

In  the  first  nine  months  of  1933, 
$683.09  has  been  spent  for  health 
work.  The  money  was  obtained  as 
interest  on  money  for  grain  sold  by 
the    Relief    Societv    to   the    United 


90 


RELIEF   SOCIETY   MAGAZINE 


States  government  during  the  World 
War. 

Children  whose  homes  are  unsuit- 
ed  for  their  growth  and  development 
as  good  citizens  are  placed  in  private 
homes  and  surrounded  by  a  whole- 
some environment,  the  county  co- 
operating with  the  Community  Wel- 
fare to  pay  the  small  board  bill. 

tj^REE  lunches  at  schools  are  pro- 
vided by  the  Parents  and  Teach- 
ers Association  and  assisted  by  Com- 
munity Welfare  workers. 

Begun  sixteen  years  ago  when 
Sister  Inez  Knight  Allen  was  presi- 
dent of  the  Utah  Stake  Relief  Soci- 


ety, and  Brother  Joseph  B.  Keeler 
was  president  of  the  stake,  the  work- 
has  expanded  every  year  to  fit  the 
increasing  needs.  In  the  depression 
years  since  1929  it  has  been  one  of 
the  most  potent  factors  in  providing 
employment,  furnishing  necessities 
of  life,  and  looking  after  the  general 
welfare  of  the  poor  of  Utah  Stake. 
It  is  a  plan  that  might  well  be 
followed  in  any  stake  that  wishes  to 
care  for  its  dependents  in  the  most 
efficient  and  encouraging  way. 
Through  it,  many  are  brought  to 
realize  their  possibilities  for  living 
with  others  as  independent  members 
of  society. 


Pioneer  Sugar 

By  Ezra  J.  Poulsen 


IN  one  of  the  pioneer  settlements 
of  Utah,  many  years  ago,  a 
unique  method  of  obtaining  su- 
gar, or  at  least  its  equivalent,  was 
made  use  of  by  some  of  the  women. 

As  thanksgiving  time  approached, 
the  settlers,  like  the  original  pilgrims, 
felt  the  urge  to  celebrate  the  occa- 
sion in  a  fitting  manner.  According- 
ly the  men  took  their  guns,  and  with 
little  difficulty  secured  an  ample  sup- 
ply of  rabbits,  sage  hens,  and  other 
small  game. 

This,  together  with  the  products  of 
the  new  gardens  and  fields,  promised 
a  rich  repast,  since  vegetables  and 
meats  go  well  together.  Still,  there 
was  something  lacking.  Everyone 
agreed  that  without  pies  and  cakes 
the  feast  would  not  be  entirely  sat- 
isfactory ;  and  as  there  was  no  sugar, 


these  pastries  were  evidently  not  to 
be  had. 

The  women,  however,  feeling  that 
the  responsibility  was  theirs,  under- 
took to  solve  the  problem.  Taking 
a  large  number  of  ripe  pumpkins,  and 
cutting  a  hole  in  the  top  of  each, 
they  drew  out  all  the  seeds  and  pithy 
matter,  then  set  the  pumpkins,  with 
the  cavities  up,  out  doors  during  sev- 
eral cold  nights.  At  the  end  of  this 
time  the  frost  had  caused  the  juice 
of  the  pumpkins  to  run  down  into 
the  hollow  cavity  inside  of  each. 

This  was  finally  poured  out  and 
boiled  down  to  a  thick  syrup,  after 
which  it  was  used  as  sweetening.  So 
the  feast  included  pies  and  cakes, 
and  the  women  proved  their  ability 
to  meet  a  perplexing  situation. 


Happenings 

By  Annie    Wells   Cannon 

JPEBRUARY — Short,  but  gay  with  trated  many  lands  where  no  other 

patriotic    oratory,     fancy    dress  white  woman  has  ever  been, 

balls,  and  sentimental  valentines !  A/TARION  TALLEY  after  seven 

A/TRS.  HATTIE  CARRAW AY  of  years  retirement,  has  come  back 

Arkansas  is  the  only  woman  to  the  stage  with  the  revival  of  the 
Senator  in  the  present  Congress  but  Chicago  Opera.  She  shows  more 
there  are  six  women  Representatives,  Poise>  finer  voice,  and  a  deeper  feel- 
Mary  T.  Norton  of  New  Jersey,  ln§"  for  her  art. 
Florence  Kahn  of  California,  Edith  ^NNE  LINDBERGH  has  been 
N.  Rogers  of  Massachusetts,  Kath-  awarded  the  cross  of  honor  of 
ryn  O.  McCarthy  of  Kansas,  Vir-  the  United  States  Flag  Association 
ginia  Jenkes  of  Indiana  and  Isabella  for  _  her  courage  and  efficiency  as 
Greenway  of  Arizona.  navigator  and  radio  operator  in  the 
DUTH  BRYAN  OWEN,  United  survey  of  transatlantic  air  routes. 
V  States  minister  to  Denmark,  was  J?  VELYN  FROST,  Aviatrix  while 
given  the  honor  of  being  the  first  ,,  Pllotmg  a  plane  enroute  from 
envoy  to  appear  before  King  Chris-  hrance  to  E^P^  collided  with  high 
tian  X  during  the  ceremony  of  his  ^™°n  wires  and  perished  in  the 
New  Year  levee.     Among  men  re-  wre^age. 

splendent  in  diplomatic  and  military  J-JELEN  JACOBS,  tennis  cham- 

uni forms,    she   was   beautiful    in    a  pion,  was  voted  at  the  annual 

black   gown    embroidered    in    silver  Press    Sports    Poll,    the    queen    of 

and  a  black  velvet  hat  interwoven  sports  of  1933. 

with  silver  cloth.  lV/TRS.  MAUD  CHEGWIDDEN 

CATHERINE     HEPBURN     is  1V1  of   Utah,    has   been   elected   a 

voted  the  greatest  find  of  1933.  fellow   of   the   Royal    Horticultural 

either   for   cinema   or   the   speaking  Society  of  London  in  recognition  of 

stage.       She    is    distinguished     for  her  outstanding  work  in  flora  cul- 

charm  and  personality.  lure. 

QRETA     GARBO     back     from  A  GNES  RAPPLIER  has  written 

Sweden    with    her     surprising  a  series  0f  pioneer  stories.  "Juni- 

play   "Queen   Christina"   has   again  pero  Serra,  Pioneer  Colonist  of  Cali- 

won  the  movie  fans.  fornia"  is  the  latest 

QDRNELIA   OTIS   SKINNER,  MARGARET     AYERS 

monologist    in    her    latest    play  L  X  BARNES'  new  novel  "Within 

"The  loves  of  Charles  II"  opens  each  the   Present"   covers   the   period   of 

scene  with  a  tableau  which  duplicates  1914-1933.     Rather  a  'close  up'  for 

a  painting  of  the  period.  fiction,  but  its  pages  have  abundant 

MARIA  JERITZA  of  Vienna,  ap-  interest. 

peared  at  the  reopening  of  the  DERNADETTE     SOUBISOUS 

Chicago   Opera  this   season   in   the  ^  a  French  peasant  girl,  who  years 

title  role  of  La  Tosca.  ago,  it  is  claimed,  had  visions  at  the 

J-JARRIET    CHALMERS  lake  of  Lourdes,  was  recently  pro- 

ADAMS,    noted    woman    geo-  claimed  a  Saint,  by  Pope  Pius  XL 

grapher  is  in  Palestine  turning  a  30  amid  all  the  color  and  magnificence 

years  experience  of  exploring  into  of  which   the  Catholic   officials  are 

books,     In  her  travels  she  has  pene-  masters. 


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CU 

Building  a  Diet 

By  Lucy  Rose  Middleton 


THE  housewife  who  has  become 
more  or  less  familiar  with 
technical  terms  such  as  vita- 
mins, proteins,  calories,  minerals, 
etc.,  will  naturally  inquire  how  she 
may  select  foods  to  cover  these  fun- 
damental nutritional  requirements. 

In  recent  years  entirely  too  much 
propaganda  has  been  circulated  about 
certain  dietary  theories  which  have 
caused  unnecessary  and  even  foolish 
adherence  to  temporary  fads.    Radio 
health  talks,  usually  given  for  ad- 
vertising  purposes,    often    prove    a 
source  of  misinformation.   The  rela- 
tive value  of  a  product  to  be  sold  is 
overstated.     No  effort  is   made   to 
distinguish  proved  facts  from  specu- 
lative theories.     Laboratory  experi- 
ments on  food  requirements  are  of 
great  value,  both   from  a  scientific 
and  a  practical  standpoint,  but  we 
must  beware  of  drawing  too  many 
conclusions  from  them.     This  is  il- 
lustrated by  the  tremendous  and  rev- 
olutionary  changes  in    nutritional 
*  dogma    from   year   to   year.      Who 
would  have  dared  twenty  years  ago 
to  give  a  baby  orange  Juice,  spinach, 
or  tomato  juice?  Our  grandmothers 
would    have   been   horrified   to    see 
babies   fed   in  this  manner.     Even 
today,  infant  feeding  is  by  no  means 
an  exact  science  and  doubtless  com- 
ing years  will  see  further  changes. 

In  the  same  household  there  are 
generally  persons  of  widely  different 
food  requirements.  The  baby  can- 
not be  fed  like  the  five-year-old  bo  v. 
nor  the  five-year-old  like  his  football 
playing  brother.  The  dainty  fare 
which  is  best  suited  to  a  school  teach- 
er would  be  scorned  by  a  farm  labor- 
er whose  energy  requirement  is  very 
much    higher.      These    divergencies 


are  more  in  quantity  and  mode  of 
service  than  in  kind.  With  a  few  ad- 
justments it  is  possible  to  keep  the 
family  well  and  happy  on  a  meal 
composed  of  practically  the  same  in- 
gredients, if  suitably  cooked  and 
apportioned.  Infants  and  children 
young  enough  to  require  specially 
prepared  foods  are  best  cared  for 
by  themselves. 

AS  is  well  known,  the  energy 
value  of  foods  is  measured  in 
terms  of  calories.  All  foods  when 
burned  in  the  body  yield  a  definite 
number  of  calories.  It  is  said  that 
some  large  establishments  now  pur- 
chase coal  in  terms  of  the  number 
of  heat  units  a  ton  will  yield,  but 
we  have  not  yet  reached  the  point  of 
buying  food  by  the  calory.  Never- 
theless, when  we  prepare  a  meal  the 
caloric  values  should  jbe  kept  in 
mind.  In  addition,  we  must  not  neg- 
lect any  of  the  components  of  a 
scientifically  adequate  diet. 

Our  biggest  source  of  foods  is 
grain  products,  which  are  primarily 
valuable  for  the  pnxludtion  of 
energy.  Foods  from  this  group  in- 
clude bread,  corn,  crackers,  maca- 
roni, and  rice,  as  well  as  breakfast 
foods.  They  are  our  most  econom- 
ical part  of  the  diet.  From  one-third 
to  one-half  of  the  total  calories  of  an 
adult  may  come  from  this  source. 
Emphasis  should  be  placed  on  the 
use.  of  the  grains  with  the  bran  and 
germ  retained,  since  they  contain 
minerals  and  vitamins. 

Milk  is  a  great  protector  in  the 
diet.  It  is  important  for  its  supply 
of  calcium,  phosphorus,  and  other 
minerals.  Even  in  the  adult  diet  a 
liberal  amount  should  be  included  at 


94  RELIEF   SOCIETY   MAGAZINE 

all  times.     A  pint  a  day  for  adults        •  Peach  Dumplings 

and  a  quart  for  children  is  a  good 

rule.    Milk  also  contains  protein  and  1  Vi  cups  flour 

may  serve  as  a  partial  substitute  for  3  teaspoons  baking  powder 

meat,  which  is  an  expensive  protein  Vi  teaspoon  salt 

food.    Eggs,  too,  are  rich  in  protein,  5  tablespoons  shortening 

and  in  this  respect  are  the  equivalent  Vi  cup  milk 

of  meat.  6  peaches 

All  nutrition  experts  stress  the  im-  6  tablespoons  sugar 
portance   of    a   plentiful    supply   of  Sift  flour,  baking  powder,  and  salt 

fresh  fruits  and  vegetables  because  together;  rub  shortening  in  lightly, 

of   their   richness    in   vitamins   and  Add   en°uSh  milk  to  make  a  soft 

minerals,  and  also  because  of  their  douSh-   ^o11  out  to  %  mch  thick  on 

laxative    properties.      Green    vege-  slightly  floured  board.     Divide  into 

tables,  carrots,  tomatoes  and  citrus  S1X  Plece,s  and  la^  Pared  *resh  P«* 

fruits  are  particularly  valuable,  and  or  *wo  halvf  J  of  ucannced  Peach  °? 

should  be  used  frequently.     At  least  each  piece  of  dough.     Sprinkle  with 

ten  per   cent   of   our  total   calories  ffan    Moisten  edges  of  dough  and 

should  come  from  this  group,  and  *old  "P  aro"nd  P^ch ;  press  tightly 

more  if  the  cost  is  not  prohibitive.  *?^ther- .  face  ."?  buttered  hf^ 

i      r       i       •  1  dish,    sprinkle   with   sugar  and   top 

Fats  and  oils  are  by  far  the  richest  each  dumpiing  witn  a  piece  of  butter, 

foods  in  the  number  of  calories  per  Bake  4Q  minutes  if  fresh  peaches  are 

pound.     They  are  so  nutritious  that  used  and  20  minutes  if  canned  ones 

most  persons  are  satisfied  with  rela-  are  used     0ven  temperatures  should 

tively  small  amounts.     They  include  be  350  degrees  F.    Serve  with  a  hard 

butter,  cream,  suet,  bacon,  and  oils.  sauce  or  plain  cream 
Fats  usually  contribute  ten  to  twenty 

per  cent  of  our  daily  caloric  require-  Crusty  Apricot  Puff 

ment. 

Sugar  serves  as  a  fuel  food  only.  54  lb.  dried  apricots 

It  adds  greatly  to  the  palatability  of  %  cup  light  brown  sugar 

the  diet  without  supplying  vitamins,  5  tablespoons  butter 

mineral  ash,  or  other  building  ma-  1  cup  flour 

terial.     Not  more  than  ten  per  cent  2  teaspoons  baking  powder 

of   our   calories   should   come   from  73  cup  milk 
sugar.  Soak  the  apricots  over  night  or 

The  following  are  100  calorie  por-  several  hours  in  warm  water  to  cover, 

tions  of  some  common  foods :  Rub  tw0  tablespoons  of  softened  or 

creamy  butter  over  the  bottom  and 

Milk   5/8  cup  sjdes  0f  a  pje  p]ate  or  baking  dish. 

kread -  thin  slices  Spread  half  of  sugar  evenly  over  the 

Butter 1  scant  tablespoon ful  butter  and  lay  the  apricot  halves  in 

Su§"ar  2  tablespoonfuls  c;rcies  t0  cover  dish.     Sprinkle  the 

Eggs 1  J/3  eggs  remaining  sugar  over  them.     Make 

Oatmeal   /$  cup  an  ordinary  dumpling  mixture  and 

Potatoes   1   medium  sized  spread  in  a  thin  sheet  to  cover  the 

Bananas   1  large  apricots.  Dot  plentifully  with  butter, 

Lettuce   2  large  heads  Put  into  a  hot  oven,  400  degrees  F, 

Apples \  large  After  5  minutes  reduce  the  heat  to 


BUILDING   A    DIET 


95 


325  degrees  F.  Bake  until  brown,  and 
serve  with  hard  sauce  or  plain  cream. 

Graham  Cracker  Pudding 

Yi   lb.  graham  crackers 

Yl    lb.  marshmallows,  cut  fine 

1  cup  chopped  nuts 

1  cup  chopped  dates 


1  cup  thin  cream  or  top  milk 

Mix  crackers  (rolled  fine),  marsh- 
mallows,  walnuts,  dates  and  cream 
slowly  until  the  mixture  is  moist 
enough  to  form  a  roll.  Wrap  in 
waxed  paper  and  place  in  refriger- 
ator and  allow  to  stand  for  several 
hours.  Slice  and  serve  with  whipped 
cream  or  a  thin  custard. 


One  Eventful  Night 

By  Isabelle  Blake 


OH  !  It's  cold  tonight,  Mother," 
said  Anna  Macdonald,  as  she 
took  off  her  coat  in  the  "lob- 
by" before  entering  the  warm  kit- 
chen. 

"Aye,  March  has  certainly  come 
in  like  a  lion.  Come  in,  lassie,  there's 
a  good  fire" 

"We've  visitors,"  she  added,  as 
the  girl  entered  and  smiled  at  the 
two  men  standing  by  the  fire. 

"Oh !  good  evening,  President, 
"exclaimed  Anna,  "Hello,  Andrew, 
why  so  gloomy?" 

"Your  hands  are  like  ice,  dear," 
Andrew  Lorimer  said  drawing  her 
to  the  fire.  "Come  and  sit  down." 
But  Anna  stopped  him  and  said  to 
President  Smith."  Anything  wrong, 
Brother  Smith  ;  You  look  very  seri- 
ous." 

"Nothing  exactly  wrong,  Anna, 
but  I  went  up  to  administer  to  Mar_ 
garet  Pirie  and  she  was  asking  for 
you.  They  think  it  may  be  tonight 
and  Donald  is  very  low  spirited." 

"I've  told  you  she  can't  go  up  to 
Pirie's  tonight,  "interrupted  Andrew 
angrily.  "She  is  coming  with  me  to 
our  staff  dance  and  it  will  take  her 
all  her  time  to  change  and  go." 

"Come  awa'  and  get  your  supper 
and  then  talk,"  said  Mrs.  Macdonald 
firmly,      "The   lassie's   hungry   and 


you  lads  have  had  nothing  since  din- 
ner." 

Andrew  said  he  wasn't  hungry 
but  President  Smith  sat  down  with 
an  air  of  eagerness  and  Mrs.  Mac- 
donald's  hot  scones  started  to  disap- 
pear with  amazing  rapidity.  Mean- 
while Anna  ate  on  the  run. 

"We  can  go  along  with  President 
Smith,  Andy,  and  I'll  run  up  to  see 
Margaret  before  we  go  to  the  dance." 

"I  don't  see  why  you  have  to  go  at 
all.  The  nurse  and  doctor  will  be 
there  and  probably  her  folks." 

"Well,"  said  President  Smith. 
"Margaret's  folks  have  not  been 
near  since  she  joined  the  Church  and 
as  Relief  Society  visitor  Anna  has 
been  there  a  great  deal  and  Margaret 
has  come  to  depend  on  her  a  lot." 

"She's  not  the  only  one,"  said 
Lorimer  rather  savagely.  Half  the 
members  of  the  Branch  seem  to  be 
that  way." 

"She's  a  good  lassie,"  said  Mrs. 
Macdonald,  "And  she  will  no  shirk 
her  duty." 

"And  in  this  case  duty  and  in- 
clination meet,"  cried  Anna  emerg- 
ing from  the  bedroom  in  her  pretty 
dance  frock,  a  warm  coat  on  her  arm. 
"And  if  you  think  I  won't  be  in  at 
the  finish  after  these  long  hours  of 
watchful    waiting    well,    you're    all 


96 


RELIEF   SOCIETY   MAGAZINE 


wrong.  If  you  two  men  are  ready 
we'll  be  going.  Mother  don't  sit  up 
for  me  dear." 

"All  right,  lassie,  if  my  leg  wasna 
so  bad  I'd  go  along  to  Margaret. 
Tell  her  sorrow  and  pain  endure  for 
the  night  but  joy  cometh  in  the  morn- 
ing" 

"And  a  wee  son  we'll  hope,"  an- 
swered Anna  cheerfully.  "Come  on 
boys." 

It  had  stopped  raining  but  a  cold 
wind  was  blowing  as  the  three 
emerged  from  the  "close"  into  the 
street. 

"Scotland  forever"  laughed  Anna, 
"You  can  aye  depend  on  a  wet  night 
whatever  you  plan.  But  spring  will 
be  here  soon.  I  saw  some  crocus 
spears  today  and  the  shop  windows 
are  full  of  daffodils." 

"Must  be  grown  under  glass  or 
come  from  the  channel  islands," 
murmered  Andrew,  while  President 
Smith  thought  longingly  of  a  Utah 
farm  where  sometimes  it  was  dry 
and  daffodils  grew  in  the  open  yard. 

In  a  few  minutes  they  came  to  the 
"close"  where  Margaret  lived. 

I'll  wait  here,  dear,  "said  Andrew. 
"Don't  be  long." 

The  other  two  went  silently  up 
stairs  and  in  a  minute  were  in  the 
l;ttle  two  roomed  house  that  was  the 
Pirie  home.  Margaret  threw  her 
arms  around  Anna. 

"I'm  so  glad  you've  come.  You're 
the  only  real  woman  friend  I've  got, 
and  Margaret  Pirie  clung  to  her 
friend. 

"Mother  says"  whispered  Anna 
through  trembling  lips,  "Joy  cometh 
in  the  morning,  Margaret." 

"Yes,  but  it's  a  long  time  till  morn- 
ing— You  won't  go  will  you,  Anna.?" 

Anna  glanced  at  the  clock  nine- 
thirty — a  long  time  till  morning. 
"Yes,  I'll  wait.     I'll  tell  Andy." 

"Tell  him  I'll — do  as  much — for 


you,"  gasped  Margaret  as  Anna  ran 
away. 

"Yes,  she's  pretty  bad.  Probably 
not  before  morning,"  whispered  the 
nurse  and  Anna  sped  downstairs. 

Andrew  stared  at  her  whitefaced. 
"You  know  this  isn't  the  first  time 
but  I  thought  tonight  seeing  it  was 
to  meet  my  sister  and  my  boss  you'd 
show  a  little  consideration  for  me. 
It  comes  to  this,  Anna,  if  your  Relief 
Society  work  means  so  much  to 
you  and  I  so  little  I'd  better  go  now." 

"Margaret  is  my  dear  friend, 
Andy,  but  it  is  more  than  that.  She 
gave  up  her  home  and  her  people  for 
a  principle  and  as  a  sister  I  must 
stand  by." 

"Then  you  are  willing  to  say  good- 
bye now." 

"As  well  now  as  later,"  Anna's 
voice  was  crisp  but  her  eyes  were 
full  of  tears.  "If  a  dance  is  going  to 
spoil  our  love  story  the  sooner  we 
end  it  the  better." 

"Goodbye,  then,"  said  Andrew 
grimly,  "You've  made  your  choice." 
Anna  leaned  against  the  wall  a  min- 
ute before  she  entered  the  room 
again.    Her  heart  hurt  so. 

jV/TARGARET  was  talking  rapidly 
and  constantly  now.  Only  for 
a  few  minutes  was  she  silent  while 
her  husband  and  Elder  Smith  ad- 
ministered to  her.  Anna  heard  them 
as  from  a  great  distance — "Mother 
in  Israel,  a  son  or  daughter — God 
bless  thee  and  keep  thee."  Why! 
the  balm  was  falling  on  her  heart, 
too. 

An  hour  sped  by — two  hours. 
At  midnight  Donald  was  sent  run- 
ning for  the  doctor.  When  he  re- 
turned he  was  sent  out  again  to  pace 
the  wet  street  back  and  forth — back 
and  forth. 

At  three  o'clock  Anna  caught  a 
warm  bundle  from  the  nurse's  arms 
and  wept  over  the  wee  red  face, 


ONE  EVENTFUL  NIGHT 


97 


"It  was  grand  of  you  to  stay," 
whispered  Margaret,  "Send  Donald 
up  and  go  on  home  to  bed." 

Anna  went  down  stairs  slowly 
with  a  heavy  step.  She  was  so  tired. 
Then  she  saw  Donald's  bowed  head 
and  shoulders  and  laughed  aloud. 

As  he  turned  she  said  gaily,  "Unto 
you  a  son  is  born,  old  friend." 

"Is  it  really  true?  Oh  Anna  !  how's 
Margaret?" 

"Fine,  go  on  up." 

"Bless  you,  Anna,  go  on  home, 
Andy'U  take  you." 

"What  do  you  mean,  'Andy'll  take 
you'." 

"What  would  he  mean,"  asked  a 
voice  from  the  shadows  of  the  close. 


"I  thought  we  had  parted  forever," 
she  exclaimed. 

"I  went  to  the  dance  and  stayed 
long  enough  to  make  our  apologies 
and  came  back  just  as  Donald  came 
down.  So  I've  been  walking  up  and 
down  with  him  ever  since.  A  nerve 
wracking  business." 

"What  did  your  sister  say,  Andy  ?" 
asked  Anna. 

"Said  I  was  lucky  to  get  a  girl  that 
thought  more  of  her  friend  than  a 
dance  and  wants  me  to  bring  you  to 
see  her  on  Saturday.  I'm  sorry  I 
was  so  selfish.  I  got  a  different  slant 
on  things  from  poor  old  Donald. 
Maybe  we'll  be  glad  of  a  Relief 
Society  visitor  ourselves  some  day. 

And  so  they  walked  home  through 
the  rain. 


A  Prayer 

By  Elsie  E.  Barrett 

Help  me  to  judge  the  acts  I  see 
With  kindliness  and  charity ; 
I  may  not  know  the  true  intent, 
I  may  not  know  just  what  is  meant. 

For  some  may  think  their  motives  clear, 
Though  some  may  seem  a  little  queer ; 
While  righteous  anger  I  may  feel, 
And  score  my  brother  with  much  zeal. 

Let  me  lau^h  off  the  bitter  word, 
Deceitful  smiles  that  seem  absurd ; 
Let  me  have  pity  in  my  heart 
For  those  who  send  a  piercing  dart. 

Let  me  not  nurse  a  lasting  scar, 
But  from  my  heart  all  sin  debar ; 
Let  me  keep  silent,  watch  and  pray 
Until  the  hurt  is  worn  away. 

Then,  if  I  can,  may  I  inspire 
Within  those  souls  a  great  desire 
To  make  the  world  a  better  place 
Illuminated  by  The  Love  and  Grace. 


For  Young  Mothers 

By  Holly  Baxter  Keddington 

TX/rHAT    is   the    temperature    of  desirable;  since  the  bone  of  conten- 

yotir  home?  A  stake  president  tion  has  been  divided, 

recently   asked   this   question,   at   a  Older  children  may  have  real  rea- 

Relief  Society  Convention.    He  said  sons  why  they  dislike  sharing  their 

"The  Mother  is  the  thermometer  in  toys.     A   playmate  may  be  rough, 

the  home.     It  is  she  who  has  in  her  selfish  or  unfair.    If  you  would  have 

power  the  tempering  of  the  mental  your  own  child   considerate  of  the 

and  moral  atmosphere."  Isn't  it  very  other  fellows  property  he  must  first 

true  ?     Are   you   radiating  warmth  learn  to  care  for  his  own.    And  every 

with  laughter,   happy  conversation,  mother  I  know  says  "How  long  will 

corrective  uplift,  a  wholesome  com-  it  be  before  I  can  be  sure  I  won't 

posure  and  a  friendliness  that  makes  have  to  remind  John  or  Jane  about 

others  happy  to  be  with  you ;  or  do  picking  up  and  putting  away  ?"    All 

you  promote  storms  of  protest,  ir-  I  can  say  is  that  we  must  just  hope 

ritability,  sulkiness,  and  the  attitude  and  work  for  that  day  to  come.    The 

of   "you  go  your  way  and   I'll  go  child  who  has  learned  to  be  fair,  hon- 

mine."    Are  you  changeable  like  the  est  and  considerate,  who  has  earned 

month  of  February?     Wle  all  need  the  comradeship  of  the  play  ground, 

the  uplift,  the  smile,  the  handclasp  has   learned   much.      "Learning   to 

of  the  other  fellow.     Let  us  temper  play  is  as  serious  a  problem  for  the 

our    personal    atmosphere    in    our  child  as  earning  a  living  is  for  the 

homes  so  that  our  friends  and  family  adult."    I  quote  Mr.  Patri. 

will  feel  our  influence.     Bring  real  "St.  Valentine's  Day  is  another  of 

warmth  to  these  drab,  wintry  days  the  joyous  days  for  children.    Party, 

by  keeping  the  temperature  in  the  pastry,   candy  and   decoration   sug- 

home  at  a  comfortable  level.  gestions  are  found  in  every  maga- 

Many  mothers  may  stand  aghast  zine.     My  only  suggestion  is  that 

at   the  showing  of   selfishness  and  mother    should    help    the    children 

rudeness  of  the  child  who  formerly  create  Httle  remembrances  instead  of 

was  gentle  and  generous  m  his  play.  buying  everything.    I  know  a  mother 

This  negative  disposition  may  sprout  who  made     lain  cQokies  and  wrote 

at  any  age.     A  child  is  naturally  names  in  id      on  each  one     These 

not    nice    in    his    attitude    toward  were             j    a  noyd      but  were_. 

others     says   Mr    Patn      Only  by  oh ,_       00((  too. 

early  training  in  the  joy  of  sharing.  T-  i               1                   •    i              * 

and  understanding  others  rights  can  A  ™™"y  aIwavsT  reminds   us   of 

this  be  overcome.     The  child  mav  Abraham  Lincoln.    Lincoln  s  life  was 

be  very  young  when  he  first  make's  verv  hard-     Few  living"  now  could 

known  that  he  doesn't  want  a  guest  have  hved  as  he  hved-    He  was  sad< 

to  use  his  property.    There  ensues  a  worried  and  harrassed  beyond  our 

free-for-all.      This    tension    can    be  understanding,   but   he   could   be   a 

aggravated  materially  by  the  mother  wonderful  friend.    On  one  occasion 

if  she  scolds.     But  if  she  takes  just  when  there  was  talk  of  a  poor  man 

a  few  minutes  to  show  both  children  without  friends,  he  said,  "If  he  has 

that  fine  game  of  sharing,  many  un-  no    friends,    I   will   befriend    him." 

pleasant  situations  may  be  avoided.  Later  an  old  man  from  the  highlands 

After  a  time  you  may  see  them  ex-  of   New  York  said,  "Up  there  we 

changing-  toys  and  finding  any  share  believe  in  God  and  Father  Abraham", 


Notes  from  the  Field 

OUR    "Magazine    Program",    in  a  frame  (see  accompanying  picture) 

the    Springville    Third    Ward,  and  short  biographies  of  each  were 

sponsored  by  our  magazine  agent,  given.                                     ' 

Charlotta  Black,  was  very  interest-  A  member  read     A  Little  friend 

ing  and  successful.     It  was  carried  of  Mine"  from  the  September  1SM1 

out  as   stated  below.  magazine. 

1.  The  song,  as  outlined  in  the  Two  tiny  girls  in  Halloween  colors 
September  magazine,  was  sung  by  passed  slips  to  the  members  which 
our    ward    Relief    Society    Ladies'  read  as  follows — 

Chorus.    They  were  dressed  in  large  We,   the  members   of   the  Third 

cartons  decorated  to  represent  covers  Ward  Relief  Society  of  Springville, 

of  the  magazine  with  an  open  maga-  resolve  to  read  the  Magazine  from 

zine  tied  with  a  ribbon  for  a  bonnet,  cover  to  cover  and  repeat  the  reading 

2.  An  interesting  stunt  was  put  on  of  each  lesson,  before  the  day  on 
by  twenty-one  ladies,  each  bearing  a  which  the  lesson  is  given. 

letter  of  "R  e  1  i  e  f         S  o  c  i-  Are  you  a  subscriber? 

ety        Magazin  e".    Each         Will  you  subscribe? : 

lady,  in  a  hat  and  dress  of  some  mem-         Name    

ber  borrowed  without  the  owner's  This  accompanying  picture  taken 

knowledge,    recited    a    comical    bit  of   the   ladies  who  represented   the 

about  the  'lady  whose  name  began  past  five  editors,  are  as  follows : 

with  her  letter.  1  •  Susa  Y.  Gates — represented  by 

3.  The  five  editors  then  posed  in  Mary  Ellen  Sumsion  McKenzie. 


LADIES  REPRESENTING  THE 
FIVE  EDITORS  OF  THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


100 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


2.  Emmeline  B.  Wells — repre- 
sented by  Sophia  Packard. 

3.  Lula  Greene  Richards — repre- 
sented by  Adrian  J.  Gore. 

4.  Alice  L.  Reynolds — represented 
by  Grace  Baker. 

5.  Mary  Connelly  Kimball — rep- 
resented by  Charlotta  Black. 

RECENTLY  I  attended  the 
Salt  Lake  Stake  Union  Meet- 
ing. It  was  a  joy  to  see  how  the 
supervisors  of  each  department  had 
so  many  helpful  suggestions  for 
their  teachers.  One  wished  she 
could  divide  herself  and  go  into 
each   section. 

Each  year  this  Stake  selects  an 
aim  on  which  it  labors.  In  various 
ways  it  puts  it  over.  On  Work 
and  Business  Day,  this  aim  is  fea- 
tured. The  aim  for  this  year  is 
"We  believe  in  progression  through 
the  learning  and  living  of  Gospel 
principles."  For  the  nine  months 
when  the  Relief  Society  holds  meet- 
ings, they  have  what  they  call  nine 
stepping  stones  that  develop  this 
aim.  I  visited  the  Activity  Depart- 
ment and  the  following  helpful 
things  were  given. 

1.  We  believe  in  progression 
through  activity. 

3-  We    ibeileve    in     progression 
through  study — 
Magazine, 
Textbooks, 
General  material. 

3.  We  believe  in  progression 
through  faith — 

Deity, 

Self, 

Fellow-man. 

4.  We  believe  in  progression 
through  service. 

5.  We  believe  in  progression 
through  self-expression. 


6.  We  believe  in  progression 
through  obedience  to  law — 

Land, 
Church. 

7.  We  believe  in  progression 
through   appreciation — 

Membership    and     calling    in 

the  Church, 
Friendships  gained, 
Opportunities  provided. 

8.  We  ibeiieve  in  progression 
through  developing  Motherly  vir- 
tues. 

9.  We  believe  in  progression 
through  cultivating  a  love  of  the 
beautiful. 

A  ten-minute  talk  is  given  each 
month  on  Work  and  Business  Day 
on  these  topics.  Helpful  sugges- 
tions and  outlines  are  presented  at 
their  Union  Meeting  to  aid  the 
speakers.  Collateral  music  is  given, 
a  poem  is  read,  seasonable  recipes 
are  given,  and  for  the  month  fol- 
lowing my  visit,  toys  for  the  kinder- 
garten were  shown. 

This  Stake  has  urged  every  Ward 
to  have  a  Kindergarten  so  that  young 
Mothers  may  attend.  One  Sister 
reported  that  they  did  not  have  any 
babies  in  their  Association  and  hence 
needed  no  Kindergarten,  but  con- 
forming to  the  wishes  of  the  Stake 
Presidency,  they  established  a  Kin- 
dergarten and  now  have  many  chil- 
dren in  attendance.  The  little  folks 
so  love  the  work  given  there  that 
some  of  them  ask  if  they  cannot 
come  even  when  their  mothers  do 
not  attend  Relief  Society. 

The  next  month  "helpful  hints  in 
housekeeping"  will  be  presented  in 
this    department. 

The  recipes  given  were  for  egg- 
less  squash  pie,  green  tomato  mince- 
meat, and  a  Thanksgiving  menu 
that  would  serve  twelve  people  for 
$2.90.— K. 


NOTES  FROM  THE  FIELD 


101 


El  Paso  Ward :  The  following  re- 
port has  been  received  from  El  Paso 
Ward,  in  St.  Joseph  Stake :  "We  are 
happy  to  report  the  work  and  activ- 
ities of  our  Relief  Society  at  El 
Paso,  Texas.  Our  Annual  Day  was 
stressed  by  the  presentation  of  the 
playlet  contained  in  the  March,  1932 
issue  of  the  Magazine,  entitled  'The 
Organization  of  the  Relief  Society 
in  Nauvoo.'  This  well  rehearsed 
playlet,  under  the  direction  of  Sister 
Zeretta  Harris,  was  well  received  by 
the  membership  of  our  Ward,  who 
were  the  guests  of  the  Relief  Society 
for  the  entire  evening,  which  was 
devoted  to  drama,  dancing  and  re- 
freshments." 

Yellowstone  Stake  {Parker  Ward)  : 

ATAHE  picture  of  the  pageant  "Col- 
lege of  Opportunity,"  is  express- 
ive of  the  enthusiasm  and  resource- 
fulness of  Relief  Society  women. 
This  group  is  a  picture  of  women 

who  successfully  carry  on  the  pro-      homes,  vacation  camps,  everywhere 
gram    of    education    in    meetings,      the  occasion  offers. 


President  of  Parker  Ward,  with  her  two 

counselors — typical   Relief    Society 

women 


COLLEGE  OF  OPPORTUNITY,  PARKER  WARD,  YELLOWSTONE  STAKE. 


102 


RELIEF   SOCIETY   MAGAZINE 


Teton  Stake : 

PHOSE  who  have  had  the  priv- 
ilege of  meeting  Sister  Susannah 
Sheets  Wilson  will  be  interested  in 
the  following  note,  which  comes 
from  Teton  Stake :  "The  passing 
from  earth  life  of  Sister  Susannah 
Sheets  Wilson,  April  1,  1933,  caused 
a  sadness  among  the  members  of  the 
Relief  Society  of  the  Teton  Stake. 
Mrs.  Wilson  has  been  connected 
with  this  organization  in  some  way 
ever  since  the  beginning  of  the  stake. 
She  was  born  in  Salt  Lake  City  in 
1858.  She  was  married  in  the  old 
endowment  house  in  1881,  and  came 
to  Teton  Valley  a  pioneer  in  1887, 
with  her  husband,  T.  R.  Wilson.  She 
was  chosen  first  counselor  in  the 
Relief  Society  in  the  first  ward  or- 
ganized, also  first  counselor  in  the 
first  stake  organized,  a  position  she 
held  for  nine  years,  after  which  she 
was  chosen  stake  president.  This 
position  she  held  for  thirteen  years, 
when  she  was  released  on  account  of 
ill  health.  Mrs.  Wilson  was  well 
known  throughout  the  Teton  Valley, 
and  was  loved  and  admired  as  a 
woman  of  deep  faith.  She  was  a  true 
gentlewoman,  and  took  a  pride  in 
home-making.  Mrs.  Wilson  is  sur- 
vived by  five  children,  twenty-three 
grandchildren,  and  three  great- 
grandchildren. Her  husband,  T.  R. 
Wilson,  preceded  her  to  the  grave 
in   1929." 

TN  the  Thirty-first  Ward  of  Lib- 
erty Stake,  a  very  fine  piece  of 


cooperation  between  the  mothers  and 
daughters  is  told.  This  was  held 
on  the  Work  and  Business  Day, 
when  a  very  great  effort  is  made  to 
have  especially  attractive  features  in 
addition  to  the  regular  program.  One 
particular  meeting  of  this  type  was 
held  on  March  14  of  this  year,  where 
a  splendid  opportunity  was  given  to 
bring  the  mothers  and  daughters  in- 
to closer  companionship  of  interests. 
The  Gleaner  project  for  the  past 
two  years  has  been,  "I  will  gather 
Treasures  of  Truth."  The  purpose 
of  this  is  to  stimulate  the  girls  to 
gather  the  history  of  their  ancestors 
with  interesting  and  faith-promot- 
ing stories  of  the  pioneers.  This 
vital  material  is  compiled  by  each 
girl  in  a  book  of  her  own  making, 
and  it  is  called  "Treasures  of 
Truth."  In  order  to  accomplish  this 
extremely  worthwhile  effort,  every 
girl  must  have  the  helpful  coopera- 
tion of  her  mother.  This  was  very 
successfully  done  on  the  day  indi- 
cated, and  some  of  the  mothers 
brought  articles  of  historical  value, 
and  many  interesting  and  valuable 
stories  of  pioneer  life  were  related. 

This  Ward  is  working  on  a  plan 
which  will  include  many  mothers 
who  do  not  have  daughters  of  Glean- 
er age,  but  who  will  be  able  to  con- 
tribute stories  and  experiences  which 
are  most  valuable.  These  will  be 
compiled  in  a  Ward  Book  together 
with  a  history  of  the  Ward,  and  will 
be  accessible  to  all. 


Notes  to  the  Field 

To  Our  Music  Leaders 

Suggestions  for  February,  by  Margaret  Hull  Eastmond  of  Utah   Stake. 

Theology.  White",  sing  to  the  tune  of  "Jesus 

"Love  At  Home",  Lover  of  My  Soul". 

"Who    Are    These    Arrayed    in  "Beautiful  Zion  Built  Above". 


NOTES   TO    THE   FIELD 


103 


Work  and  Business: 

Spend  a  few  minutes  singing  the 
songs  of  one  of  our  L.  D.  S.  com- 
posers.    For  example — 

Evan  Stephens 

"Go  When  The  Morning  Shineth" 
Sun.   School  Song  Book — No.   63. 

"Zion  Prospers,  All  is  Well" 
Sun.  School  Song  Book — No.  153. 

Literature : 

(Hebrew   music    given    in    Jan.) 


Songs — 

"Captain  of  Israel's  Host"  Songs 
of  Zion,  No.  189;  Psalmody,  No.95 

This  can  be  sung  by  a  Relief  So- 
ciety Chorus  if  desired. 

"The  Song  of  Ruth".* 
Read   it   if    you   cannot    get    the 
music.  (Book  of  Ruth,  1:16-17). 

*This  can  be  secured  at  the  Beesley 
Music  Company,  61  So.  Main.  Salt 
Lake  City,  for  40  cents. 


Our  Magazine 


ATT'E  deeply  appreciate  the  effec- 
tive work  that  is  being  carried 
on  in  the  interest  of  our  magazine. 

We  would  like  those  who  go  over 
the  top  or  who  do  some  unique 
things  to  further  the  subscribing  for 
and  the  reading  of  the  magazine  to 
let  us  know  of  their  efforts  and  suc- 
cesses. 

Wards  should  report  to  their 
Stakes  and  Stakes  should  report  to 
the  magazine  office  when  they  have 
75  %  or  more  magazine  subscrip- 
tions.    The  information  should  in- 


clude the  Ward  membership,  the 
number  of  subscriptions,  and  the 
names  of  the  Ward  agents. 

The  Second  Ward  in  Brigham 
City  has  100%  magazine  subscrip- 
tions. 

Many  are  sending  it  to  their 
friends. 

One  Sister  from  Roberts,  Rigby 
Stake,  came  to  the  office  recently 
and  subscribed  for  16  magazines. 

Some  Wards  have  sent  the  maga- 
zine to  every  widow  in  their  Wards. 


Wells  Stake 

QN    Sunday,   Dec.   31,    1933,  the  vice  many  people  and  will  strengthen 

Church  added  another  Stake  to  the  work  and  give  opportunities  for 

its  roster.     Wells  Stake  was  organ-  development  to  a  host  of  new  offi- 

ized  from  the  northern  division  of  cers. 
Grant  Stake.    This  will  call  into  ser- 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  OF  THE  CHURCH  OF 
JESUS  CHRIST  OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS 

Motto — Charity  Never  Faileth 

THE  GENERAL  BOARD 

MRS.    LOUISE    YATES    ROBISON President 

MRS.    AMY    BROWN    LYMAN First  Counselor 

MRS.    JULIA    ALLEMAN    CHILD Second  Counselor 

MRS.  JULIA  A.   F.   LUND  -  -  -         General    Secretary  and   Treasurer 

Mrs.  Emma  A.  Empey  Mrs.    Amv   Whipple    Evans  Mrs.  Ida  P.   Beal 

Miss  Sarah  M.   McLelland  Mrs.   Ethel  Reynolds  Smith  Mrs.  Katie  M.  Barker 

Mrs.    Annie    Wells    Cannon  Mrs.    Rosannah   C.  Irvine  Mrs.  Marcia  K.  Howells 

Mrs.    Jennie    B.    Knight  Mrs.    Nettie  D.    Bradford  Mrs.    Hazel    H.    Greenwood 

Mrs.   Lalene  H.   Hart  Mrs.   Inez  K.   Allen  Mrs.   Emeline  Y.   Nebeker 

Mrs.   Lotta  Paul  Baxter  Mrs.  Elise  B.  Alder  Mrs.  Mary  Connelly  Kimball 

Mrs.  Cora  L.  Bennion 

RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Editor Mary   Connelly   Kimball 

Manager Louise  Y.   Robison 

Assistant  Manager Amy  Brown  Lyman 


Vol.  XXI 


FEBRUARY,   1934 


No.  2 


EDITORIAL 


A  Valuable  Practice 


A| ATHEW  ARNOLD'S  daugh- 
ter records  that  her  father  each 
year  kept  a  narrow  little  book  in 
which  he  would  jot  down  his  engage- 
ments and  any  short  or  striking 
sentences  that  he  came  across  during 
his  daily  reading  or  which  he  recalled 
as  suitable  to  his  mood.  This  prac- 
tice continued  for  37  years. 

The  quotations  from  each  fifth 
year  have  been  printed  and  they  re- 
produce the  portrait  of  the  mind  that 
selected  them.  Nevinson  in  his 
"Books  and  Personalities"  tells  us 
that  these  quotations  came  from 
books  universally  recognized  as  con- 
taining the  best  that  has  been 
thought.  The  greatest  number  came 
from  the  best  books  in  the  Bible. 
Extracts  from  the  Psalms  and  St. 
Paul's  letters  are  very  numerous. 
There  are  many  from  Plato  and  the 
Tragedians.  From  writers  after 
Christ,  Goethe's  wise  sayings  are 
probably  the  most  numerous. 


The  quotations  are  largely  exhor- 
tations to  definite  and  constant  labor, 
to  work  that  "fills  and  moralizes  the 
day."  A  favorite  was  the  Latin  pre- 
cept, "Always  set  before  yourself 
some  definite  aim."  The  two  essen- 
tials of  good  work — isolation  and 
limitation,  are  emphasized.  Again 
and  again  do  the  quotations  urge 
one  to  disregard  the  transient  and 
trivial  and  serve  the  Eternal  alone. 

The  same  passages  are  often  re- 
peated after  an  interval  of  fifteen 
years.  In  later  life  sentences  stress 
cheerfulness,  amiability,  patience  and 
the  way  of  peace.  One  of  Arnold's 
favorite  maxims  was  Goethe's  "He 
that  would  do  good  work  must  never 
scold,  must  never  trouble  himself 
about  the  unfitness  of  things,  but 
simply  go  on  doing  good  work." 
Another  was,  "Oh  that  thou  hadst 
hearkened  unto  my  commandments ! 
then  had  thy  peace  been  as  a  river." 


EDITORIAL 


105 


Constant    reference    is    made    to 
"Thy  Law." 

TX7'OULD  it  not  be  a  good  prac- 
tice for  us  to  invest  each  year 
in  a  little  book  that  would  fit  into  our 
handbag  and  jot  down  some  of  the 
most  stimulating  and  beautiful  pas- 
sages we  read?  This  practice  has 
many  things  to  recommend  it.  Writ- 
ing the  sentences  impress  them  upon 


the  mind.  It  tends  to  make  them 
more  our  own  than  a  casual  reading 
does.  We  could  look  over  them 
again  and  again  until  we  would  know 
most  of  them.  This  would  enrich 
our  lives,  stimulate  worthwhile  think- 
ing, give  us  food  for  thought  and 
for  conversation.  In  after  years 
these  books  could  be  brought  forth 
to  remind  us  of  thoughts  we  had 
treasured  through  the  years. 


1933a  Record  Year  for  Women 


TN  1933  women  achieved  honors  in 
politics  and  science  never  attained 
before  by  members  of  their  sex. 
One  writer  says,  "In  1920  women 
gained  the  right  to  vote,  in  1933  they 
obtained  appointments  to  major  gov- 
ernmental positions." 

Secretary  Frances  Perkins  is  the 
first  woman  in  the  Cabinet  and  Ruth 
Bryan  Owen,  Minister  to  Denmark, 
is  the  first  woman  diplomatic  envoy 
to  a  foreign  government.  Phoebe 
Umlie,  a  member  of  the  national 
advisory  board  on  aeronautics,  is  the 
first  woman  to  ever  hold  a  govern- 
ment post  in  connection  with  avia- 
tion. Nellie  Tayloe  Ross  is  the  first 
woman  director  of  the  mint.  When 
Mrs.  Blair  Banister  was  made  as- 
sistant treasurer  of  the  United 
States,  she  became  the  first  woman 
to  hold  that  position. 

1933  saw  Kkthryn  McCarthy 
O'Laughlin,  an  attorney  from  Kan- 
sas and  Virginia  E.  Jenckes,  a  farmer 
of  Indiana,  and  Mrs  Isabella  Green- 
way  of  Arizona  added  to  the  roster 
of  Congress.  Law  enforcement 
opened  its  doors  to  a  woman  when 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  Bass  was  made  head 
of  the  Chicago  narcotic  bureau. 

Rose  Schneiderman  is  on  the  na- 
tional labor  advisory  board.      Mrs. 


Mary  Harriman  Rumsey  is  chair- 
man of  the  consumers'  advisory 
board,  and  Mrs.  Ellen  S.  Woodward 
is  in  charge  of  the  women's  activities 
for  the  federal  relief  administration. 

Marjorie  K.  Rawlings  of  Haw- 
thorne, Florida,  won  the  1933  O. 
Henry  memorial  award.  Cecelia 
Beaux  of  New  York  was  admitted 
into  the  exclusive  membership  of  the 
American  Academy  of  Arts  and  Let- 
ters. 

Maude  Slye  of  the  University  of 
Chicago  is  outstanding  in  the  battle 
waged  against  cancer.  Mrs.  Anne 
Morrow  Lindbergh  as  navigator  and 
wireless  operator  on  the  aerial  sur- 
vey made  by  her  distinguished  hus- 
band, has  won  a  high  place  in  navi- 
gation of  the  air. 

To  Mrs.  Franklin  D.  Roosevelt, 
it  is  said,  more  than  any  other  one 
woman  goes  the  credit  for  focussing 
public  interest  on  women's  activities 
so  sharply  in  1933.  It  is  likely  that 
she  will  continue  to  do  much  to  place 
women  in  the  forefront  of  achieve- 
ment. She  is  deeply  interested  along 
many  lines  and  puts  her  heart  and 
soul  into  the  progress  of  women,  the 
welfare  of  children,  and  to  all  move- 
ments looking  to  the  betterment  of 
mankind. 


106 


RELIEF  SOCIETY   MAGAZINE 


New  Books 


"America  Self-Contained" 
By  Samuel  Crowther 

TN  his  volume,  "America  Self-Con- 
tained," Samuel  Crowther  strong- 
ly, clearly,  forcibly  urges  that  the 
United  States  stand  alone,  working 
out  its  own  destiny  untramelled  by 
foreign  alliances.  He  says  that  we 
can  depend  upon  our  own  resources, 
that  there  is  scarcely  one  important 
commodity  we  need  import,  that  we 
have  the  inventors  and  research 
chemists,  the  machines  and  the  raw 
materials  that  will  enable  us  to  com- 
pete with  all  nations. 

We  have  the  highest  purchasing 
power  of  any  nation.  We  have  "One 
hundred  and  twenty  millions  of 
people  speaking  a  common  language 
and  striving  to  find  a  common  ideal : 
natural  resources  of  almost  infinite 
extent  and  variety ;  human  technical 
resources  which  can  put  to  use  these 
natural  resources  and  also  create  for 
us  by  synthesis  the  few  materials 
which  we  need  and  do  not  possess : 
ample  means  to  exchange  and  diffuse 
such  wealth  as  we  may  choose  to 
create." 

He  calls  attention  to  the  fact  that 
we  must,  "choose  whether  we  shall 
take  what  we  have  and,  making  our 
isolation  more  complete,  shape  our 
own  destinies,  or  whether  we  shall 
break  down  our  isolation,  abandon 
the  principles  of  the  founders  and 
accept  a  standard  of  life  fixed  by  the 
lowest  common  denominator  of  the 
world's  standards." 

He  says  we  must  decide  whether 
we  shall  deliberately  control  our  own 
destiny  in  the  light  of  science  or 
whether  we  shall  drift  on  trying 
somehow  to  be  out  of  world  affairs 
and  still  in  them. 


A  new  freedom  is  being  born,  not 
political  but  economic  "and,  just 
as  it  was  given  to  the  United  States 
to  begin  a  new  era  in  political 
freedom,  so  it  has  come  to  pass 
that  today  the  United  States,  for 
long  the  most  nearly  self-suffi- 
cient of  nations,  has  through  the 
labor  of  her  scientists  become  wholly 
self-sufficient  and  hence  able  to  take 
the  leadership  in  developing  a  new 
political  economy  of  freedom.  No 
nation  has  ever  before  been  given  the 
opportunity  to  have  and  to  hold  a 
complete  liberty  and  no  nation  has 
ever  before  had  the  opportunity 
wholly  to  shape  its  own  destiny. 
even  Rome  at  the  pinnacle  of  her 
power  had  to  depend  on  far-flung 
provinces  for  the  necessities  of  life. 

He  points  out  that  today,  owing 
to  the  World  War,  the  United  States 
has  no  friends  among  the  nations, 
but  rather  bitter  enemies.  "This  and 
only  this  have  we  accomplished  by 
dint  of  nearly  two  decades  of  insist- 
ent meddling  into  the  affairs  of  other 
nations."  *  *  *  *  *,We  are  back 
from  our  crusades  richer  perhaps  in 
experience,  poorer  certainly  by  up- 
wards of  twenty  billions." 

He  says,  "Fortunately  we  have  es- 
caped tangling  our  affairs  with  those 
of  the  World  and  have  almost 
achieved  isolation."  "We  have  re- 
turned— or  have  been  returned,  to 
the  posture  which  George  Washing- 
ton held  as  prerequisite  to  perfecting 
our  freedom." 

"Now  we  have  to  decide  whether 
we  shall  deliberately  control  our  own 
destinies  in  the  light  of  science  or 
whether  we  shall  drift  on,  trying 
somehow  to  be  out  of  world  affairs 
and  still  in  them." 

The  book  is  most  stimulating  and 


EDITORIAL  107 

is  well  worth  reading. — Published  by      not  hindered  by  color.    The  book  is 
Doubleday,  Doran  &  Co.  Price  $2.00.      really  the  voice  of  the  Negro  race 

calling  for  equal  opportunities  with 

"Black"  the  White  race  and  feeling  that  they 

By  B  F.  Gardner  should   be  treated   as   though   they 

TN  "Black",  a  collection  of  poems  were  white' 

1  written  by  B.  F.  Gardner,  whose         The  volume  contains  many  lovely 

parents  were  born  under  the  yoke  poems  voicing  a  longing  to  be  of 

of  Slavery,  one  reads  of  the  longing  service,  to  uplift  the  sorrowing,  and 

and  heartbreak  of  those  who  feel  to  scatter  sunshine.— Published  by 

they  could  do  so  much  were  they  the  Caxton  Printers,  Price  $1.50. 


Our  Handbook 

W/E  learn  through  questions  that  lations  of  the  organization  and  read- 

VV     are  asked  from  time  to  time  ing  it  will  be  delightful  and  profitable 

that  many  are  not  using  our  Hand-  to  all  members, 
book,   for  the  questions  asked  are 
answered  in  that  volume. 

Every  officer  should  peruse  it  re-  TO  OUR  WRITERS 

peatedly  and  every  member  who  can 

should  add  it  to  her  collection  of  Stamped,  self-addressed  envelope 

books.    It  gives  the  history  and  regu-  should  accompany  manuscript. 


Sorrow 

By  Carrie  Tanner 

O  grief,  thou  burden  on  the  human  heart ! 
Oh  would  that  at  a  word  thou  could'st  depart ! 
Like  cloud  that  hides  the  warmth  of  sun's  bright  ray 
Thou  art.    But  clouds  forever  cannot  stay. 
The  darkest  cloud  oft  brings  the  sudden  rain ; 
And  thirsting  flowers,  grass,  and  tree,  and  grain 
Receive  their  need,  and  give  in  swift  return 
Their  beauties  rich  in  garden,  field  and  urn. 
Thus  shadows  in  our  lives  bring  shock  and  fears, 
And  clouds  of  darkness  oft  bring  sudden  tears. 
But  who  doth  know  that  clouds  in  life  are  vain, 
And  that  beyond  there's  not  resultant  gain  ? 
The  tears,  like  rain,  our  dying  flowers  give 
Refreshing  life,  and  nurtured  faith  doth  live. 
And  strength  of  heart  through  sorrow's  pain  endured. 
Then  comes  a  vision  sweet,  no  more  obscured, 


Lesson  Department 

Theology  and  Testimony 

(First  Week  in  April) 
Gifts  of  The  Spirit 


1.  How  Obtained.  Concerning 
the  manner  in  which  gifts  are  ob- 
tained from  Him,  the  Lord  has  said : 
"All  who  will  have  a  blessing  at  my 
hands  shall  abide  the  law  which  was 
appointed  for  that  blessing,  and  the 
conditions  thereof,  as  were  institu- 
ted from  before  the  foundation  of 
the  world."  (D.  &  C.  132:5.)  Thus 
the  Lord  never  gives  a  blessing  to 
those  who  have  not  obeyed  the  re- 
quisite law.  In  other  words,  the 
condition  of  an  individual  at  any  in- 
stant is  the  sum  total  of  his  previous 
attitude  toward  law.  There  is  no 
fortuity  or  caprice  in  the  operations 
of  God's  law  or  in  the  distribution 
of  his  blessings.  Before  man  came 
to  earth,  he  accepted  a  given  plan 
and  agreed  to  abide  by  its  provisions. 
There  is  no  other  way  by  which  he 
can  return  to  the  presence  of  the 
Father.  His  blessings  are  commen- 
surate with  the  degree  of  his  obedi- 
ence. 

2.  After  this  plan  was  accepted, 
man  was  a  long  time  in  the  presence 
of  the  Father  before  he  came  to 
earth.  Thus  the  state  of  his  devel- 
opment at  the  time  of  birth  is  the 
product  of  a  long  line  of  pre-earthly 
attitude.  Man  does  not  have  his  be- 
ginning at  the  time  of  birth;  he  is 
already  a  partially  developed  indi- 
vidual, comparable  to  the  student 
who  has  been  at  school  for  some 
years.  He  is  not  a  beginner,  and 
he  is  not  a  graduate. 

3.  It  is  a  widely  recognized  fact 
that  at  birth  some  individuals  are 
much  more  advanced  than  others, 
and  that  thereafter  they  progress  far 


faster  than  the  group.  These  are 
commonly  spoken  of  as  the  "gifted" 
ones,  seemingly  with  the  thought 
that  their  superiority  is  derived  from 
some  extraneous  source,  as  an  un- 
earned and  unmerited  blessing.  This, 
of  course,  is  a  mistake. 

4.  It  appears  that  some  progress 
had  been  made  by  the  spirits  of  men 
even  before  the  council  in  heaven, 
as  witness  the  following :  "The  Lord 
had  shown  unto  me,  Abraham,  the 
intelligences  that  were  organized  be- 
fore the  world  was;  and  among  all 
these  there  were  many  of  the  noble 
and  great  ones;  and  God  saw  these 
souls  that  they  were  good,  and  he 
stood  in  the  midst  of  them,  and  he 
said :  These  I  will  make  my  rulers  ; 
for  he  stood  among  those  that  were 
spirits,  and  he  saw  that  they  were 
good;  and  he  said  unto  me:  Abra- 
ham, thou  art  one  of  them ;  thou 
wast  chosen  before  thou  wast  born." 
(Abraham  3:22,  23.) 

5.  It  is  not  unreasonable  to  be- 
lieve, therefore,  that  the  condition 
of  man's  spirit  at  the  time  of  birth 
is  the  product  of  his  various  re- 
actions to  the  laws  with  which  he 
has  come  in  contact.  Aside  from 
his  own  wilful  responses,  he  is 
doubtless  also  influenced  to  a  con- 
siderable extent  by  the  acts  of  his 
parents,  and  probably  others.  It  has 
been  said  that  the  sins,  likewise  the 
good  deeds  of  the  parents  are  visited 
upon  the  children  to  the  third  and 
fourth  generations.  Some  children, 
for  example,  are  handicapped  from 
birth  by  disease,  such  as  syphilis, 
arising  from  parental  sin.     Others 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT  109 

are  blessed  with  strong  bodies,  un-  is  given,  by  the  Spirit  of  God,  the 

impaired  by  parental  misbehavior  or  word   of    wisdom.      To   another   is 

neglect.     Thus,  as  already  said,  the  given  the  word  of  knowledge,  that 

condition   of   the  individual   at   the  all  may  be  taught  to  be  wise  and  to 

time  of  birth  is  the  product  of  his  have  knowledge.    And  again,  to  some 

reactions    to   the    various    agencies  it  is  given  to  have  faith  to  be  healed  ; 

affecting  it.  and  to  others  it  is  given  to  have  faith 

6.  Variety  of  Gifts.  The  Lord  to  heal.  And  again,  to  some  is  given 
has  said  that,  "The  Spirit  giveth  the  working  of  miracles;  and  to 
light  to  every  man  that  cometh  into  others  it  is  given  to  prophesy;  and 
the  world ;  and  the  Spirit  enlighten-  to  others  the  discerning  of  spirits, 
eth  every  man  through  the  world,  And  again,  it  is  given  to  some  to 
that  hearkeneth  to  the  voice  of  the  speak  with  tongues;  and  to  another 
Spirit."  (D.  &  C.  84:46.)  No  one,  is  given  the  interpretation  of  tongues, 
therefore,  is  neglected;,  every  one  And  all  these  gifts  come  from 
receives  light,  doubtless  in  different  God,  for  the  benefit  of  the  children 
degrees,  as  the  following  statement  of  God.  And  unto  the  bishop  of  the 
declares :  "There  are  many  gifts,  church,  and  unto  such  as  God  shall 
and  to  every  man  is  given  a  gift  by  appoint  and  ordain  to  watch  over  the 
the  Spirit  of  God.  To  some  is  given  church  and  to  be  elders  unto  the 
one,  and  to  some  is  given  another,  church,  are  to  have  it  given  unto 
that  all  may  be  profited  thereby."  them  to  discern  all  those  gifts  lest 
(D.  &  C.  46:11,  12.)  Moreover,  there  shall  be  any  among  you  pro- 
considering  the  matter  of  degree,  it  fessing  and  yet  be  not  of  God."  (D. 
is  easily  conceivable  that  there  are  &  C.  46:13-27.) 

as  many  gifts  as  there  are  individu-  8.  Developed    by    Use.      It    was 

als-  pointed    out   earlier   in   this   lesson 

7.  Nature  of  the  Gifts.  Here  is  that  the  superiorities  possessed  by 
the  Lord's  enumeration:  "To  some  certain  individuals  at  the  time  of 
it  is  given  by  the  Holy  Ghost  to  birth  are  the  result  of  reaction  to  law. 
know  that  Jesus  Christ  is  the  Son  It  is  equally  true  that  after  birth 
of  God,  and  that  he  was  crucified  for  these  gifts  will  improve  with  use, 
the  sins  of  the  world.  To  others  it  and  deteriorate  with  disuse.  It  is 
is  given  to  believe  on  their  words,  unfortunate  that  the  gifted  person  is 
that  they  also  might  have  eternal  life  widely  regarded  as  especially  favor- 
if  they  continue  faithful.  And  again,  ed  of  the  Lord.  The  fact  is,  of 
to  some  it  is  given  by  the  Holy  Ghost  course,  that  he  has  complied  more 
to  know  the  differences  of  admin-  closely  with  the  law,  and  therefore 
istration,  as  it  will  be  pleasing  unto  has  received  greater  blessing.  So 
the  same  Lord,  according  as  the  far  as  known,  Deity  has  provided  no 
Lord  will,  suiting  his  mercies  accord-  means  of  improving  a  gift  except  by 
ing  to  the  conditions  of  the  children  righteously  using  it.  And  converse- 
of  men.  And  again,  it  is  given  by  ly,  he  has  provided  that  unused  or 
the  Holy  Ghost  to  some  to  know  the  neglected  gifts  shall  decline  and 
diversities  of  operations,  whether  eventually  disappear.  The  writer  of 
they  be  of  God,  that  the  manifesta-  this  lesson  once  asked  an  authority 
tions  of  the  Spirit  may  be  given  to  of  the  Church,  who  possessed  marked 
every  man  to  profit  withal.  And  prophetic  ability,  how  he  acquired 
again,  verily  I  say  unto  you,  to  some  his  gift.    He  replied  that  from  early 


110  RELIEF  SOCIETY   MAGAZINE 

manhood  he  had  prayed  to  the  Lord  as  there  are  individuals.  This  pro- 
for  its  development  and  had  used  it  motes  strength  and  solidarity.  The 
whenever  so  prompted  by  the  Spirit,  decisions  of  such  a  body  are  the 
It  is  doubtless  true,  that  many  indi-  fusion  of  a  variety  of  gifts — hence 
viduals  suppress  their  gifts  through  their  strength  and  worth, 
failure  to  use  them  as  the  Spirit  di-  12.  In  an  effort  to  explain  the  im- 
rects.  "He  that  asketh  in  the  Spirit  portance  of  the  various  gifts  and  the 
asketh  according  to  the  will  of  God ;  unity  of  purpose  for  which  they  ex- 
wherefore  it  is  done  even  as  he  ask-  ist,  Paul  the  Apostle  wrote  the  saints 
eth.  And  again,  I  say  unto  you,  all  at  Corinth  as  follows  :  "All  these 
things  must  be  done  in  the  name  of  worketh  that  one  and  the  selfsame 
Christ,  whatsoever  you  do  in  the  Spirit,  dividing  to  every  man  sever- 
Spirit ;  and  ye  must  give  thanks  unto  ally  as  he  will.  For  as  the  body  is 
God  in  the  Spirit  for  whatever  bless-  one,  and  hath  many  members,  and 
ing  ye  are  blessed  with."  (D.  &  C.  all  the  members  of  that  one  body, 
46:30-32.)  being  many,  are  one  body;  so  also 

9.  Purpose  of  the  Gifts.  Gifts  is  Christ.  For  by  one  Spirit  are  we 
are  given  for  the  benefit  of  not  only  all  baptized  into  one  body,  whether 
those  who  possess  them,  but  of  others  we  be  Jews  or  Gentiles,  whether  we 
as  well,  that  all  may  be  benefited  be  bond  or  free;  and  have  been  all 
thereby.  Gifts  are  not  given  for  made  to  drink  into  one  Spirit.  For 
ulterior  motives  or  for  the  benefit  of  the  body  is  not  one  member,  but 
those  who  seek  for  a  sign  to  consume  many.  If  the  foot  shall  say,  Because 
them  upon  their  lusts.  The  Lord  I  am  not  the  hand,  I  am  not  of  the 
says :  "They  are  given  for  the  benefit  body ;  is  it  therefore  not  of  the  body  ? 
of  those  who  love  me  and  keep  all  And  if  the  ear  shall  say,  Because  I 
my  commandments,  and  him  that  am  not  the  eye,  I  am  not  of  the  body  ; 
seeketh  so  to  do;  that  all  may  be  is  it  therefore  not  of  the  body?  If 
benefited  that  seek  or  that  ask  of  the  whole  body  were  an  eye,  where 
me,  that  ask  and  not  for  a  sign  that  were  the  hearing  ?  If  the  whole  body 
they  may  consume  it  upon  their  were  hearing,  where  were  the  smell- 
lusts."  (D.  &  C.  46:9.)  ing?    But   now   hath   God    set   the 

10.  Perhaps  God's  greatest  con-  members  every  one  of  them  in  the 
demnation  of  those  who  possess  gifts  body,  as  it  hath  pleased  him.  And  if 
and  seek  to  hide  them,  is  that  he  they  were  all  one  member,  where 
takes  the  gifts  away.  Latter-day  were  the  body  ?  *  *  *  The  eye  cannot 
Saints  should  remember  that  their  say  unto  the  hand,  I  have  no  need  of 
talents  are  intended  for  the  benefit  thee :  nor  again,  the  head  to  the  feet, 
of  others  as  well  as  of  themselves,  I  have  no  need  of  you.  *  *  *  There 
and,  moreover,  that  they  are  inten-  should  be  no  schism  in  the  body, 
sified  through  proper  use.  *  *  *  Ye  are  the  body  of  Christ,  and 

11.  Variety  of  Gifts.  It  is  great  members  in  particular"  (I  Corin- 
wisdom    that    God    should    give    a  thians  12:11-27.) 

variety  of  gifts  to  his  children.     If  13.  Seek  earnestly  the  Best  Gifts. 

this  had  not  been  done,  all  would  The  Lord  is  doubtless  more  ambi- 

not  profit  thereby,  and  symmetry  of  tious  for  his  people  than  many  of 

development  would  be  unknown.  Or-  them  are  for  themselves.     He  has 

dinarily  in  a  council  of  Latter-day  repeatedly  urged  them  to  search  for 

Saints  there  are  nearly  as  many  gifts  the  higher  things  of  life,  and   has 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT  111 

promised  that  he  will  not  turn  them  commandments,  and  him  that  seek- 
away.     "Draw  near  unto  me  and  I  eth  so  to  do;  that  all  may  be  bene- 
will  draw  near  unto  you;  seek  me  fited  that  seek  or  that  ask  of  me." 
diligently  and  ye  shall  find  me;  ask,  (D.  &  C.  46:8,  9.) 
and  ye  shall  receive;  knock  and  it  ~           ,.         .      ^. 
shall  be  opened  unto  you.   Whatso-  Suggestions  for  Discussion 

1  i.i.    t?  4.u     •              ~,    '4.  and  Review 
ever  ye  ask  the  r  ather  in  my  name  it 

shall  be  given  unto  you,  that  is  ex-  1 .  Why  is  it  necessary  to  obey  law 

pedient    for   you."     (D.    &   C.   88:  in  order  to  obtain  blessing? 

63,  64.)  2.  What,  then,  is  your  conception 

14.  The    Lord    has    warned    his  of  the  term  "gift"  as  used  in  this 

people  that  the  evil  one  is  attempting  lesson  ? 

to    imitate    his    gifts,    and     says:  3.  Why  is  it  impossible  for  gifts 

"Wherefore,  beware  lest  ye  are  de-  to  improve  without  use? 

ceived;  and  that  ye  may  not  be  de-  4.  What  responsibilities  does  the 

ceived  seek   ye   earnestly    the    best  possession  of  a  gift  entail? 

gifts,  always  remembering  for  what  5.  Why  are  gifts  withdrawn  when 

they  are  given;  for  verily  I  say  unto  they  are  not  used? 

you,  they  are  given  for  the  benefit  of  6.  Is  it  possible  to  obtain  some- 

those  who  love  me  and  keep  all  my  thing  for  nothing  in  nature  ?  Explain. 

Teachers'  Topic 

BELIEVE  IN  YOURSELF— TRUST  YOUR  FELLOW-MAN— 

HAVE  FAITH  IN  GOD 

"Hold  on  to  your  self-respect."  Wm.    Lyon    Phelps    said,    "The 

The  most  destructive   fear  is  that  world  counts  only  things  done  and 

which  destroys  confidence  in  one's  not    things    attempted    because   the 

self.     It  kills  the  "try"  in  him.     It  world's    standards   are   too   coarse, 

is  so  much  better  to  take  a  chance,  .  .  .  One  cannot  weigh  diamonds  on 

than  to  do  nothing  at  all.  hay  scales."     Sincere  effort  though 

No  one  is  defeated  until  he  admits  followed    by    disappointment    must 

it.  count  for  something.    Enduring  uni- 

Women  can  and  will  succeed  in  versal  values  make  up  our  standard 

the  task  that  lies  before  them.  of  measurement. 

Women  have  always  put  the  heart  Confidence  in  one  another  and  in 

into     every     great     human     battle,  a  new  and  better  era  is  essential  to 

Woman's  confidence  protects  the  ray  success.  Wie  are  encouraged  to  fight 

of  hope  in  each  member  of  her  fam-  our  way  through  because  we  believe 

ily.    She  trusts  each  one,  she  believes  ultimately  evil  will  be  overcome  with 

each  one  will  rise  to  the  needs  of  the  good. 

hour.  Our  confidence  in  the  future  New  hope  was  aroused  when  the 
and  in  one  another  was  many  times  president  of  the  United  States  said 
demonstrated  during  the  bank  holi-  in  his  inaugural  address:  "In  this 
day.  We  were  refreshed  by  the  dedication  of  a  nation  we  humbly  ask 
sense  of  equality  and  the  feelings  the  blessings  of  God.  May  He  pro- 
of universal  confidence.  tect  each  and  every  one  of  us.    May 

In  all  the  lives  of  all  God's  chil-  He  guide  me  in  the  days  to  come." 

dren    is    much,    not    measured    by  Let  us  put  our  trust  in  ourselves 

worldly  success.  and  in  one  another  and  in  God. 


112 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


Literature 

(Third  Week  in  April) 

LIFE  AND  LITERATURE 

The  Romantic  Spirit 


"O  hark,  O  hear!  how  thin  and  clear, 
And   thinner,    clearer,    farther   going! 
O  sweet  and  far  from  cliff  and  scar 
The  horns  of  Elfland  faintly  blowing!" 
"The  Bugle  Song" — Tennyson 

Books  are  dream  children.  To  all 
men  comes  the  chance  to  dream, 
Some  in  dreams  are  eternal  vaga- 
bonds, roaming  the  world  at  large ; 
some  in  dreams  are  rulers  and  poten- 
tates, holding  mankind  in  their 
power ;  some  in  dreams  are  reform- 
ers, seeking  to  refine  the  lives  of 
men ;  some  in  dreams  are  creators 
of  symphonies,  maintaining  the 
things  of  the  spirit  in  a  material 
world ;  but  all  dream  of  Love  be- 
cause it  is  the  way  of  Happiness. 

The  Way  of  Romance. 

The  voice  of  Youth  is  the  voice 
of  Romance.  Youth,  whether  of  an 
individual  or  of  a  race,  is  a  time  of 
emotional  reaction  rather  than  of 
philosophic  reflection.  Much  of  the 
youthful  expression  of  the  world 
has  been  lost  because  it  existed  orally. 
When  we  can  trace  the  expression 
of  the  youth  of  a  race,  we  find  songs 
of  war,  of  worship,  and  of  love. 
Western  Europe  enjoyed  its  youth 
when  the  world  was  no  longer  young, 
and  thus  recorded  in  permanent 
form  its  youthful  expression.  The 
Middle  Ages  was  the  youth  of  West- 
ern Europe. 

The  master  spirit  of  Romance  in 
Europe  was  the  Celtic  race.  The 
Celts  were  young  when  Greece  and 
Italy  were  young.  They  were  vaga- 
bonds for  ages,  wandering  on  and  on 
to  the  West.     Coming  to  the  ocean 


they  settled  in  France  and  Britain. 
The  Celts  were  a  childlike  people 
with  a  happy,  radiant  view  of  life. 
To  them  the  world  was  but  a  frag- 
ment of  a  more  beautiful  world  of 
eternal  youth,  where  those  who  have 
lived  honorable  lives  in  this  life 
dwell  in  perfect  happiness.  He  was 
a  wanderer  because  life  to  him  was 
an  endless  quest,  a  profound  sense 
of  the  future  ruled  him.  Driven  to 
the  fringes  of  the  British  Isles  by 
Romans,  Angles,  Saxons,  and  Danes, 
they  lived  in  comparative  freedom 
for  many  centuries  maintaining  their 
racial  temperament.  To  the  Celts 
we  owe  a  large  body  of  charming 
tales,  from  which  we  know  that  they 
had  a  high  sense  of  personal  honor 
and  that  they  held  women  in  great 
respect.  From  them  the  world  first 
received  the  stories  of  Saint  Bren- 
den's  marvelous  voyage,  of  King 
Arthur's  passing  to  Avalon,  and  of 
Sir  Tristram's  love  for  the  beautiful 
Iseult.  These  stories  have  permeated 
many  literatures  and  have  delighted 
readers  young  and  old  of  many  lands 
for  nearly  a  thousand  years. 

Christianity  and  Feudalism  were 
the  forces  that  brought  about  the 
emergence  of  Western  Europe  from 
the  Dark  Ages.  Feudalism  was  a 
practical  form  of  government  of 
peasants  and  overlords  swearing  al- 
legiance to  a  ruler.  A  system  of 
chivalric  behavior  evolved  which  em- 
bodied with  government  ideals  of 
nobility  derived  from  Christian  prin- 
ciples. The  supreme  figure  of  chiv- 
alry was  the  knight.  The  romance 
of    chivalry    found    expression    in 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT  113 

songs  of  valiant  knights  and  courtly  love  of  a  beautiful  maid,  Aude.  The 
love.  On  the  other  hand  Christianity  poem  as  it  records  the  critical  strug- 
with  its  spirituality  and  its  monastic  gle  of  France  against  its  pagan 
life  was  the  source  of  the  moral  in-  enemy,  recounts  the  treachery  of 
fluence  brought  to  medieval  life.  The  Ganelon,  who  to  satisfy  his  deep- 
saint  was  the  supreme  figure  of  seated  enmity  against  Roland,  be- 
Christianity.  The  priest  was  a  li-  trays  the  rearguard  of  Charlemagne's 
brarian,  copying  the  manuscript  re-  army,  the  details  of  the  great  battle 
cords,  also  was  he  a  teacher  instruct-  at  Roncesvalles,  and  the  loving  de- 
ing  the  common  people  in  the  prin-  votion  of  Oliver  as  he  faced  death 
ciples  of  Christian  life  by  reciting  with  his  friend  Roland.  The  ro- 
and  reading  to  them  Bible  stories,  mance  does  more  than  merely  re- 
saints  lives,  and  sermons.  Medieval  cord  heroic  details ;  it  reveals  the 
literature  is  marked  with  the  same  basic  elements  of  the  spirit  of  the 
vigor,  beauty,  and  spiritual  aspira-  French-aristocratic  idealism,  loyal 
tion  as  is  found  in  the  tapestries  from  vassalage,  fearlessness  of  thought, 
feudal  halls  and  in  the  sculpture  in  comradeship,  and  a  love  of  pageantry 
the  Gothic  cathedrals  of  Europe.  and  formality. 

The  richest  and  deepest  symbol  of 

Medieval  Romance.  the  religious  exaltation  attained  in 

medieval  life  was  the  Holy  Grail. 

National     heroes     and     knights,  The  Grail  was  the  cup  used  by  Jesus 

priests  and  saints,  lords  and  ladies,  and  his  disciples  at  the  Last  Supper, 

make  up  the  body  of  medieval  ro-  According  to  tradition  it  was  brought 

mance,   created  first  by  troubadors  t0  Britain  by  Joseph  of  Arimathea 

and  minnesingers  and  recorded  later  and  deposited  at  the  abbey  at  Glas- 

by  national  poets.    The  songs  of  the  tonbury,  where  it  was  committed  to 

romancers  may  be  grouped  as  fol-  the  keeping  of  the  Knights  of  the 

lows :  first,  songs  of  great  deeds,  ex-  Grail      Upon   the    f ailure    of   that 

pressing  loyalty  to  one's  lord  and  de-  group  to  nve  up  t0  ;ts  holy  vows, 

light    in    combat    in    his    defence;  the    Grail    disappeared.      Going   in 

second,  songs  of  spiritual  struggle  quest  of  it  constituted  the  highest 

and  exaltation;  third,  songs  01  ro-  adventure  of  medieval  knighthood, 

mantic  love  and  courtly  honor.  In   French  literature  the  Grail  ro- 

Arthur  of  Britain  and  Charle-  mance  is  told  by  Chretian  or  Troyes 
magne  of  France  are  the  central  making  Parceval  the  hero  of  the 
figures  of  cycles  of  heroic  narra-  quest.  In  German  literature  the 
tives.  "The  Song  of  Roland"  pre-  romance  of  the  Grail  has  for  its  hero 
sents  in  epic  splendor  the  French  Parzival,  a  saintly  knight.  Thus 
national  hero,  Roland.  Roland,  the  we  have  the  heroes  of  the  two  chiv- 
nephew  of  Charlemagne,  was  the  alries,  one  earthly  and  one  spiritual, 
hero  of  the  great  conflict  between  Sir  Thomas  Malory  in  the  English 
the  French  and  the  pagan  Basques  version  of  the  Grail  romance  makes 
of  Spain.  The  romance  makes  Galahad  a  spiritual  hero  worthy  of 
Roland  a  Christian  hero  defending  the  quest  because  of  his  emancipa- 
tes country  against  the  pagans,  and  tion  as  an  earthly  hero, 
gives  to  the  hero  a  faithful  friend,  To  medieval  romance  must  be  at- 
Oliver;  a  wicked  enemy,  Ganelon;  tributed  a  significant  literary  devel- 
an  invincible  sword,  Durendal ;  the  opment,    that    of    creating    women 


114  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

characters.  How  different  are  Guin-  Upon  his  return  Tristram  sings  the 
evere,  Iseult,  Enid,  and  Deidra  than  praises  of  the  beautiful  Princess 
Helen,  Penolope,  and  Cleopatra?  Iseult,  daughter  of  the  Queen  of 
They  are  so  very  human  and  so  very  Ireland.  Tristram  is  dispatched  to 
real.  During  the  Dark  Ages  woman  obtain  the  beautiful  Iseult  as  a  bride 
was  not  only  the  inferior  of  man  for  King  Mark.  The  young  people 
but  she  was  his  evil  genius.  With  become  lovers.  Finally,  Tristram  is 
the  coming  of  Christianity  and  the  banished  to  Brittany.  After  many 
reverence  given  to  Mary,  the  mother  years  he  marries  Iseult  of  Brittany, 
of  Jesus,  by  the  Holy  Roman  Again  being  near  death  Tristram 
Church,  woman  was  elevated  and  sends  for  the  Queen  of  Cornwall, 
love  was  spiritualized.  These  ideals  The  jealousy  of  Iseult  of  Brittany 
were  appropriated  by  society  and  keeps  from  Tristram  the  news  ot  the 
became  the  ideals  of  marriage.  One  queen's  arrival  with  the  messenger, 
of  the  many  beautiful  stories  exem-  Tristram  dies  of  a  broken  heart, 
plars  of  courtly  love  which  grew  in  When  Queen  Iseult  finds  her  lover 
this  period  of  romance  is  the  story  dead  she  expires  by  his  side.  The 
of  the  love  of  Tristram  and  Iseult.  bodies  are  sent  to  Cornwall  and  the 
Chretian  of  Troyes  is  responsible  for  king  knowing  the  truith  of  their 
the  French  version  of  the  romance,  tragic  love  for  one  another  had  a 
Gottfried  von  Strassburg  for  the  beautiful  chapel  erected  for  their 
German  version,  and  Thomas  of  tombs-  Medieval  literature,  tapes- 
Britain  for  the  English  version.  It  tries  and  carvings  recorded  the  story 
will  be  recalled  that  Wagner,  the  ?f  Tristrarn  and  Iseult  En  many 
great  German  composer,  utilized  the  f1orms ;  mode™  Poets  have  used  the 
themes  of  these  medieval  romances  th1eme  frequently ;  today  the  romance 
in  his  music  dramas  "Parsifal"  and  ^s  its  place  with  the  loves  of  Helen 
"Tristan  and  Isolde".  and  Pans>  of  L^cdat  and  Guine- 

vere,  of  Romeo  and  Juliet,  of  Ab- 

Tristram  and  Iseult.  Ieard  and  Heloise' 

The  story  of  the  love  of  Tristram  The  Princess-Alfred  Tennyson. 
and  Iseult  is  one  of  the  great  love  The  Princess,  a  romantic  medley, 
stories  of  all  time.  The  origin  of  is  a  delightful  romance  as  well  as  a 
the  story  was  veiled  in  mystery  until  beautiful  poetic  creation.  It  is  the 
Lady  Gregory  gave  to  the  world  the  work  of  Alfred  Tennyson,  the  poetic 
beautiful  translation  of  the  Celtic  genius  that  created  "The  Idylls  of 
saga.  "Cuchulain"  (ku  hu  Ian),  the  King,"  a  masterpiece  of  lofty 
which  contains  the  tragic  struggle  of  thought  in  exquisite  poetic  style,  and 
an  uncle  and  his  nephews  for  the  "In  Memoriam"  with  its  soul-stir- 
love  of  the  most  beautiful  woman  in  ring  power. 

Ireland.     Knightly  romance  makes  The  poem  has  for  its  theme  the 

Tristram  the  hero.  An  orphan  trained  emancipation  of  woman,  a  great  pro- 

in  knightly  accomplishments,  he  be-  blem,  one  causing  great  diversity  of 

comes  the  favorite  at  the  court  of  his  opinion  ever  since  its  definite  formu- 

uncle  King  Mark  of  Cornwall.  Suf-  lation  with  the  co-education  of  the 

fering  from  a  mortal  wound  Tris-  sexes.    At  the  time  Tennyson  wrote 

tram  seeks  healing  from  the  magic'  it,  1847,  it  was  a  new  one,  the  Uni- 

powers  of  Queen  Iseult  of  Ireland,  versity  of   London  had  opened  its 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT  115 

doors  to  woman  for  the  first  time  "Quick  answered  Lilia,  There  are 

and  the  University  of  St.  Andrews,  thousands  now 

Scotland,  was  preparing  to   follow  Such  women,  but  convention  beats 

suit.    The  poem  is  not  a  philosophi-  them  down 

cal  treatise  abounding  in  lofty  argu-        O  I  wish 

ment  or  emotional  persuasion,  but  it  That  I  were  some  great  princess,  I 

is  a  delightful  exhibition  of  a  very  would  build 

natural  chain  of  circumstances  glori-  Far  off  from  men  a  college  like  a 

fying  the  traditional  conception  of  man's                          ^ 

the  spiritual  place  of  woman  in  the  And  I  would  teach  them  all  that 

scheme  of  life.     The  incidents  de-  men  are  taught; 

picted,  the  playful  mood,  and  the  W)e  are  twice  as  quick !'  " 

poetic  expression  blend  harmoniously  _,            t  ,                   ,              ,( 

in  an  exquisite  tone  picture.    There  .  The"  a"d  there  says  the  poet    we 

is  so  much  tenderness,  such  simple  Planneda  f.m™er  s  *al\  as  Walter 

dignity  of  expression,  that  so  long  suggested  Liha .was  the  heroine  and 

as  the  English  language  is  loved  and  each  ln  turn  added  hls  chaPter : 

spoken  "The  Princess"  and  its  songs,  "So  I  began 

"Sweet   and   Low,"   "Ask   Me   No  And   the   rest   followed;   and   the 

More,"  "The  Bugle  Song,"  will  hold  women  sang 

a  reverenced  place.  Between  the  rougher  voices  of  the 

The  Prologue.  .       ™en 

Like  linnets  in  the  pauses  of  the 

The  broad  acres  and  stately  old  wind." 
mansion  of  Sir  Walter  Vivian  are 

crowded  with  guests  the  peasants  of  Rpisode  j_The  prince>s  St 
the   countryside   and    the    personal 

friends  of  the  family.  The  host  had  The  prince  of  an  ancient  kingdom 
provided  all  that  entertainment  could  was  betrothed  at  an  early  age  to  a 
provide  for  his  guests.  The  poet  is  neighboring  princess.  At  his  matur- 
the  college  friend  of  the  son  of  Sir  ity  his  father  sends  ambassadors  with 
Walter.  As  he  strolls  through  the  appropriate  gifts  requesting  that  the 
halls  he  is  interested  in  the  curios  compact  be  filled.  The  Princess  de- 
scattered  around.  He  is  particularly  nounces  the  arrangement  because  she 
attracted  to  an  old  family  chronicle  has  other  plans  for  her  life.  The 
containing  a  glowing  account  of  "the  prince  attended  by  his  friends,  Flori- 
feudal  lady  of  the  family"  who  an  and  Cyril,  presents  himself  at  the 
armed  and  led  her  followers  against  neighboring  court.  They  are  re- 
a  foe  threatening  her  domains — "O  ceived  graciously  by  the  king,  Gama. 
miracle  of  noble  womanhood!"  said  He  is  enthusiastic  still  to  have  the 
the  chronicle.  The  poet  is  carried  betrothal  compact  enforced,  and  is 
away  by  a  group  of  merrymakers  embarrassed  at  his  daughter's  obstin- 
to  join  the  family  at  the  Abbey,  acy.  The  headstrong  princess  as- 
There  the  conversation  drifted  aim-  sisted  by  two  older  women,  Lady 
lessly  until  the  feudal  ancestress  is  Psyche  and  Lady  Blanche,  has 
mentioned.  At  recital  of  her  bravery  founded  a  university  for  women.  The 
Walter,  playfully  patting  his  sister's  prince  and  his  friends  disguised  as 
head  asks,  "Lives  there  such  a  worn-  "three  ladies  of  the  Northern  em- 
an  now?"  pire"  present  themselves  at  the  uni- 


116 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


versity  requesting  the  privilege  of 
enrollment. 

Episode  II — The   University. 

The  new  students  are  first  re- 
ceived by  the  College  Portress,  who 
sees  that  they  are  fittingly  robed  in 
academic  silks.  They  are  then  taken 
to  Princess  Ida.  At  her  request  the 
statutes  of  the  university  were  read 
by  an  officer  which  included  the 
rules : 

"Not  for  three  years  to  correspond 
with  home; 
Not  for  three  years  to  speak  to  any 
men :" 

Then  followed  a  lecture  by  Princess 
Ida  on  the  lives  of  such  women  as 
Semiramis,  the  legendary  founder  of 
Babylon;  Artemisia,  the  brave  as- 
sistant of  Heres  on  his  Grecian  ex- 
pedition; Rhodope,  the  Egyptian 
princess  reputed  to  have  built  a  pyra- 
mid ;  Agrippina,  Cornelia,  and  Celia, 
famous  Roman  matrons.  Upon  be- 
ing assigned  as  pupils  of  Lady 
Psyche  they  listen  to  a  lecture  prais- 
ing the  legendary  Amazons,  Eliza- 
beth of  England,  Joan  of  France, 
Sappho  of  Greece  and  concluded 
with  the  prophecy  for  the  future  of 
women : 

"Everywhere 
Two  heads  in  council,  two  beside 

the  hearth, 
Two  in  the  tangled  business  of  the 

world, 
Two  in  the  liberal  offices  of  life." 

Talking  to  the  new  pupils  after  the 
lecture,  Lady  Psyche  recognizes  her 
brother  Florian.  At  first  she  is  in- 
dignant, reminding  him  of  the  in- 
scription on  the  gate,  "Let  no  man 
enter  in  on  pain  of  death."  Finally, 
she  yields  to  the  entreating  arms  of 
her  brother  pouring  forth  a  torrent 


of  questions  about  home  showing 
that  her  heart  is  hungry  for  "sweet 
household  talk"  and  "phrases  of  the 
hearth."  Melissa,  Lady  Psyche's 
little  daughter,  enters  to  witness  a 
scene  very  foreign  to  the  atmosphere 
of  the  university.  She  is  sworn  to 
secrecy.  Still  in  disguise  the  visitors 
stroll  about  the  campus  until  the 
organ  of  the  chapel  peals  forth  its 
melodious  call  for  assembly.  Then 
six  hundred  maidens  clad  in  purest 
white  assemble  to  hear  the  psalms 
and  litanies  as  Princess  Ida  invokes 
the  blessings  of  heaven  on  her  labors 
for  the  cause  of  women. 


Episode  III — The  Princess. 

A  song  is  sung — one  of  the  most 
exquisite  of  Tennyson's  songs, 
"Sweet  and  Low."  In  contrast  to 
the  scene  just  pictured  is  that  of  a 
mother  crooning  a  prayerful  lullabye 
to  her  babe  as  they  await  the  sailor 
husband  and  father. 

Melissa  meets  the  new  pupils  at 
the  fountain  as  they  are  enjoying  the 
morning  splendor,  and  beseeches 
them  to  fly.  At  the  request  of  Flori- 
an, Melissa  relates  in  detail  the  uni- 
versity scheme  and  its  administra- 
tion. Melissa  reveals  that  there  ex- 
ists a  definite  rivalry  between  the 
two  women,  Lady  Psyche  and  Lady 
Blanche.  Cyril  acting  upon  this  in- 
formation gains  entrance  to  Lady 
Blanche,  and  pleads  the  suit  of  his 
friend.  Later  all  participate  in  a 
geology  trip,  and  by  design  the 
prince  and  Ida  are  much  together. 
Pleading  for  himself  the  prince  sug- 
gests : 

"Might  I  dread  that  you, 
With  only  fame  for  spouse  and  your 

great  deeds 
For  issue,   yet  may  live  in  vain, 

and  miss, 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


117 


Meanwhile,     what    every    woman 

counts  her  due, 
Love,  children  happiness." 

The  Princess  answers  giving*  her 
preference  for  deeds  that  cannot  die. 
The  prince  listened  and  wondered  if 
this  strange  poet-princess  could  ever 
be  won.  The  scene  closes  with  the 
evening  shadows  and  the  echoes  of 
"The  Bugle  Song"  resounding  the 
message : 

"Our  echoes  roll  from  soul  to  soul 
And  grow  forever  and  forever." 

Episode  IV — Tumult. 

The  beauty  of  the  evening  lures  all. 
At  the  command  of  the  Princess,  a 
maiden  takes  a  harp  and  sings  the 
song  "Tears,  Idle  Tears."  To  the 
song's  message  the  princess  is  dis- 
dainful. The  prince  is  asked  to 
contribute  to  the  evening's  pastime, 
and  in  an  aping  treble  sings  "O, 
Swallow  Flying  South."  Cyril,  then, 
is  asked  to  sing  a  song  of  his  country- 
women. With  a  show  of  humor  he 
sings  an  old  ballad  of  two  indelicate 
creatures,  "Moll  and  Meg."  The 
indignant  women  call  "forbear,"  and 
the  prince  smites  Cyril  on  the  breast. 
Tumult  reigns  and  the  prince  and 
his  companions  are  discovered.  At 
this  point  dispatches  are  delivered 
to  the  Princess,  one  is  from  the  king 
acquainting  her  of  the  fact  that  he 
has  been  taken  as  hostage  for  the 
safe  keeping  of  the  prince,  the  other 
is  from  the  father  of  the  prince  de- 
manding the  fulfilment  of  the  be- 
trothal compact  before  the  aged 
Gama  can  be  released.  The  prince 
pleads  his  cause  and  is  scornfully 
refused  by  Princess  Ida.  A  con- 
ference of  students  is  called  to  decide 
whether  the  university  scheme  be 
continued  or  not.  Lilia  now  sings 
"Thy  Voice  Is  Heard  Through  Roll- 


ing Drums,"  flinging  anger  against 
the  raillery  thus  far  spoken  against 
her  idea. 

Episode  V — The  Combat. 

The  prince  and  Florian  return 
home  to  find  Cyril  and  Lady  Psyche 
already  there.  King  Gama  is  freed 
but  is  ordered  to  make  his  daughter 
yield  or  war  will  ensue.  The  prince 
consults  the  king  but  to  no  avail,  so 
he  goes  to  consult  Ida's  brothers. 
The  three  brothers  of  the  Princess 
decide  to  fight  the  prince  and  his 
two  friends  rather  than  to  throw  the 
country  into  war.  On  hearing  of 
the  intended  combat,  the  king  in 
wrath  declares : 

"Man  for  the  field,  and  woman  for 

the  hearth, 
Man   for  the  sword   and    for  the 

needle  she, 
Man  with  the  head  and  woman  with 

the  heart, 
Man  to  command  and  woman  to 

obey. 
All  else  confusion." 

The  combat  is  held  as  arranged,  and 
the  prince  and  the  sons  of  Gama  are 
wounded. 

Episode  VI — Conquest. 

The  song  "Home  They  Brought 
Her  Warrior  Dead"  is  very  fittingly 
placed  here.  Princess  Ida  hearing 
of  the  combat  leads  a  train  of 
maidens  across  the  park  to  where 
her  wounded  brothers  lay.  By 
chance,  she  passes  the  king  bent  in 
grief  over  the  motionless  form  of 
his  son.  Yielding  to  her  heart  she 
orders  the  prince  to  be  moved  to  the 
college  along  with  her  wounded 
brothers.  The  king  refuses,  demand- 
ing that  his  son  be  removed  to  the 
tents  for  safety.  Now  the  Princess 
pleads  her  cause: 


118 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


"O  Sire, 
Grant  me  your   son  to  nurse,  to 

wait  upon  him 
Like  mine   own  brother,    for   my 

debt  to  him." 

The  injured  men  are  removed  to  the 
college. 

Episode  VII — Submission. 

The  last  scene  of  the  romance 
opens  with  the  exquisite  song  "Ask 
Me  No  More."  The  college  is  turned 
into  a  hospital  and  kindness  and 
sympathy  take  the  place  of  cold  logic. 
The  Princess  is  sad  with  a  sense  of 
shame  at  her  foolishness.  Love  in 
the  sacred  halls  holds  carnival  when 
the  Princess  yields  to  her  lover.  As 
the  random  story  closes,  Walter  ex- 
claims, "I  wish  she  had  not  yielded." 
Lilia  remained  silent  for  the  tale 
had  touched  her. 

Tennyson  made  the  woman  prob- 
lem solvable  by  love;  he  had  an 
abiding  faith  in  its  spirituality.  The 
romance  implied  that  women  do  not 
want  less  emotion  but  larger  emo- 
tion; they  need  more  love  not  less, 
more  universal  love  and  less  selfish 
love ;  more  sense  of  beauty,  art,  and 
right.  The  work  of  the  world  lies 
open  to  women  for  "The  woman's 
cause  is  man's ;  they  rise  or  fall  to- 
gether." Each  must  contribute  their 
diversity  to  be  combined  harmoni- 
ously. The  heart  of  the  problem  re- 
mains unaltered  in  spite  of  the  years 
that  have  passed.  In  the  lines  that 
follow  the  poet  pays  tribute  to  his 
mother  as  he  expresses  his  ideal  of 
womanhood : 

"Not  perfect,  nay,  but  full  of  tender 
wants, 


No  angel,  but  a  dearer  being,  all 
dipt 

In  angel  instincts,  breathing  Para- 
dise, 

Interpreter  between  the  gods  and 
men, 

Happy  he 

With    such    a    mother!     faith    in 
womankind, 

Beats  with  his  blood,  and  trust  in 
all  things  high 

Comes  easy  to  him." 

The  spirit  of  Romance  is  the  spirit 
of  Love. 


Suggestions  for  Study. 

A.  Materials: 

1.  The  S(tory  of  the  World's 
Literature — Macy.  Chapters 
13-16. 

2.  The  Princess — Tennyson. 

3.  Old  Fashioned  Tales,  Hero 
Tales,  Folk  Tales — from  the 
Harvard  Junior  Classics.  Vol- 
umes 6,  7. 

B.  Program : 

1.  Music 

a.  Songs  from  "The  Princess" 
— by  Tennyson. 

2.  Discussion 

a.  The  Romantic  Spirit. 

3.  Review 

a.  The  Princess. 

b.  The  Love  Story  of  Tris- 
tram and  Iseult. 

C.  Method: 

This  is  a  lesson  of  interesting 
significance  to  women.  Make  it 
Delightful. 

Note :  Select  from  this  lesson  the  part 
that  you  prefer.  The  whole  of  the  lesson 
cannot  be  covered. 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


119 


Social  Service 

(Fourth  Week  in  April) 
Play  and  Play  Facilities 


LESSON  XVI 

Two  changes  have  taken  place  in 
the  parental  point  of  view  regarding" 
play  The  industrial  conditions  have 
been  modified  so  that  there  is  little 
place  for  children  as  workers.  The 
time  of  the  child  must  be  occupied  in 
other  ways  and  play  has  become 
more  important.  Parents  no  longer 
think  of  play  versus  work  in  the  life 
of  a  child  and  strive  to  reduce  play 
as  the  evil  contender.  The  second 
attitude  has  been  caused  by  the  psy- 
chological demonstrations  of  the  de- 
velopmental value  of  play  in  child 
care.  It  is  no  longer  considered  evil  to 
play.  Even  governmental  agencies 
plan  to  support  play  programs  and 
places  for  recreation.  The  aim  of 
this  lesson  is  to  make  this  change  in 
point  of  view  more  prominent  in  the 
minds  of  the  class  members  and  to 
give  them  some  practical  sugges- 
tions for  directing  play  as  a  part  of 
child  care.  The  lesson  should  be 
taught  in  such  a  way  as  to  answer 
the  following  questions : 

How  can  play  be  made  to  contrib- 
ute most  to  the  health  of  children? 

How  can  play  be  made  to  contrib- 
ute most  to  the  socialization  of  the 
child? 

How  can  play  itself  be  kept  most 
happy  for  children? 

What  provisions  for  space  and 
equipment  in  the  home  and  the  com- 
munity are  possible  for  the  members 
of  each  class? 

Suggestions  for  Procedure : 

1.  Have  each  class  member  pre- 
pare a  list  of  the  places  available  for 
her  children  to  play  both  at  home 


and  in  the  community;  the  type  of 
play  equipment  at  each  place;  the 
sanitary  conditions  of  each  place; 
the  accident  hazzards  that  are  there ; 
and  the  safeguards  provided  against 
accident.  With  these  lists  as  bases 
discuss  the  healthfulness  of  play  in 
the  community.  Stress  especially 
freedom  from  accident,  proper 
amount  of  fresh  air  play  ;  and  games, 
etc.,  suited  to  the  children.  Have 
a  class  member  report  on  the  Physi- 
cal Education  suggestion  given  in 
White  House  Conference  Report,  pp. 
177  and  218-220. 

2.  Discuss  the  material  outlined  in 
the  reading  guide  in  order  to  make 
clear  the  socializing  problems  con- 
nected with  play. 

3.  Have  the  class  define  "leisure." 
Have  them  see  clearly  that  training 
for  the  worthy  use  of  leisure  is  es- 
sentially training  in  play  activities. 
To  learn  to  use  leisure  properly 
children  must  learn  what  play  ac- 
tivities are  possible ;  they  must  learn 
to  use  all  of  the  available  facilities, 
and  the  process  must  be  so  happy 
that  they  will  want  to  repeat  these 
wholesome  activities  when  they  are 
free  to  choose  and  when  enjoyment 
is  their  chief  aim. 

Have  a  class  member  report  on  the 
material  found  in  the  White  House 
Conference  Report  pp.  253-262. 

Have  a  special  report  on  how  read- 
ing may  be  made  jnto  happy  play 
based  on  the  White  House  Confer- 
ence Report  pp.  262-265. 

Happiness  at  play  depends  upon 
the  adaptation  of  the  activity  to  the 
stage  of  development  of  the  child. 
Have  a  class  member  make  an  inter- 
pretation of  the  quotation  from  Miss 


120  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Harrison's  story  "Jade  and  the  Alley  gested    for   avoiding   the   evils    of 

Boys'j  given  in  the  supplementary  gangs? 

material.      Have   a    similar    report  What  is  meant  by  "natural  im- 

made  on  the  quotations  on  play  from  pulses  for  physical  and  mental  ac- 

Faegre  and  Andersen  :   "Child  Care  tivilty  ?"      Is   a    "natural    impulse" 

and  Training."  more  difficult  to  control?     What  is 

Happiness  at  play  depends  on  the  the  relation  of  this  idea  of  natural- 
possibility  of  a  wide  variety  of  ac-  ness  to  the  last  sentence  in  the  quo- 
tivities — not  just  physical.  When  tation  from  the  Committee  on  the 
children  or  primitive  people  use  lei-  Socially  Handicapped  as  given  at  the 
sure  they  create.  Read  to  the  class  top  of  page  4? 
the  short  extract  "What  is  recrea-  Is  the  discussion  on  commercial 
tion"  from  the  supplementary  mate-  types  of  amusement  designed  to  do 
rial.                                                        !  away  with  these,  to  urge  more  com- 

4.  In    studying    the    problem    of  munity  centers,  to  urge  more  attrac- 

equipping    for   adequate   recreation  tive  community  centers,  to  urge  a 

discuss  first  the  reading  guide.  Then  different  program  in  community  cen- 

have  a  report  made  on  the  effect  of  ters,  or  for  some  other  reason  ? 

economic  status  as  discussed  in  the  How  can  children  be  led  to  "know 

White  House  Conference  Report,  pp.  other  kinds  of  leisure  time  activity"  ? 

141-145.  p.  25. 

Topical  reports  from  the  White  The  attitude  expressed  regarding 

House  Conference  Report  might  be  the  influence  of  companions  is  rather 

made  as  follows :  revolutionary.      Have   you   thought 

Place  and  Play  pp.  216.  the  same  way?    Do  you  agree  now? 

The  school  Age  pp.  218-221.  On  page  27  is  a  quotation  from  Pres- 

Outside  the  School  pp.  221-228.  ident  Hoover.    What  does  he  mean 

Study  the  lists  of  playthings  given  by     "imaginative      surroundings  ?" 

in   the   supplementary   material   as  What    does    the    author    mean    by 

suggestions  for  homes.  "children's  lives  are  lived  construc- 

Reading  guide  for  class  members:  tively"  in  the  next  sentence? 

Personality,  pp.  21-30.  Some     definite     suggestions     on 

Play  is  not  formally  defined.  There  things  to  do  are  given.     These  will 

is   an   implied   relationship  of  play  be  of  no  value  if  you  just  read  them, 

with   "new   experience,"   "growth,"  What  can  you  do  about  any  of  them 

"adventure,"  "group  life,"  "widening  in  your  community  ? 

interests,"  "leisure  time  opportuni-  ,                            . 

ties,"  "play  interests."    Take  time  to  Supplementary  material : 

work  out  these  relationships  as  you  1.  Harrison:  "Jack  and  the  Alley 

read.  Boys." 

The  positive  development  values  of  Jack  went  to  play  with  the  boys 

play  are  listed  on  page  22.    A  pencil  in  the  alley,  took  part  in  throwing 

and  paper  will  help  you  in  isolating  rocks  and  was  arrested.     He  was 

and  learning  these.  just  seven  years  old.     His  mother 

There    seems    to    be    implied    a  came  for  help, 

special  fear  of  the  "gang".    Do  you  "I   don't  see  why  Jack  can't  be 

share  this   fear?     Is  it  possible  to  satisfied  with  his  toys  and  his  picture 

prevent    the    formation    of    gangs?  book,"  she  continued  ;  he  used  to  like 

What  positive  safeguards  are  sug-  them  and   to  play  with  me  in   his 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT  121 

nursery.  But  now  nothing  seems  to  trude  coming  across  the  lot,  both 
satisfy  him  but  to  be  with  those  hor-  warm  and  flushed  by  their  rapid 
rid  Sloam  boys."  Then  she  wished  walk.  They  were  chattering  merrily 
the  Sloam  boys  would  move  out  of  together,  evidently  they  were  just 
the  neighborhood,  or  that  she  could  returning  from  one  of  their  long 
persuade  Jack's  father  to  sell  their  walks  together, 
home  and  move  into  a  neighborhood  "Today  is  Saturday,  and  just  after 
where  there  were  no  bad  boys.  Her  our  noon  meal  I  chanced  to  see  Jack 
helplessness  appealed  to  me.  I  tried  dressed  in  his  best  suit  with  a  stiff 
to  explain  to  her  that  Jack  was  no  collar  and  a  big  bow  necktie  (how 
longer  a  little  child;  he  was  a  boy  he  hates  those  babyish  big  bows), 
now,  and  needed  a  larger  world  than  starting  from  his  home,  tugging  in  a 
his  nursery  and  the  back  yard ;  that  sullen  sort  of  a  way  at  a  pair  of  kid 
he  was  longing  for  larger  and  more  gloves  into  which  he  was  striving 
varied  experiences,  and  that  this  to  thrust  his  hands.  Following  a 
longing  was  perfectly  natural,  in  fact,  short  distance  behind  him  were  his 
it  would  show  a  sad  lack  of  mental  father  and  mother,  both  dressed  as 
growth  if  he  did  not  want  a  larger  for  an  entertainment.  All  three 
world.  seemed  out  of  mood  and  in  a  hurry 
"She  gazed  at  me  with  big,  child-  of  unpleasant  excitement.  As  they 
ish  eyes  filled  with  surprise.  Seeing  disappeared  in  the  direction  of  the 
that  she  did  not  understand  my  gen-  railway  station  I  surmised  that  they 
eralities  I  began  to  particularize.  "I  were  going  to  town,  and  the  thought 
would  suggest,"  I  continued,  "that  of  them  dropped  out  of  my  mind, 
you  so  arrange  your  housework  that  "Tonight,  however,  Jack's  mother 
after  school  on  pleasant  days  you  came  in  to  see  me  in  quite  a  flutter 
could  go  with  Jack  for  a  long  walk,  of  pleasure.  She  said  she  had  told 
or  take  a  tramp  to  some  unfamiliar  Jack's  father  what  I  had  said  about 
locality  or  a  street  car  ride  to  the  Jack's  needing  a  change.  "And." 
next  suburb.  Send  him  on  errands  she  added  triumphantly,  "he  took 
to  the  grocery  store,"  I  added.  "Take  Jack  and  me  to  a  vaudeville  show 
him  into  the  city  with  you  on  Satur-  this  afternoon,  and  he  has  promised 
days,  occasionally.  Get  his  father  to  to  take  us,  or  to  send  us,  every  Satur- 
take  him  out  on  Sunday  afternoons,  day !  Won't  that  be  fine  ? 
In  such  ways  enlarge  his  little  world  "Gertrude  was  right,  we  must  get 
yourselves,  so  that  he  will  not  seek  hold  of  Jack  himself !" 
the  Sloam  boys  for  a  change  or  new  (Misunderstood  Children  by  Har- 
experience.  "Perhaps  it  might  be  rison,  pp.  96-98.) 
well,"  I  suggested,  "to  invite  some  2.  "If  we  recognized  the  nature  of 
of  his  nice  schoolmates  in  to  take  the  child's  play  and  its  importance 
tea  with  you.  This  would  probably  in  developing  his  life  attitudes,  this 
result  in  his  being  invited  to  eat  in  would  not  so  often  happen.  The 
some  of  their  homes.  This,  too,  child's  play  is,  first  of  all,  serious, 
would  help  to  satisfy  his  hunger  for  He  puts  into  it  his  whole  power,  is 
new  experiences."  We  talked  on  for  absorbed  and  intent,  lost  in  his  pur- 
a  while  longer  and  she  thanked  me  suit,  whether  it  be  that  of  building 
for  the  suggestions  I  had  given,  a  block  house,  loading  sand,  or  push- 
When  she  rose  to  go  I  followed  her  ing  his  engine  up  an  incline.  The 
to  the  door  and  saw  Jack  and  Ger-  play  of  the  child  is  full  of  meaning  to 


122  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

him,  because  it  is  something  he  has  ing  for  articles — in  short,  who  makes 

initiated,  it  is  an  activity  of  which  use  of  instead  of  trying  to  thwart  the 

he    sees    the    purpose.      The    child  child's  impulses — will  be  rewarded 

learns  largely  by  means  of  the  satis-  by     fewer    vexatious     occurrences, 

faction  he  derives  from  an  activity ;  Mothers  often  complain,  "How  can 

hence  the  educative  value  of  spon-  I  interest  my  twelve-year-old  in  do- 

taneous,  self-induced  activity  which  ing  her  share  around  the  house?" 

is  a  satisfaction  in  itself,  quite  apart  In  the  same  breath  they  admit  that 

from  any  benefit  the  child's  habits  they  could  never  put  up  with  the 

receive.  child's  early  efforts  at  helping  be- 

"Play  at  this  age,  two  years,  should  cause  it  took  so  much  more  patience 

aim  to  give  ease  in  motion,  freedom  and  time  "to  show  the  child  how  than 

for  great  physical  activity,  and  op-  to  do  it  myself." 
portunity     for     much     absorption  (Faegre    and    Anderson:     Child 

through  the  senses.    There  must  be  Care   and    Training,    pp.    205-206- 

stairs,  boxes,  chairs  for  experimental  207.) 

climbing.  A  small,  stout  chair  will  3.  "What  is  recreation?  Even 
be  used  more  often  to  push,  to  climb  under  the  most  primitive  conditions 
on,  or  to  carry,  than  to  sit  on.  There  of  existence  the  whole  of  man's  time 
should  be  wagons  to  pull,  ropes  to  and  energy  is  not  consumed  in  those 
swing  on,  so  that  arm  and  back  activities  directly  related  to  the  main- 
muscles,  as  well  as  leg  muscles,  may  tenance  of  life  and  the  satisfaction 
learn  quick  adjustments.  Big  balls  of  family,  economic,  civic,  and  re- 
to  roll  and  catch,  sand  and  water  ligious  interests.  After  these  needs 
for  mud  pies,  utensils  to  bang  and  are  met  a  margin  of  leisure  remains, 
pound  with,  furnish  appeal  to  sev-  In  periods  of  plenty  the  savage  may 
eral  senses.  The  manipulation  of  have  opportunity  for  giving  expres- 
objects  fascinates  the  child.  He  likes  sion  to  those  impulses  which  but 
to  drive  nails  into  soap,  to  pour  lightly  condition  existence ;  and  dur- 
beans  from  one  receptacle  into  an-  ing  the  inclement  seasons,  when  the 
other,  to  turn  the  handle  of  the  meat  ordinary  routine  of  life  is  suspended, 
grinder,  or  put  together  the  separa-  he  may  turn  his  mind  to  the  pursuit 
tor.  of    congenial    interests.      In    these 

"How  often  he  is  expected  to  gain  moments  of  leisure  man  may  elabor- 

sensory  and  motor  experience  in  a  ate  the  common  life  and  weave  into 

home   where  he   is   constantly   told  it  meanings  and  appreciations  which 

"not  to  touch" !     The  two-year-old  are  not  derived  from  external  neces- 

who  climbs  on  the  polished  dining-  sity.     Thus  grow  up  in  the  life  of 

room  table  is  not  wantonly  mischiev-  every  group  the  recreational  arts — 

ous.     Providing  something  to  climb  songs,  stories,  games,  dances,  cere- 

on  is  easier  and  more  constructive  monials,  and  festivals.     Among  the 

than  trying  to  check  the  child  every  earliest  of  human  records  are  the 

time  he  infringes  our  rules,  which,  crude  drawings  of  animals  scratched 

after  all,  are  arbitrarily  laid  down  on  the  fragments  of  bones,  or  painted 

for  the  convenience  of  adults.  on  the  walls  of  caves.     These  were 

"The  mother  who  provides  oppor-  the  diversions  of  the  primitive  hunts- 

tunities  for  the  child  to  help  in  open-  man  as  in  moments  of  leisure  he 

ing  and  closing  drawers  and  cup-  relived  in  imagination  some  excit- 

boards,  in  carrying  dishes,  in  hunt-  ing  adventure  of  the  chase  or  con- 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT  123 

templated  the  thrills  of  future  ex-  of  immediate  importance  an  unstable, 

ploits.     Through  activity  as  well  as  irritable  child  is  only  too  likely  to 

through  rest  the  re-creation  of  life  result  from  the  clamor  of  "don'ts". 

proceeds."  A  punching  bag  or  a  trapeze,  fitted 

(Chapman  and  Counts  :     Princr-  up  in  a  doorway  or  on  a  cellar  beam, 

pies  of  Education,  pp.  294-295.)  furnishes  an  outlet  for  energy  which 

4.  Materials  for  Play:  oftentimes  spills  over  into  behavior 

a.  "As  much  as  possible  of   the  annoying  to  adults.     If  there  is  no 

child's  play  should  be  carried  on  out  attic  or  basement  to  be  converted  to 

of  doors.    We  know  that  in  provid-  the  children's  use,  the  furnishings  of 

ing  play  materials  for  children  we  their  rooms  must  be  so  simple  that 

must  include  two  types  :  things  which  no  qualms   will  be   felt  when  they 

exercise  the  large  muscles,  and  things  get  hard  use.     This  does  not  imply 

which     stimulate    mental    activity,  that  a  child  should  be  encouraged 

The  outdoors  is  'the  true  home  of  in  rough  or  destructive  play.     His 

childhood,  in  this  wild,  undomesti-  energy  and  interests  may  be  building 

cated  stage  from  which  modern  con-  up  either  good  or  bad  habits,  depend- 

ditions   have   kidnapped   and  trans-  ing  on  the  selection  of  materials  and 

ported  him.'     But  'for  very  many  toys,  and  the  place  where  he  uses 

children,  the  pasture  and  the  wood-  them. 

lot  have  long  since  been  sold,  the  "It  is  important  that  we  keep  in 
climbing  tree  has  been  chopped  mind  when  selecting  or  planning  for 
down,  the  barn,  even  the  woodshed,  toys,  the  growing  and  changing  needs 
has  disappeared.'  Facing  this  change  of  the  child.  Too  often  the  eye  of 
in  community  life  which  has  brought  the  adult  is  caught  by  playthings 
about  the  apartment  and  the  neigh-  which  are  of  only  passing  interest 
borhood  playground,  we  must  pro-  to  children.  To  be  of  value,  equip- 
vide  substitutes  for  those  things  ment  and  materials  should  be  of 
which  were  before  a  natural  part  of  permanent  and  lasting  nature,  and 
the  environment.  If  there  are  not  should  be  readily  adaptable  by  the 
any  trees  to  climb  we  must  have  child  as  he  develops.  Blocks  fur- 
ladders,  ropes,  horizontal  bars.  The  nish  a  splendid  basis  for  develop- 
modern  child  has  no  sandy  creek  in  mental  play  because  they  lend  them- 
which  to  play;  but  the  narrowest  selves  to  so  many  uses.  Wlooden 
city  lot  is  roomy  enough  to  include  animals,  which  can  be  used  in  build- 
a  sand  box.  Every  child  should  ing  up  a  farm,  furnish  a  nucleus 
have  packing  boxes  to  clamber  into,  around  which  the  child  may  gather 
or  use  for  store  or  house  if  there  interesting  and  constructive  material, 
is  no  place  for  a  "shack"  or  "dug-  Parents  are  sometimes  discouraged 
out."  because   their  children    fail   to   use 

"Indoor  play  space  is  as  impor-  expensive  equipment,   not  realizing 

tant.     The  mother  who  prepares  to  that  the  fault  lies  in  their  selection 

sacrifice  for  a  few  years  some  of  her  rather  than  in  the  child.     To  a  boy 

ideas  of  orderliness  and  beauty,  in  of  seven,  a  Meccano  set  has  fascin- 

order  that  the  child  may  have  freer  ating  possibilities ;  to  a  child  of  four, 

surroundings,  may  be  rewarded  by  it  is  a  combination  of  odds  and  ends, 

a  calm  child  with  good  muscular  co-  which  he  juggles  about  a  bit,  and 

ordination.    In  the  household  where  then  loses  piece  by  piece." 

polished  surfaces  and  bric-a-brac  are  (Child   Care   and   Training:   by 


124 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


Faegre  and  Anderson,  pp.  208-209- 
211.) 

b.  Play  becomes  work  when  it  is 
made  into  a  competitive  program  or 
the  goal  made  more  important  than 
the  activity  of  playing. 

Popular  Playground  Projects — 
Recreations,  April,  1932: 

Traveling  theater ;  puppet  shows ; 
children's  folk  theater;  reading; 
handcraft ;  stories  ;  travelogues — 
with  construction  work;  music; 
hikes ;  flowers  and  gardens ;  pets 
and  pet  shows;  holiday  celebrations 
by  children;  festivals;  wagons;  kid- 


die cars ;  tricycles,  doll  carriages ; 
sand  boxes;  rope  jumping;  lawn 
games ;  ball  games ;  checkers ;  chess 
etc. ;  neighborhood  square  dances ; 
folk  dances ;  return  to  the  imitative 
— tools,  musical  instruments,  etc. ; 
parties ;  socials ;  art  hobbies ;  nature 
activities ;  nature  notebooks  ;  photo- 
graphy; building  blocks;  fishing; 
outing;  horseshoe;  sewing  of  vari- 
ous types. 

c.  Jessie  C.  Fenton :  (A  Practical 
Psychology  of  Babyhood ;  Houghton 
Mifflin,  gives  the  following  sug- 
gestive list  of  toys,  chapter  II  p.  54.) 


Ready  made  toys  Home  made  toys 

One  to  three  months 

Rattles,    strings   of   beads,    cellu-  Spools,   strings  of  buttons,  light 

loid  and  rubber  rings,  small  animals      spoons,    chains    made    by    linking 
of  rubber  or  celluloid.  large  safety  pins  together.    ( 

Three  to  six  months 

Small  lids  and  covers,  a  cup  and 

Floating  celluloid   toys    for   the      sPoon'  clothf  Pin,s>  rattles  made  of 
bath  bells  aluminum  salt  shakers,  tea-balls,  etc., 

with  small  pebbles  inside,  sheets  of 
clean  crisp  paper. 

Six  to  nine  months 

Various    kitchen    utensils :    egg- 
beater,  potato  masher,  wooden  butter 
Light   wooden   blocks,   dolls,   toy     paddle,  etc.,  hard  fruits  and  vege- 
animals,  picture  books.  tables  of  different  shapes,  such  as 

oranges,    cucumbers,    small    gourds 
and  squashes. 

Nine  to  twelve  months 

Sets  of  pans,  cups,  cans,  boxes, 
Nests  of  hollow  blocks  or  boxes,  etc.,  which  will  fit  one  inside  another, 
blocks,  books  to  use  in  turning  pages  jars,  bottles,  etc.,  with  removable 
as  well  as  to  look  at,  ball,  all  sorts  lids  to  take  off  and  put  on,  boxes  or 
of  manipulative  toys:  an  abacus,  baskets  containing  a  number  of  small 
small  game  of  quoits,  etc.  objects,  which  may  be  taken  in  and 

out. 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


125 


Home  made  toys  Ready  made  toys 

Twelve  to  fifteen  months 


Primers  with  simple  stories,  toys 
to  drag  or  pull  about,  a  small  wagon 
or  wheelbarrow,  a  bell  mounted  on 
wheels,  toy  animals  set  on  wheels, 
etc.,  (such  toys  should  be  solid  and 
not  too  easily  tipped  over.  A  two- 
wheeled  cart  or  wheelbarrow  is 
better  than  a  four-wheeled  one  be- 
cause less  liable  to  upset  in  turning 
corners.)  toy  replicas  of  household 
articles :  iron,  broom,  shovel,  dolls, 
furniture,  etc.,  toy  chair  to  sit  on. 


A  cylindrical  can  or  carton  impaled 
on  a  string  or  wire  so  that  it  will 
roll  as  it  is  dragged  about  is  often 
even  better  than  toys  with  wheels 
at  this  stage,  because  it  turns  in  anv 
direction  readily  without  upsetting, 
pebbles,  a  bell,  or  something  of  the 
sort,  may  be  put  inside  to  make  a 
noise.     Empty  boxes  and  cartons. 


Fifteen  to  eighteen  months 


Toy  trains,  autos,  etc.,  more  mini- 
ature household  articles,  crayons  and 
pencils  to  mark  with,  toy  black- 
boards, slates,  etc. 


A  box  to  climb  upon  (an  apple  box 
of  a  good  size  to  climb  into  and  out 
of.  Care  should  be  taken  that  there 
are  no  nails,  splinters,  etc.)  a  plank 
raised  at  one  or  both  ends  to  walk 
on  and  bounce  on. 


Eighteen  to  twenty-four  montlts 


A  sand  pile,  bucket  and  shovel, 
shells,  various  toys  for  digging,  etc., 
toys  which  enable  the  child  to  re- 
enact  his  own  real  experiences,  such 
as  toy  airships,  farm  implements, 
trains,  doll  carriages,  whatever  he 
has  encountered  and  enjoyed  in  real 
life,  a  swing,  more  elaborate  blocks. 

Arlitt :  (The  Child  from  One  to 
Six)  makes  the  following  sugges- 
tions : 

Toys  for  House  Play 

Doll  beds,  carriages,  stoves,  wash 
tubs,  wash  boards,  clothes  pins, 
chest  of  drawters  containing  doll 
clothes,  brooms,  sweepers,  unbreak- 
able dishes,  kitchen  utensils :  egg 
beaters,  potato  masher,  flour  sifter, 
screen  play  house:  tea  party,  chairs 
and  tables. 


Scrapbooks,  made  by  pasting  pic- 
tures cut  from  magazines,  etc.,  in 
blank  books  or  books  made  of  heavy 
butcher's  paper,  blocks  made  of  left- 
over lumber,  etc. 


Blocks 

Nest  of  blocks,  large  cubes  and 
bricks,  architectural  blocks,  large 
maple  blocks  :  cut  to  order. 

Toys  for  Block  Play 

Toy  animals,  a  set  of  trees,  Noah's 
ark,  doll  house  families. 

Dolls 

Unbreakable,  rag  dolls. 


126 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


Arts  and  Crafts  Materials 

Modeling  clay  or  plasticine,  paints  : 
non-poisonous  water  colors — pro- 
vide paper  and  rubber  aprons,  cray- 
ons and  drawing  paper,  scissors, 
paste  and  construction  paper,  ham- 
mer, large  nails,  and  soft  wood. 

Toys  for  Active  Play 

Pulling  toys :  carts,  wheelbarrow, 
toy  animals  on  wheels,  wagons,  rid- 
toys:    velocipedes,    kiddie    car, 


ing 


trains,  trucks,  autos,  etc.  Horse  reins, 
balls,  several  sizes. 

Outdoor  Playthings 

Sand  box  and  sand  toys,  see-saw, 
slide,  climbing  ladder,  yard  blocks, 
boxes,    swing. 

Manipulative   Material 

Wooden  beads  for  stringing, 
large  size  one  inch  in  diameter. 


Treat  the  Members  of  Your  Family 
Like  Strangers 

By  Vera  L.  Plant 


COMETIMES  I  wonder,  as  I  look 
about  me  and  see  the  harsh- 
ness of  the  world,  what  causes  it. 
Is  it  because  the  human  race  is  really 
unkind  ?  No,  I  think  not.  I  would 
rather  lay  the  blame  on  thoughtless- 
ness. 

We  surely  do  not  mean  to  hurt 
those  we  love  most!;  yet  invariably 
when  something  irritates  us  we  bring 
all  our  ill  feelings  home  and  heap 
them  upon  one  or  more  members  of 
our  family. 

Ofttimes  we  have  such  perfect 
confidence  in  the  patience  and  for- 
giveness of  dear  ones,  that  we  in- 


fringe upon  their  good  nature.  We 
speak  more  sharply  to  them  than  we 
do  to  others,  thinking  they  will  over- 
look our  fault's ;  and  we  do  not  ex- 
tend the  courtesies  to  our  own  broth- 
er or  sister  that  we  do  to  someone- 
else's  sister  or  brother.  We  know 
we  will  still  be  loved  but  if  we  are 
cross  with  someone  who  loves  us 
less  we  would  create  an  enemy  in 
place  of  a  friend. 

Is  not  the  fact  that  our  own  family 
is  more  tolerant!,  patient  and  forgiv- 
ing, the  more  reason  for  us  t'o  show 
more  consideration  and  courtesy  to 
them,  thus  winning  their  apprecia- 
tion and  holding  their  love? 


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Through  the  printer's  craft  the  wisdom  and  the  art  of  the  ages  have 
been  preserved  and  disseminated. 


Have  you  considered  how  you,  too,  can  use  this  mighty  force  to  make 
your  tasks  easier,  or  to  broaden  the  circle  of  your  influence. 

Use  More  Printing 

(Eije  JBeseret  jgeto*  $raft 

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SOCI ETY 


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Volume  XXI 


MARCH,  1934 


No.  3 


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735  Light  Weight  Cotton  Ribbed  89 

720  Fine  Quality  Non-Run  Rayon _  1.75 


FOR  MEN 


No. 

662  Men's  Non-Run  Rayon  $1.25 

610  Ribbed  Light  Wt.  Spring  Needle....  1.10 

602  Extra  Fine   Quality   Lisle    _.  1.25 

614  Med.  Wt.  Ex.   Quality  _ 1.35 

661  Heavy  Wt.  Silk  Wool  and  Cotton  1.95 

636  Fine  Quality  Light  Weight  _     .75 

664  Med.  Heavy  Wt.  Cotton   _  1.95 

601  Med.  Weight  New  Style  Only „  1.25 

635  New  Style  Light  Wt.   Cotton 89 

Garments  Marked  Upon  Request,  15c  for  Cotton — Silk  25c 

20%    Extra   Charge  for   Sizes   over  46 

Do  not  fail  to  specify  New  or  Old  Style  and  if  for  Man  or  Woman,  also  state  if  long) 

or    short    sleeve,    short    or    long    legs    are   wanted.      Give    accurate    Bust    Measurement, 

Height  and  Weight.     Samples  Sent  Upon  Request. 

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Vital 
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Back     „.._  1.35 

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No.  87.  Lt.      Wt.      Old      and      New 

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THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Organ  of  the  Relief  Society  of  the  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints 

Vol.  21  MARCH,  1934  No.  3 

CONTENTS 

In    Scenic    Southern    Utah    Frontispiece 

To  March Arthur  James   Bowers  127 

Glancing  Forward   Kate  M.   Barker  129 

Religion  in  Action — The   Relief   Society Pres'.   Hugh   B.   Brown  132 

The  Cultural   Side  of   Relief   Society    Janet  M.  Thompson  133 

Happenings Annie  Wells  Cannon  135 

Portrait  of  Elsie  L.  Parton   136 

From  Out  The  Ruins   ( Prize  Poem)    Elsie  L.  Parton  137 

Anne   Bjent,   Helpmate Elsie   C.    Carroll  138 

Old   Hands Estelle   Webb    Thomas  141 

Studies  in  Vocabulary   Florence  Ivins  Hyde  142 

Your  Home  Beautiful    Mabel   Margaret   Luke  145 

Remembrance Claire    S.    Boyer  150 

Bread  Upon  the  Waters   Annie  Wells  Cannon  151 

Culture  in  Entertainment   Emma  A.  Empey  153 

Neighbors    Merling  D.   Clyde  155 

Seeking  to  Discredit  Religion,  the  Bible  and  Deity Bishop  Edwin  F.  Parry  156 

Poverty Clara  Home  Park  157 

One  Thousand  Quilts Arthur  M.  Richardson  158 

My  Pretty  Patchwork  Quilt   Ada  Wootton  160 

Adventuring  Agnes  Just  Reid  160 

Hard  Times   Mabel   S.   Harmer  161 

Young    Mothers'    Holly    Baxter    Keddington  163 

Avoiding    Obesity    Lucy    Rose    Middleton  164 

God's   Gift   to    Mankind    166 

To  Our  Visiting  Teachers LeRene  King  Bleecker  167 

Sonnet  of  Friendship Bertha  A.  Kleinman  167 

To  A  Friend  Lovinia  M.  Wood  167 

Notes   from  the  Field    168 

Editorial— March  17,  1934 173 

Leadership  Week  at  B.   Y.   U.,   Provo    174 

Lesson  Department 1-75 

Divine  Relief Wenona  M.   Shirley  192 

Home  Alveretha  S.  Engar  192 

Holy  Night  Elsie  C.  Carroll  192 

PUBLISHED  MONTHLY  BY  THE  GENERAL  BOARD  OF 

RELIEF  SOCIETY 

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numbers  for  all  seasons  wear: 


No.  1  New  Style,  ribbed  Igt.  wgt. 
Combed  Cotton.  An  excel- 
lent Ladies'   number   $1.26 

No.     2  Old    style,    ribbed    lgt.    wgt. 

cotton,  our  standard  garment  1.25 

No.  3  Ribbed  med.  wgt.  cojtton, 
bleached.  Our  all  season  num- 
ber. Men's  new  or  old  style....l.45 

No.  4  Ribbed  heavy  wgft.  un- 
bleached cotton.  Our  double 
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No.  6  Part  wool,  ribbed  unbleached. 
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ber. Men's  new  or  old  style....$.300 

No.     6  Light   weight   garment, 

Ladies'  new  style  or  old  style  1.10 

No.     7  Light     weight     Spring     and 

Autumn  garment.     Men  only  1.00 

No.     8  Light  weight  silk   for   ladies 

only,  new  style  only 1.15 

No.     9  Medium    wgt.    silk    for    men 

and  women,  new  style  only....  1.76 

No.  10  Ladies'   new  style  light  wgt. 

1  /3    wool    __ 1.75 


No.  11  Ladies'  new  or  old  style  med. 

wgt.  Part  wool,  silk  stripe 1.50 

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No.  74  Ribbed  Lt.  Wt.  Fine  Combed  Cotton _ — __  1.10 

No.  64  Lt.  Med.  Wt.  Bleached  Combed  Cotton  1.25 

No.  62  Med.  Hvy.  Wt.  Bleached  Double  Back  Combed  Cotton  1.59 

No.  56  Extra  Hvy.  Wt.  Bleached  Double  Back  Combed  Cotton  1.98 

No.  500  Super  Non-run  Rayon  Short  Sleeve  and  Knee  Length  1.19 

No.  82  33  1  /3  %  Wool  2.75 

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OLD   AND   NEW   STYLE 

144  Spring  Needle  Flat  Weave $1.10 

205  Rib  Knit,  Lt.  Weight 1.15 

33  Fine  Knit,  Lt.  Weight 1.25 

256  Double    Carded,    Med.    Wt _  1.35 

758  Med.  Hvy.  Cot.,  Ecru  or  White....  1.65 

902  Unbleached  Cot.  Extra  Hvy 2.00 

1118  Med.  Hvy.  Wool  &  Cot.  Mixed_  3.25 


NEW  STYLE  ONLY,  MAN  OR  LADY 

472  Light    Rib    Cotton $  .75 

464  Med.  Rib  Cotton __  1.00 

92  Lt.  Wt.  Rayon  Stripe 1.25 

228  Lt.    Wt.    Rayon    Stripe 1.35 

84  Rayon     Plated „ _ 1.45 

405  Non-run    Viscose    Rayon 1.35 

306  Non-run  Viscose  Rayon 1.75 


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Socially 
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iWhether  it  be  to  the  happy  mother  and  proud 
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whose  birthday  it  is  today  ...  or  to  the  joyful  couple 
just  married ...  or  to  dear  friends  who  are  celebrating 
their  wedding  anniversary  —  the  congratulatory 
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HIS  LIFE  EXPERIENCES,  JOKES,  STORIES,  SERMONS 
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To  CyWarchJg) 

By  Arthur  James  Bowers 

March,  thou  art  a  vagrant,  flurried  thing 

That  harries  yonder  clouds'  tempestuous  flight ; 

That  animates  all  youth,  with  kite  on  wing; 

And  clothes,  with  shrieking  sounds,  the  somber  night. 
Vent  thy  seasonal,  pent-up  wrath — 
How  sweet  and  placid  the  after-math ! 

Loose  thy  trumpet  blasts,  oh  March ! 
Steel  thy  reckless  breath  with  biting  edge ! 
Thou  toucheth  not  the  glow  of  my  warm  hearth 
Nor  ire  yon  geese  above,  in  sweeping  wedge. 

Dost  think  thy  raucity  a  boon  ? 

I  shall  be  avenged  in  quiet  June. 


< 

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8 


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e 


^Relief  Society0  cMa^azine 


Vol.  XXI  MARCH.  1934  No.  3 


Glancing  Forward 

By  Kate  M.  Barker 

"As  we  gain  the  loftier  eminences  we  see  the  snowy  summits  before  us" 
touched  by  the  light  of  the  moral  ideal,  transforming  themselves  before  our 
eyes  into  what  appear  to  be  the  ramparts  and  spires  of  the  Golden  City. 
Wle  climb  still  higher,  and  the  vision  travels  with  us  lighting  on  the  next 
succeeding  range.    And  so  on  and  on  as  we  ascend." — Adler. 


P 


ROGRESS  is  effort  stimulated  pand  to  meet  the  changes  in  the  so- 

by  ever  truer  sight  of  new  and  cial  world."          Amy  W .  Evans, 

finer  outlooks.    Each  new  age  Radio  Talk. 
has  a  double  duty  to  perform.  It  has 

its  own   special   problems   to  solve  That  the  women  of  this  organiza- 

and  it  must  keep  its  eyes  to  the  future  tion  were  so  well  prepared  to  meet 

for  ever  brighter  visions.  the  emergency  in  relief  work  of  the 

An  organization  for  social  uplift  Pftthree  years  was  due  to  the  vision 

must  not  only  function  for  the  con-  o£  their  leader*  in  preparing  for  this 

ditions  under  which  it  was  created  vei7  need      This  seems  to  be  the 

but  it  must  have  elasticity  to  meet  *&*£  Problem  of  thls  aSe  and  ***** 

new  needs  or  solve  new  problems  as  a!£*e  women  meeting  tneir  respon- 

they  arise.    If  it  is  kept  in  mind  that  s1^-.    But  the  work  ^  n<*  ?toP 

the  world  has  created  and  perfected  wlth  Slvm2  matf ial  rellef ■     These 

its  social  machine  slowly  and  with  ^asures  must  be  only  temporary. 

great  difficulty  and  that  some  of  its  Jhe  H  *<*>  1S  ^  J°  be  done— the 

best  and  most  tried  social  machinery  bringing  about  of  fundamental  so- 

seems  now  to  be  breaking  down,  the  J**   ^provement       Human   beings 

inspiration   of   the   prophet   in   or-  have !  the  ^ht  *?  be  freed  ^om  *he 

ganizing  the  Relief  Society  is  at  once  crushing  fear  of  want  and  they  also 

apparent  e  ng "*    or  future  growth  a 

-There  are  other  kinds  of  service  ^f    or    opportunities    for    richer 

to  be  rendered.    New  conditions  will  and  more  satisfying  lives, 

continue  to  arise.  But  Joseph  Smith,  "The  old  standards  that  had  to  do 

the  founder  of  the  Relief  Society,  with  money  and  success  are  gone. 

though  he  gave  fundamental  prin-  Now  human  happiness,  not  privilege, 

ciples  to  guide,   had  the  vision  to  must  be  the  test  of  everything." 

leave  it  unrestricted  to  grow  and  ex-  — Frazier  Hunt. 


130 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


In  a  world  so  abundantly  blessed 
with  the  necessities  and  even  the 
luxuries  of  life,  surely  there  is 
enough  intelligence  to  find  such 
means  of  distribution  that  no  one 
need  suffer  for  the  lack  of  necessi- 
ties. Are  we  not  beginning  to  glimpse 
the  future  when  the  order  of  society 
will  be — not  "Some  will  work,  and 
get  and  share,"  but  "all  will 
have  the  joy  of  working  and  get- 
ting"— when  each  one  can  have  joy 
in  some  creative  work  and  share  in 
the  opportunities  for  education, 
health  and  recreation. 

COME  one  has  stated  a  new  com- 
mandment thus — 

"Thou  shalt  build  an  economic 
system  and  a  social  order  in  which 
it  will  be  possible  for  people  to  love 
their  neighbor  as  themselves." 

To  attain  this  vision  of  a  better 
future  will  require  far  reaching 
changes  in  our  whole  social  and  eco- 
nomic structure. 

Anything  dealing  with  human 
welfare  is  the  province  of  the 
church  and  is  woman's  special  work 
as  outlined  by  the  Prophet  Joseph 
Smith. 

Women  must  do  their  part  in 
this  social  re-construction  work  and 
it  is  the  opportunity  of  the  Relief 
Society  to  help  its  members  to  un- 
derstand the  changing  social  prob- 
lems, to  arouse  them,  from  the  pas- 
sive attitude  too  many  take,  to  a 
sense  of  responsibility  and  to  awaken 
in  them  the  impulse  to  find  out  how 
best  they  may  meet  it. 

T  EI  SURE  time  has  always  been 
a  problem  and  is  becoming  in- 
creasingly so.  The  way  it  is  spent 
may  determine  in  no  small  degree 
the  future  of  civilization.  It  is  a 
problem  for  which  the  mothers  must 
prepare.  The  culture  of  the  home 
depends  more  upon  the  mothers  than 
upon  anyone  else.     And  it  is  in  the 


home  during  the  formative,  impres- 
sionable years  of  childhood  that  the 
foundation  for  future  ideals  is  laid. 

TX/-ILLIAM  SLOAN  COFFIN, 
president  of  the  Metropolitan 
Museum  in  New  York,  says — 

"At  the  present  we  have  plenty  of 
leisure  for  culture  but  little  culture 
for  leisure." 

And  George  W'.  Alger  in  "Leisure 
for  What?"  says — 

"The  great  problem  before  us  to- 
day is  to  create  a  civilization  that 
does  not  degenerate  under  leisure. 
This  can  be  done  only  by  setting  in 
operation  forces  working  for  a  cul- 
ture that  recognizes  as  no  civiliza- 
tion since  the  fall  of  Rome  has  been 
required  to  do,  that  leisure  is  and 
must  be  a  means,  and  not  an  end ; 
that  its  true  value  is  measured  by 
what  we  do  with  it — by  whether  it 
lifts  or  lowers  us  in  the  great  world 
of  intangibles,  the  world,  not  of  ma- 
terial, but  of  spiritual  values." 

^"pHE  self-denial  recent  years  has 
forced  upon  us  has  resulted  in  re- 
awakening our  idealism,  the  mind 
and  spirit  have  assumed  new  im- 
portance and  new  beauty.  We  real- 
ize we  have  not  lived  up  to  our  pos- 
sibilities as  children  of  God,  that  our 
way  of  life  has  been  too  small  for  the 
capabilities  we  inherit.  In  "glanc- 
ing forward"  we  need  to  look  deep 
into  our  minds  and  souls  and.  ask 
ourselves  wherein  we  have  failed. 
We  have  not  been  left  to  struggle 
in  the  dark.  We  have  been  given 
the  fundamental  laws  of  right  living 
in  the  gospel,  of  which  all  truth  and 
beauty  are  a  part.  We  need  a  broad- 
er understanding  of  its  principles 
and  their  application  to  present  prob- 
lems, we  need  a  greater  appreciation 
of  its  worth  in  our  lives  and  a  broad- 
er culture  to  help  us  see  its  real 
beauty  and  above  all  we  need  to  have 


GLANCING  FORWARD 


131 


our  knowledge  vitalized.  We  need 
impelling  ideals  to  give  enthusiasm, 
strength  and  inspiration,  to  put  the 
breath  of  life  into  our  beliefs,  to 
give  us  the  Will  to  do  as  we  know 
that  belief  and  action  may  be  in  har- 
mony. 

"To  lift  us  in  the  great  world 
of  spiritual  values,"  is  the  aim 
of  our  educational  work.  To  achieve 
the  result  we  must  strive  to  improve 
our  methods  of  teaching  that  our 
work  may  become  really  creative. 

One  of  the  great  needs  of  the 
world  today  is  more  friendliness. 
Human  sympathy  and  helpfulness 
are  among  the  most  beautiful  things 
in  life.  There  is  so  much  suffering 
and  sorrow,  each  one  has  special 
problems  and  needs,  yet  too  often 
we  have  to  say,  "If  I  had  only 
known,"  or  "why  didn't  I  remem- 
ber?" Every  one  longs  for  friend- 
ship, sympathy  and  understanding, 
yet  we  live  our  lives  so  apart  and  in 
the  real  difficulties  of  life  we  under- 
stand each  other  but  little  and  help 
each  other  less. 

In  our  ordinary  social  contacts  we 
touch  but  the  surface,  there  is  little 
expression  of  our  real  selves,  little 
soul  contact.  It  is  only  in  spiritual 
contacts  that  real  understanding 
comes.  In  our  Relief  Society  or- 
ganization where  we  focus  our  ener- 
gies on  the  finer  things  of  life,  where 
all  our  lessons  are  coordinated  and 
animated  by  the  spirit  of  the  Gos- 
pel, giving  all  a  spiritual  significance, 
this  mutual  understanding  and  help- 
fulness should  grow  and  from  the 
contacts  we  should  discover  new  and 
deeper  meanings  and  richness  of  life. 


It  is  only  within  such  a  social  me- 
dium that  persons  can  realize  them- 
selves. 

Each  person  has  something  he  can 
contribute  to  the  good  of  the  whole 
something  probably  which  is  found 
only  in  himself.  All  have  equal 
obligation  to  give  their  best  but  they 
need  help,  encouragement  and  op- 
portunity to  give  this  best  and  to 
make  their  best  still  better.  The  Re- 
lief Society  should  give  this  help, 
this  opportunity  to  each  of  its  mem- 
bers. 

If  we  can  create  this  generous  and 
vital  friendship  cemented  by  a  testi- 
mony of  the  Gospel  to  give  perspec- 
tive and  set  standards,  can  we  not 
look  forward  to  the  time  when  every 
adult  woman  in  the  Church  will  be 
drawn  into  the  group  ?  A  group,  in- 
telligent, alive  to  its  social  responsi- 
bility, realizing  each  has  a  contribu- 
tion, each  eager  to  assume  the  re- 
sponsibility. A  group  which  realizes 
that  no  activity,  no  cultural  course  is 
an  end  in  itself  but  the  means  to  a 
more  complete  life  which  will  show 
itself  in  the  kind  of  human  relation- 
ships the  members  maintain  in  the 
home,  in  civil  life,  in  the  Church, 
wherever  they  go  and  whomsoever 
they  meet. 

If  we  pass  on  to  the  next  genera- 
tion the  best  work  we  have  been  able 
to  achieve  and  the  loftiest  visions 
we  have  been  privileged  to  behold  as 
a  result  of  our  strivings,  we  shall 
make  it  possible,  for  them  to  do  their 
work  better,  to  behold  visions  still 
grander  than  ours  and  with  a  clear- 
ness excelling  our  own. 


Z) 


Religion  in  Action — The  Relief  Society 


By  President  Hugh  B.  Brown 


"This  is  my  com- 
mandment that  ye 
love   one  another" 

THE  best  story  of  "Religion  in 
Action"  is  the  story  of  the 
Good  Samaritan :  he  did  no 
preaching,  he  gathered  no  statistics, 
did  not  ask  if  the  unfortunate's  sad 
plight  was  the  result  of  his  own 
folly ;  he  saw  a  man  who  needed  help 
and  he  took  time  to  serve  his  neigh- 
bor, a,  stranger.  He  who  needed  help 
was  not  embarrassed  by  publicity. 
The  Good  Samaritan  did  not  adver- 
tise himself. 

While  other  organizations  foster 
activities,  teach  theology,  and  train 
the  youth  of  the  Church,  the  sisters 
of  the  Relief  Society — modern  Good 
Samaritans — interpret  religion  in 
terms  of  service. 

Some  estimates  of  the  value  of  the 
service  rendered  by  this  organiza- 
tion may  be  made  by  a  study  of  its 
activities  in  any  of  the  Stakes  or 
Wards  of  the  Church.  For  ex- 
ample, one  Stake  has  the  following 
yearly  average  during  three  years  of 
the  depression : 
27,659  visits  made 

261  days  spent  with  the  sick 
3,853  special    visits    to    the    sick 
and  home  bound 
18  bodies  prepared  for  burial 
10,086  articles  of  clothing  renovat- 
ed, remodeled  and  given  out 
583  families  completely  outfitted 

with  clothing 
156  children      provided      with 
shoes  and  stockings 
$1 3,500  total  disbursements,  exclus- 
ive of  clothing 
Similar  activities  are  being  carried 
out  in  all  parts  of  the  Church.    This 


service  is  the  very  essence  of  Mor- 
monism,  combining  as  it  does  the 
qualities  of  love,  loyalty,  devotion, 
faith,  hope,  justice,  mercy  and  truth. 
No  one  can  measure  the  results  or 
extent  of  these  daily  acts  of  helpful- 
ness. 

Without  publicity  and  without 
causing  embarrassment,  this  army  of 
mothers  goes  out  into  No  Man's 
Land  and  feeds  the  hungry,  clothes 
the  naked,  buries  the  dead,  and 
mends  the  broken  hearts  of  thou- 
sands of  casualties  on  life's  battle- 
field. 

But  more  helpful  even  than  the 
providing  of  material  comforts  is  the 
atmosphere  in  which  these  sisters 
work  where  the  souls  of  the  needy 
are  fed  and  mended.  One  who  re- 
turns after  the  funeral  service  of  a 
loved  one  and  finds  them  in  his  home, 
cooking,  mending,  cleaning,  bringing 
sunshine  and  hope,  will  appreciate 
what  is  meant  by  the  "Relief  Society 
Atmosphere."  They  give  of  them- 
selves and  not  only  of  their  goods. 
They  carry  blessings  of  which  they 
themselves  are  unaware,  as  Henry 
Ward  Beecher  said : 

"Gifts  from  the  hand  are  silver  and 
gold,  but  the  heart  gives  that  which 
neither  silver  nor  gold  can  buy.  To 
be  full  of  goodness,  full  of  cheerful- 
ness, of  helpfulness,  hope  and  un- 
derstanding, causes  one  to  carry 
blessings  of  which  one  is  as  uncon- 
scious as  a  lamp  is  of  its  own  shining. 
Such  a  one  moves  on  human  life  as 
stars  move  on  dark  seas  to  bewil- 
dered mariners." 

Surely  there  is  no  more  central 
interest  in  the  Church  than  the  win- 
ning of  human  life  to  the  principle 


RELIGION  IN  ACTION 


133 


of  love  and  brotherhood — remind- 
ing men  that  God  is  not  dead,  but 
living.  Seeking  ever  for  more  ef- 
ficient methods;  keeping  pace  with 
the  times  and  changing  conditions, 
our  sisters  shed  the  radiance  of  that 
eternal  spirit  of  love,  most  ancient 
yet  ever  new,  which  shone  in  the 
Master's  ministry.  They  never  sub- 
stitute well-wishing  for  well-doing; 
but  with  aprons  on  and  sleeves  rolled 
up,  they  meet  the  need  of  the  occa- 
sion. Here  religion  is  a  living  com- 
pelling fact  and  not  a  mere  theory. 
With  a  membership  made  up  of 
the  mothers  of  the  Church  no  organ- 
ization could  be  better  fitted  for  its 
mission,  i.  e.,  to  respond  to  the  heart 
hunger  of  the  shut-ins  and  the  be- 
reaved, to  minister  to  the  sick  and 
the  broken  hearted,  to  provide  for 
the  needy  and  to  train  new  members 


in  the  Divine  art  of  self  sacrificing 
service. 

Here  is  opportunity  for  each  mem- 
ber to  serve  in  the  capacity  for  which 
she  is  best  fitted.  Here  are  depart- 
ments for  the  Sunshine  Workers, 
Welfare,  Literature,  Art,  House- 
hold Duties,  Theology.  Here  it  is 
learned  that  none  is  so  weak  as  not 
to  bear  the  relationship  of  strength 
to  someone  weaker  still,  and  that 
none  is  so  strong  as  not  to  bear  the 
relationship  of  weakness  to  some- 
one stronger  yet. 

Much  honor  is  shown  to  the 
Priesthood  of  the  Church,  and  prop- 
erly so;  men  hold  responsible  posi- 
tions and  are  praised  for  their  serv- 
ice, but  when  it  comes  to  efficiency, 
devotion  to  a  cause,  self-less  service, 
true  religion,  hats  off  to  the  ladies, 
God  bless  them. 


The  Cultural  Side  of  Relief  Society  * 


By  Janet  M.  Thompson 


THE    word    "culture"    meant 
originally  and  still  means — 
the  cultivation  of  the  soil.  But 
in  the  course  of  time  men  and  wom- 
en found  that  the  mind  misfht  be  cul- 


One  authority  says  culture  is  the 
systematic  improvement  and  refine- 
ment of  the  mind,  especially  one's 
own.  In  connection  with  our  Relief 
Society  work   I   like  to  think  that 


tivated  as  well  as  the  soil ;  they  real-      culture  is  the  acquainting  of  our- 
ized  that  mental  as  well  as  material      selves  with  the  best  that  has  been 
crops  could  be  sown  and  garnered —      known  and  said  in  the  world, 
so  a  second  definition  was  added  to  We  know  that  the  reiigion  em- 

the  first— this   second— higher  cul-      braced  by  the  L    D    ^  le  is  a 

ture— covers  all  training,  develop-  religion  of  improvement,  and  seeks 
ment  and  strengthening  of  mental  higher  culture  and  also  prompts  us  to 
and  physical  powers  It  stands  for  search  diHgently  after  knowledge, 
the ^  fruitage    of    enlightenment    of      The  Doctrine  and  Covenants  says— 

''And  as  all  have  not  faith,  seek  ye 
diligently  and  teach  one  another 
words  of  wisdom — yea,  seek  ye  out 
of  the  best  books  words  of  wisdom 
— seek  learning  even  by  study  and 
also  by  faith."  When  the  Relief  So- 
presented  and  the  following  embraces  d  t  was  organizeci,  the  Prophet  Jo- 
some  of  the  thoughts  discussed  at  this  /  0  .  .  &.  '.  ,  ,r  J 
particular  ward  conference.                          seph  Smith,  in  turning  the  key  over 


civilization. 


*When  the  Ensign  Stake  Relief  So- 
cieties held  their  annual  ward  con- 
ferences last  November,  one  of  the 
Ward  Presidents  asked  that  the  cul- 
tural  side   of   Relief   Society  work  be 


134  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

to  the  Relief   Society  sisters  said,  wonderful  contribution  to  literature 

"And  this  Society  shall  rejoice  and  that  Geoffery  Chaucer  had  made  and 

knowledge  and  intelligence  shall  flow  it  was  also  evident  she  was  of  the 

down  from  this  time."     Our  Relief  opinion  her  mother  knew  nothing 

Society  Hand  Book  tells  us  that  the  about  the  matter  under  discussion. 

Relief  Society  was  first  organized  But  this  mother,  by  exercising  her 

for  human  service,  but  other  aims  membership  in  the  Relief    Society 

of  the  organization)  were  to  assist  in  was  fortified  to  make  an  immediate 

correcting  the  morals  and  strength-  adjustment  of  her  daughter's  com- 

ening  the  virtues  of  community  life  plaint.    This  mother  had  had  the  op- 

— to  raise  human  life  to  its  higher  portunity  in  the  Relief  Society  of 

level — to    elevate    and    enlarge    the  studying  all  about  Geoffery  Chaucer, 

scope  of  women's  activities — to  fos-  in  'The  Delight  of  Great  Books"  by 

ter  love  for  religion,  education,  cul-  John  Erskine.     Then,  too,  she  was 

ture  and  refinement.  familiar  with  the  course  of  study  be- 
ing used  in  the  Literary  Department 

P  DUCATION  at  any  age  is  neces-  this     year— "The     Story     of     the 

sary  for  intelligent  living  in  this  World's  Literature,"  by  John  Macy. 

rapidly  changing  world.     Whatever  The  mother  happened  to  have  both 

makes  people  think  is  valuable  in-  of  these  books  in  her  library  and  im- 

tellectual  training.     Cultural  devel-  mediately    furnished    the    daughter 

opment  comes  to  us  through  well-  with  all  the  information  and  material 

directed  energy.    We  may  raise  our  she  could  possibly  use  regarding  this 

thinking   to   a   hligjier   plane — but  particular    English    lesson.      So,   I 

force  and  energy  must  maintain  it  would  say,  the  knowledge  we  gain  in 

there.  One  of  the  greatest  factors  in  Relief  Society  has  a  definite  bearing 

our  cultural  development  is  our  so-  and  value  in  the  home.    The  lessons 

cial  contact  and  our  Reief  Society  prepared  by  our  General  Board  of 

gives  us  this  social  contact  and  helps  Relief  Society  offer  great  stimula- 

us  to  develop  the  character  and  qual-  tion  for  cultural  thought  and  devel- 

ity  of  our  refinements.  opment  and  it  seems  most  fitting,  if 

We  might  ask — Does  the  knowl-  we  are  seeking  a  more  abundant  life, 

edge  we  gain  in  Relief  Society  have  that  we  should  take  advantage  of 

any  cultural  value  in  the  home?  The  every  opportunity  our  Relief  Society 

children  of  today  are  daily  challeng-  offers  in  helping  us  attain  higher 

ing  our  intelligence.     We  are  faced  levels  in  education,  culture  and  re- 

with  obligations  we  should  strive  to  finement. 

meet.    Just  recently  one  mother  said,  Ansulus  de  Insulis  said,  "Learn 

"My  children  come  home  and  ask  me  as  if  you  were  to  live  forever  and  live 

questions  far  beyond  my  intelligence  as  though  you  were  to  die  tomor- 

and  I  surely  feel  the  need  of  more  row."     And  Brigham  Young  said, 

education."     A    short  while  ago   a  "If  we  wish  to  be  taught,  to  receive 

young  girl  came  home  from  High  and  understand,  we  must  train  our- 

School  complaining  about  the  Eng-  selves — we  are  in  a  great  school  and 

lish  she  was  studying.     When  the  we  should  be  diligent  to  learn  and 

mother  inquired   what  the  trouble  continue  to  store  up  the  knowledge 

was,  she  said,  "Oh,  we  are  studying  of  Heaven  and  earth  and  read  good 

all  about  Chaucer  and  I  don't  see  books.     It  should  be  our  labor  and 

why  we  are."     It  was  evident  the  our  business  to  seek  continuous  edu- 

young    girl  knew    nothing  of    the  cation." 


Happenings 

By  Annie  Wells  Cannon 


A/TARCH. — Hope    and    joy    are 
reborn   in   the   heart  of   the 
world  as  the  earth  awakens  to  the 
sounds  of  spring. 

n^HE  1934  modes  for  women's 
wear  are  fashioned  on  18th 
century  lines  in  color  fabric  and 
style.  Velvets,  satins,  and  silks, 
set  off  with  fine  laces  and  ribbons 
therefore  are  they  gay,  attractive 
and    extravagant. 

jLJER  Majesty  Queen  Mary  ac- 
cepted a  lift  on  the  highway 
from  one  of  her  humble  subjects, 
her  own  car  having  broken  down. 
Will  he  be  knighted  for  gallantry  ? 

ANNE  LINDBERGH  has  been 
awarded  the  Hubbard  gold 
medal  by  the  National  Geographic 
society  for  her  brilliant  accomp- 
lishments as  radio  operator,  aerial 
navigator  and  co-pilot.  She  is  the 
first  woman  to  receive  the  medal. 

pRINCESS  NUR  HAMIDA  of 
Damascus,  founder  of  five 
women's  social  and  political  or- 
ganizations in  Syria  and  India  is 
in  the  United  States  on  a  lecture 
tour. 

lyflSS  FLORENCE  LOCKE 
has  chosen  for  her  recital 
pageants  this  season,  "The  Tri- 
umphant Women  of  Shake- 
speare,"  by   Ellen   Terry. 

J^fRS.  CARRIE  CHAPMAN 
CATT  was  given  a  party  by 
her  many  noted  friends  on  her 
75th  anniversary.  She  still  car- 
ries on  for  equal  rights  for  wom- 
en, the  work  she  started  as  a  proto 
ge  under  Susan  B.  Anthony. 

jyjARINA  YULONA,   Cossack 

soldier   and    concert    dancer 

has    written    her    life    "Cossack 


Girl."  The  pages  of  the  book  are 
full  of  thrills  and  hairbreadth  es- 
capes which  seem  incredible  and 
the  illustrations  are  even  more 
horrifying,  but  her  publishers  de- 
clare the  story  to  be  "authenticat- 
ed by  documents." 

A/TADAM  HELENA  PADER- 
iV1  EWSKI,  wife  of  the  great 
pianist,  died  early  this  year  at  her 
home  in  Switzerland.  She  was 
born  Baroness  Van  Rosen,  daugh- 
ter of  a  Russian  nobleman  and  her 
influence  and  fortune  as  well  as 
devotion  were  strong  factors  to- 
wards the  success  of  the  great  art- 
ist. In  1916  Madam  Paderewski 
launched  a  plan  to  care  for  war 
brides  of  Poland  and  established 
a  Warsaw  asylum  for  the  care  of 
500  women  and  children. 

DOSE  MARIE  BRANCATO, 
though  raised  in  Kansas  City, 
is  an  Italian  girl  with  a  marvelous 
voice.  She  is  singing  with  the 
Chicago  opera  company  this  sea- 
son in  leading  roles. 

QCTAVE  THANET  was  the 
pen  name  of  Miss  Alice 
French  who  died  recently  at  the 
age  of  84.  Her  authorship  of  nov- 
els and  short  stories  extended  over 
a  period  of  many  years.  In  1911 
the  Iowa  University  gave  her  an 
honorary  degree  in  literature. 

D  OX  AN  A  FARNSWDRTH 
HASE  of  San  Bernardino,  win- 
ner of  the  Second  prize  in  the  Eliza 
Roxey  Snow  Memorial  Contest  has 
just  written  a  successful  pageant  for 
the  P.  T.  A.  This  pageant  was  pre- 
sented at  the  San  Bernardino,  Calif., 
City  Council  of  P.  T.  A.  for  their 
Founders  Day  Program,  and  has 
been  sent  into  the  National  Council 
at  Washington,  D.  C. 


ELSIE   L.    PARTON 


From  Out  of  the  Ruins 

This  poem  is  one  of  the  tzvo  poems  declared  equal  winners 
in  the  Eliza  R.  Snow  Poem  Contest. 

By  Elsie  L.  Parton 

The  world's  aflame:  aflame  with  lust  and  greed! 
Great  Nations  plan  and  scheme,  the  weaker  plead. 
No  peace  is  found  midst  earth's  tumultuous  din, 
The  dice  is  thrown — what  is  there  left  to  win? 
Man  led  by  power  of  man  doth  blindly  grope; 
Fast  fleeing  time  each  moment  robs  of  hope. 
Men's  hearts  are  failing  fast  with  hopeless  fear, 
And  far  off  heights  more  distantly  appear. 
But  lol  from  out  the  ruins  bravely  stands 
A  woman,  holding  in  her  upraised  hands 
A  burning  light  and  by  its  leaping  flame 
Across  her  breast  engraved  is  shown  a  name. 
The  name  a  watchword  through  the  ages  long, 
'Tis  courage — and  she  makes  the  weakest  strong. 
Aloft  she  stands  for  every  eye  to  see — 
All  is  not  lost — Rise,  man,  to  victory! 


Anne  Brent,  Helpmate 


By  Elsie  Chamberlain  Carroll 


IV 


FOR  a  moment  Anne  stood 
speechless  looking  into  the 
questioning  eyes  of  Hugo  Lor- 
ing.  His  form  almost  filled  the 
door,  but  soon  she  caught  sight  of 
Suzanne  before  a  mirror,  slender  and 
distinctive  in  a  white  suit,  fastening 
a  bunch  of  orchids  at  her  waist.  For 
an  instant  the  mother  felt  complete 
isolation  from  that  beautiful  creature 
with  soft  waves  of  brown  hair, 
flushed  excited  face,  and  an  air  of 
self  sufficiency.  Suzanne  seemed  as 
strange  to  her  as  did  the  man  who 
confronted  her.  All  this  passed  in  a 
flash  before  Anne's  mind.  Then  she 
knew  that  the  man  was  speaking. 

"Did  you  want  something?"  She 
detected  annoyance  in  his  cool  grey 
eyes. 

"Yes,"  Anne's  voice  sounded  un- 
familiar, "I  want  to  see  my  daugh- 
ter." 

Suzanne  whirled  from  the  mirror 
and  brushed  past  the  man  with  a 
quick,  glad  cry,  "Mother!"  The 
next  instant  Anne's  purse  and  bag 
clattered  to  the  floor  and  her  child 
was  sobbing  in  her  arms. 

Presently  the  cool,  deep  voice  of 
the  man  who  had  retrieved  the  lug- 
gage and  set  it  inside  the  room,  said : 

"Hadn't  you  better  come  into  the 
room.  People  are  wondering  at  the 
commotion." 

Suzanne  pulled  Anne  inside.  "I 
can't  believe  it's  really  true,  Mother. 
Last  night  I  kept  dreaming  and 
dreaming  about  you  and  it  seems 
that  this  must  be  just  a  part  of  my 
dream.  This  is  Hugo.  Forgive  me, 
darling,  for  being  so  upset.  But  you 
know  how  I  felt  about  going  with- 


out seeing  Mother — and  now  I  won't 
have  to.  I  just  can't  believe  it's  true. 
Anne  detected  a  plea  in  the  girl's 
eyes  for  him  to  understand  and  for- 
give her  emotion. 

"I  had  to  come  when  I  got  your 
letter." 

"Suzanne  was  just  telling  me  that 
she'd  written  you  of  our  plans." 
Loring  was  clearly  trying  to  conceal 
his  irritation.  He  walked  to  the 
other  side  of  the  room  and  began  to 
adjust  a  strap  on  a  suit  case.  Then 
he  looked  at  his  watch. 

"Our  boat  sails  shortly  after  ten. 
We  were  just  ready  to  leave.  Would 
you  like — I  suppose  you  would  like 
to  go  to  the  dock  with  us.  It  is  now 
a  quarter  after  nine." 

Anne's  brain  had  been  whirling  in 
a  bewildering  maze,  but  now  it  clear- 
ed like  a  flash.  She  looked  steadily 
into  the  man's  cool  grey  eyes.  "I 
have  come  three  thousand  miles  to 
see  my  daughter.  I  ask  you  to  give 
me  fifteen  minutes  with  her — alone." 

He  flushed.  A  determined  glint 
shot  into  his  expression. 

"Is  that  necessary?  Suzanne  has 
explained  to  you  the  importance  of 
what  she  is  doing  to  her  future  de- 
velopment and  happiness.  You 
haven's  come,  I  hope,  to  try  to  inter- 
fere with  our  plans." 

"Her  happiness  is  all  that  I  want," 
Anne  said.  "Wjill  you  let  me  talk  to 
her — alone  ?" 

"Why  of  course  he  will",  said 
Suzanne.  "What  do  you  think  Hugo 
is,  a  kidnaper?  Paul  Hennig  is 
going  to  take  us  to  the  boat.  You 
could  wait  down  stairs  with  him  a 
few  minutes,  darling". 


ANNE  BRENT.  HELPMATE 


139 


Loring  picked  up  the  suit  case 
and  another  hag  and  left  the  room, 
turning  at  the  door  to  say, 

"It  can  only  be  a  few  moments. 
Boats  leave  on  schedule." 

Anne  closed  the  door.  Could  she 
do  it  ?    She  must ! 

"O,  Mother,  it's  wonderful  of  you 
to  come.  I  felt  that  I  just  couldn't 
go  without  seeing  you.  I  wanted  to 
know  that  you  understood." 

"Suzanne,  I  came  because  I  do 
understand  much  better  than  you  do 
what  this  thing  you  are  planning 
would  mean.  I  couldn't  let  you  step 
off  into  a  chasm  without  trying  to 
snatch  you  back." 

"But,  Mother  darling,  it's  really 
all  right.  We  love  each  other  and 
our  love  is  as  sacred — as  yours  and 
Dad's." 

"If  you  love  each  other,  why  can't 
you  be  married  ?  When  people  love 
each  other,  they  want  to  marry." 

"That's  the  old  fashioned  idea — 
of  binding  together  by  vows  and 
promises  to  someone  else.  We  want 
to  keep  our  love  beautiful  and  sacred 
by  keeping  it  free.  The  individual 
is — 

"Tell  me,  Suzanne,  would  you  be 
as  happy  today  if  your  father  and  I 
had  ignored  the  tradition  of  mar- 
riage ?  Doesn't  it  matter  to  you  that 
we've  given  you  an  honorable  name 
to  face  the  world  with?  Doesn't  it 
matter  that  we've  stayed  together 
because  of  that  marriage  ceremony 
when  sometimes  without  it  perhaps 
the  hard  places  in  life  might  have 
driven  us  apart?  Even  if  you  are 
blind  now  to  what  such  a  step  as  you 
want  to  take  would  ultimately  mean 
to  yourselves,  can't  you  see  what  it 
would  mean  to  your  children  ?" 

"But  Mother,  nothing- in  the  world 
is  so  important  as  the  freedom  of 
individual  personality.  If — if — we 
have  children  they  would  respect  us 


— for  the  courage  it  takes — to — be 
true  to — to — our  convictions." 

"Would  you  respect  me  more  if  I 
had  brought  you  and  your  brothers 
and  sisters  into  the  world  without 
a  name  or  any  definite  family  ties, 
just  because  I  had  some  far-fetched 
idea  about  personal  freedom ;  if  your 
father  had  been  one  man  and  Morris 
and  Gloria's  maybe  another  ?  Where 
would  family  life  where  would  so- 
ciety and  civilization  be  if  the  world 
had  gone  like  that  ?  Such  individual 
freedom  would  end  in  individual  dis- 
integration. We  can't  be  our  best 
selves  and  reach  these  highest  pos- 
sibilities you  talk  about  without 
recognizing  our  responsibility  to 
others — to  those  who  love  us,  to 
society.  Can't  you  see  that,  my  girl  ? 
Can't  you  see  it?" 

"O,  Mother — I  don't  know  how  to 
talk  to  you  when  you  look  so  white 
and  worried — when  you  talk  to  me 
like  that.  But  it  is  all  right.  It's 
just  the  new  generation  demanding 
to  live  its  own  life.  Times  are  dif- 
ferent from  what  they  used  to  be. 
Parents  can't  live  their  children's 
lives  for  them." 

"No  one  knows  that  so  well  as 
parents  themselves.  But  they  can 
and  should  try  to  help  keep  their 
children  from  shattering  their  lives. 
Do  you  think  I  rushed  to  you  for 
anything  else  than  that  I  want  you 
to  be  happy  ?  You  say  times  are  dif- 
ferent. Yes,  some  things  are  dif- 
ferent, but  my  dear,  the  fundamental 
things  never  change — the  necessity 
for  self  respect,  the  necessity  of 
feeling  responsibility  for  others,  the 
soundness  of  the  ideals  that  have 
crystallized  out  of  the  experience 
of  the  human  race." 

Suzanne's  face  was  troubled.  Her 
soul  was  torn  between  two  powerful 
emotions. 

"But  Hugo — he  explains  it  all — 


140 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


so  simply.  If  there  were  only 
time — " 

The  door  opened,  and  Loring, 
watch  in  hand,  entered.  Anne's 
heart  fell.  There  was  no  denying 
the  magnetism  of  the  man's  person- 
ality. She  felt  blundering  and  inade- 
quate in  the  sophistication  of  his 
mere  presence. 

"We  have  barely  time  to  catch  the 
boat.  Hennig  will  bring  you  back, 
Mrs.  Brent,  and  take  you  wherever 
you  wish  to  go." 

Anne  wanted  to  pour  out  all  her 
pent  up  resentment  upon  this  suave, 
sleek  man  who  had  poisoned  her 
child's  mind ;  but  she  managed  to 
control  herself  and  answered  quietly, 

"No  thanks,  I  will  not  go  to  the 
boat.  If  Suzanne  is  going  with  you, 
I  must  go  home  at  once — and  tell 
her  father  and  brother  and  sisters 
what — ■ 

"I'm  sorry.  Come  darling,  we 
haven't  a  moment  to  spare.',  He 
crossed  the  room  and  adjusted  the 
white  fur  which  had  fallen  from 
Suzanne's  shoulders. 

The  girl  stood  rigid,  looking  from 
the  man  to  her  mother.  The  atmos- 
phere of  the  room  seemed  throbbing 
with  the  drama  of  the  situation. 

"Come  on,  dear,  you  can  write  to 
your  mother  when  you  get  on  the 
boat."  He  would  have  drawn  her 
toward  the  door,  but  she  pulled  away 
from  him  and  rushed  to  her  mother. 

"No.  I  am  going  home  with 
Mother.  I  love  you  Hugo,  but  I 
can't  go  and  leave  my  mother  looking 
like  that.  I  don't  know  what  is  right 
and  what  is  wrong,  but  I  can't  go." 

"Then  you  haven't  the  courage  to 
live  your  own  life?  To  demand  your 
own  happiness  ?    Won't  you  come  ?" 

"Not  now,  Hugo.  Things  are  all 
mixed  up.     I  can't  go." 

"Then  I'll  say  good  bye",  and  he 
left  the 'room. 


Anne  steadied  herself  from  the 
feeling  of  faintness  that  swept  over 
her  and  caught  Suzanne  in  her  arms. 

Most  of  the  night  they  talked.  Su- 
zanne had  had  an  offer  of  a  position 
as  art  teacher  in  a  mid-western  pri- 
vate school.  Her  teachers  thought 
the  experience  would  be  wonderful 
before  she  went  on  with  her  course. 

\/TUCH  as  Anne  wanted  to  take 
her  home,  she  advised  her  to 
take  the  position.  Perhaps  in  the 
quietness  of  Layton  Suzanne  would 
find  it  too  hard  to  adjust  and  would 
repent  her  decision  and  resent  her 
mother's  interference,  Anne  told  her- 
self. The  girl  must  be  busy  and 
interested. 

So  the  next  day  Anne  started  home 
and  Suzanne  made  preparations  for 
her  new  work.  Suzanne's  goodbye 
was  comforting  to  the  mother.  The 
girl  looked  white  and  stricken.  Anne 
knew  that  her  love  had  been  genuine 
and  that  she  was  suffering,  but  she 
said, 

"I'm  so  glad  you  came,  Mother; 
I'm  beginning  to  see  already  what  a 
terrible  thing  I  was  about  to  do." 

VXyHEN  Anne  reached  home,  she 
found  general  confusion. 
Quint  was  calsomining  the  kitchen. 
Cloria  was  washing  windows  in  the 
dining  room.  The  twins  were  having 
a  swimming  party  with  the  neigh- 
borhood children  in  the  old  vegetable 
cellar  they  had  filled  with  water. 

"Why,  what  on  earth  are  you  do- 
ing?" she  asked  as  she  came  into 
the  house.     "What's  going  on?" 

"Dad  sent  a  telegram  that  he  was 
bringing  six  men  home  for  dinner 
tonight.  The  men  who  have  some- 
thing to  do  with  that  business  he 
went  to  see  about,  I  suppose,"  Gloria 
explained.  "We  know  how  you  al- 
ways clean  house  when  company  is 
coming,  so  we  thought  we'd  better. 


ANNE  BRENT,  HELPMATE  141 

But  just  everything  has  gone  wrong.  ner  tonight?    And  it  is  now  fifteen 

We're  so  glad  you've  come.     How  minutes  to  eleven." 

is  Suzanne?"  Anne  went  to  her  room  to  change 

"She's  better,"  Anne  said,  survey-  her  dress, 

ing  the  disorder.     "Six  men — din-  (To  be  continued) 


Old  Hands 

By  Estelle  Webb  Thomas 

They  spoke  of  the  peace  in  her  waxen  old  face, 
Her  thin,  silver  hair  like  a  halo  about  it, 

How  lovely  she  looked  in  her  white  flowing  robes — 
She  had  loved  finery,  but  was  cheerful  without  it- 

But  all  I  could  see  was  the  weary  old  hands 
That  someone  had  folded  with  decorous  care 

Above  her  flat  bosom.     How  quiet  they  lay, 
Relaxed  and  at  rest,  as  if  glad  to  be  there! 

How  often  had  they  the  same  service  performed 
For  others,  or  welcomed  some  wee,  wailing  dear 

But  newly  arrived— bathed  fever-flushed  temples, 
Or  clasped  failing  fingers  while  Death  waited  near. 

I  saw  them  again — more  graceful  and  shapely. 

Dispense  hospitality  so  graciously, 
Or  into  small  garments,  exquisitely  fragile, 

Embroider  sweet  dreams  of  the  bright  days  to  be ! 

I  saw  them  at  tasks,  unending  and  homely, 
Willing  and  deft,  with  an  unfailing  skill : 

Serving  and  giving — so  seldom  receiving  ! 
Unasking  servants  of  unselfish  will ! 

I  saw  them  outstretched  to  grasp  the  soiled  fingers 
Of  one.  who  has  fallen — nor  flinch  at  their  touch, 

And  tendering  mercy  to  needy  and  helpless — 
Tired  old  hands  can  accomplish  so  much  ! 

O,  veined  old  hands,  so  worn  with  loving  service, 
Folded  so  sweetly  above  the  still  old  breast, 

Mayhap  He  needs  your  gentle  ministrations, 
Until  He  calls — lie  still,  dear  hands,  and  rest ! 


Studies  in  Vocabulary 

By  Florence  Ivins  Hyde 

"A  good  vocabulary  is  the  golden  Gillette     speaks,   the   work    of    the 

key  to  many  a  successful  life.  It  gives  world  gets  done,  and  it  is  significant 

access  to  higher  levels  in  the  social,  that  the  avenue  of  access  to  this  eul- 

professional,    and    business    world.  ture  ]ies  in  the  use  of  words— vo- 

There  is  no  limit  it  offers  to  the  stu-  cabularies 

dent,  man  or  woman,  young  or  ma-  rn,     I>M1         ,   ,  .        .  01    . 

ture."-  (Josephine  Baker. )  l  ne  b,b,f  a"f  ,the  w°rks  °[  Shake- 

speare    and    Milton    furnished    the 

TTTT-  i    mi-        ^r  i    ,  subjects  for  the  first  studies.     The 

HE  bunding  of  a  vocabularv  A     ,         -,  •  ,, 

r  ,,  ,  •   ,        ,.  method  used  in  measuring  these  vo- 

ls one  oi  the  most  interesting  ,    ,     •  ^         £     -     >•       ,t 

,  r    ,     ,        T,  ,    i  ,     ,,  °  cabularies  was  that  oi  counting  the 

types  of  study.     It  holds  the  ,  ,    ..„  j  j  • 

r      •     ,•  ,1  •  i  •.  ii  number  ot  different  words  used  in 

same   fascination   wmch,   inevitably,  ,    .         .^.  t-  n      •      ^i  •         ^i 

r  r  •  is.'  their  writings,    hollowing  this  meth- 

comes   from  discovering  something         ,     .    ,     ,&      .        i  .    o i    i 

c     ,     ,     ,.  °  ,.    °  od,  students  assigned  to  Shakespeare 

new.    buch  studies  are,  comparative-  ,    ,  £    ->a  a™  j 

,  r      ,,  , ,    , r,,      .     ,  a    vocabulary    ot    i4,00u    words,    a 

lv,  rare  tor  the  reason  that  the  task  ,  . , J,     ,  '        ,    ,  ,      ' 

is    unusually   difficult   and   arduous  n"mber  Sf"d  to  ,bre  U"T ^ b>'  any 

,  •       .,    J  ,  ...    ,i  other   writer.      lo   Milton  thev  as- 

makmg  it  unpopular  with  the  aver-        .        ,    10AnA       ah   ^u  •*  "        r 

+    i     4-     wtu      t>  „t  r-u  **      r  signed   19,000.     All  the  writers  of 

age  student.    When  Prof.  Gillette  of  x1&   TVii     ,       >*  ,       i     7onn 

,f    TT  •        -,        r  XT     ,i    rui    *.      j.  the  Bible  together,  used  only  7,zuU 
the  University  of  Aorth  Dakota  at-  ,      ,        %  '    v  i 

tempted  to  determine  the  size  of  the  w        ',     .    /    X  ,         ^   .  c 

i    ,  ,.      ,  j    1  •  cannot  be  judged  by  our  times.  Some 

average  vocabulaiy,  he  succeeded  in  \.    *\  '     J.  nc  ,  r 

,r  i    ,         >  „  i     ,•  .  one,  recently,  tested  /b  speeches  ot 

persuading  only  two  students  to  car-  „r  '   ,         ,//..  ,  -    l    ,    .       . 

,   ,i  °        J-     .      T     •     ,'c.     ,•  Woodrow  Wilson  and  tound  that  he 
rv  out  the  project.     In  justification  ,  r  ^  ^.01    ,.«.  , 

/{  u:       +¥    4.    I  i  ^  •   •     i  made  use  of  6,^J1  different  words, 

ot   his  effort    to  make  an    original  .  ..,,.'  .    . 

study,    Prof.    Gillette   explains   that  trom  which  his  vocalnilary  was  esti- 

"culture  is  the  medium  on  which  be-  mate?  .to  be  6^°°0.     T  e  0t 

nigs  depend  for  getting  a  living  and  the   Lrf^   Dt-est   then   su£gfts 

adjusting  themselves  to  others.    Not  that   he   Probably   knew   twice   that 

the  academic  culture  boys  and  girls  number. 

get  in  college,  but  rather  the  totality  Tests  of  primitive  people  have  de- 

of  all  ideas,  inventions,  plans,  ways  veloped  some  most  interesting  facts. 

of  doing  things,  customs,  codes,  sci-  Dictionaries    of    their  words    have 

ences,  institutions  and  arts."'    By  the  been  compiled  from  which  has  been 

use  of  this  culture  of  which   Prof.  drawn  the  following  table  : 

The  Aztec  Nahuatle  made  use  of 27,000  words 

The  Central  American  Maya  made  use  of 20,000  words 

The  Plains  Dakotas  made  use  of 19,000  words 

The  Navajos  of  the  South  West  made  use  of.. 11,000  words 

The  Klamath  of  the  North  West  made  use  of 7,000  words 

A   dictionary   of   Mexican   Aztec  coats  nor  trousers.    We  are  told  that 

language,  dated   550  contained   PS,-  the  vocabularv  of  the  Arab  is  fab- 

000    words.     An  explorer    counted  ulous :  that  they  have  hundreds  of 

30,000  words  used  by  the  Yaagans,  words    for   the   camel,   500   for   the 

a  race  which  he  says  knows  neither  lion,  and  1000  for  the  sword. 


STUDIES  IN  VOCABULARY 


143 


A  few  years  ago,  the  statement 
was  made  in  an  educational  meeting 
that  the  best  educated  person  in  the 
room  would  use  no  more  than  600 
or  700  words ;  that  an  ignorant  man 
would  not  use  more  than  300  or 
400.  Having  heard  this  statement, 
the  editor  of  the  Indianapolis  Jour- 
nal made  a  study  of  himself.  He  took 
at  random  an  equal  number  of  words 
from  each  page  of  the  dictionary, 
multiplied  the  number  of  pages  by 
the  number  of  words  he  understood, 
and  computed  his  vocabulary.  His 
study  and  others  similar  to  his,  seem 
to  warrant  the  conclusion  that : 
Every  well  read  person  of  fair  edu- 
cation, will  be  able  to  understand 
50,000  words.  The  same  person  in 
conversation  or  writing  will  com- 
mand not  fewer  than  15,000  or  20, 
000  and  if  literarily  inclined  can 
easily  add  5,000  or  10,000  to  his 
vocabulary.  The  plain  people  ac- 
cording to  this  standard,  use  or  read, 
under  standingly  from  8,000  to  10, 
000  words,  according  to  general  in- 
telligence and  conversational  power. 
It  is  understood,  of  course,  that  as 
we  take  on  more  culture,  the  number 
of  words  increases.  According  to 
an  estimate  made  by  Mr.  Karl 
Voghts,  we  have  added  250,000 
words  to  the  English  language  since 
1900. 

In  recent  years,  different  studies 
have  been  made  in  an  effort  to  work 
out  some  standard  by  which  to  judge 
this  problem  of  vocabulary  building. 
Some  exceedingly  interesting  infor- 
mation developed. — All  knowledge 
is  presumably  a  product  of  two  vari- 


ables; Intelligence  which  is  our  in- 
nate capacity  and  experience ;  or  the 
kind  of  environment  that  has  been 
acting  upon  us.  Which  has  the  great- 
er influence  in  building  up  our  vo- 
cabulary is  still  an  interesting  ques- 
tion. Mr.  A.  R.  Taylor,  in  his 
"Study  of  the  Child,"  says,  "Chil- 
dren's knowledge  and  vocabulary 
grow  at  approximately,  the  same  rate 
and  reveal,  also,  the  function  of 
language  in  knowledge  getting." 

^TERMAN  and  Brandenberg 
found  that  general  vocabulary 
correlates  very  highly  with  general 
intelligence.  Terman,  indeed,  felt 
that  except  in  rare  oases,  verbal  abil- 
ity indicates  the  level  of  intelligence. 
He  emphatically  maintains  that  vo- 
cabulary is  entirely  a  matter  of  in- 
telligence ;  that  it  is  much  less  in- 
fluenced by  culture  than  one  would 
expect.  In  his  studies  he  found  that 
the  backward  son  of  a  college  profes- 
sor, 14  years  of  age,  tested  at  a 
mental  age  of  11  years.  He  must 
have  had  exceptional  language  en- 
vironment, yet  it  did  not  raise  his 
vocabulary  score.  A  Portugese  boy 
with  poor  environment  tested  in  his 
vocabulary  test,  I8J/2  years  when  he 
was  only  14  J/2  years  old.  Terman's 
test  consists  of  100  different  words 
from  a  dictionary  containing  18,000 
words.  If  the  subject  defines  40 
words  correctly  his  vocabulary  fig- 
ures 40x180  or  7,200  words. 

The  following  table  has  been  com- 
piled by  Terman's  method  of  meas- 
urement : 


The  average  person  8  years  of  age  knows 3,600  words 

The  average  person  10  years  of  age  knows 5,400  words 

The  average  person   12  years  of  age  knows 7,200  words 

The  average  person  14  years  of  age  knows 9,000  words 

The  average   adult   knows 11,700  words 

The    superior    adult    knows 13,500  words 

Prof.  Gillette,  in  his  test,  knew 16,833  words 


144 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


Terman's  method  of  measurement 
was  used  on  a  group  of  college  stu- 
dents with  the  following  results : 

BOYS 

Freshman 9,240  words 

Sophomores    10,860  words 

Juniors  12,700  words 

Seniors    13,040  words 

GIRLS 

Freshman    - 8,860  words 

Sophomores 9,325  words 

Juniors  10,130  words 

Seniors  10,700  words 

TT  will  be  observed  that  throughout 

this  test,  boys  rated  higher  than 
girls.  In  the  tests  made  upon  young 
children,  it  was  learned  that  up  to 
5  years  of  age,  girls  rate  higher  than 
boys.  After  that,  boys  surpass  them. 
Whether  girls  are  slower  in  devel- 
oping their  native  intelligence  or 
whether  the  difference  can  be  ac- 
counted for  in  the  greater  oppor- 
tunity boys  have  of  mixing  in  the 
affairs  of  the  world,  is  another  inter- 
esting question. 

Terman's  claim  is  born  out  by  the 
studies  of  Gerlach  who  claims  that 
vocabulary  is  a  better  indicator  of 
intelligence  than  are  college  grades. 
Through  recent  studies,  it  has  been 
found  that  those  ranking  high  in 
scholarship,  on  an  average,  know 
5  c/c  more  words  than  those  ranking 
low  in  scholarship. 

In  the  light  of  still  other  studies, 
Terman's  method  of  measurement  is 
regarded  by  some  scholars  as  falling- 
short  of  the  results  such  a  test  should 
attain,  due  to  the  fact  that  a  diction- 
ary of  18,000  words  is  too  restrict- 
ed. Webster's  unabridged  diction- 
ary contains  408,000  words,  and 
phrases. 

The  department  of  psychology  of 
one  of  our  universities  made  a  study 
which  disclosed  the  fact  that  the  av- 
erage child  of  4-5  years  makes  use  of 
1 ,700  words.     In  its  first  year  the 


child  acquires  from  10  to  12  words. 
During  the  second  year  this  increases 
to  300  or  400  words,  depending  upon 
environment.  This  seems  to  discredit 
to  some  extent,  Terman's  contention 
that  it  is  solely  a  matter  of  intelli- 
gence. 

Still  another  study  made  of  adults, 
leads  to  the  conclusion  that  the  aver- 
age person  commands  10,000  words. 
Educated  persons  know  60,000. 
Others  without  college  education  but 
readers  of  magazines,  know  from 
25,000  to  35,000.  A  few,  as  many  as 
50,000.  All  of  which  are  much  above 
Terman's  estimates. 

Very  recent  tests  made  at  Colum- 
bia University  by  Kenyon,  tend  to 
indicate  that  the  vocabulary  of  an 
individual  correlates  with  his  intelli- 
gence and  school  achievements. 

In  view  of  all  these  facts  it  is  im- 
possible to  reach  any  definite  conclu- 
sions as  to  the  size  of  the  average 
adult  vocabulary.  One  thing  is  ap- 
parent ;  it  is  much  larger  than  it  was 
first  thought  to  be.  Yet  some  interest- 
ing observations  have  been  made  as 
a  result  of  these  investigations,  viz. ; 
That  there  is  a  difference  between 
reading,  writing,  and  speaking  vo- 
cabularies ;  that  the  ordinary  writing 
needs  are  much  smaller  than  was  ever 
supposed ;  that  the  vocabulary  of  in- 
dividuals differ  according  to  their 
habitat  and  social  relationships ;  that 
no  matter  how  great  the  vocabulary 
may  be,  even  the  most  educated, 
when  writing,  use  but  a  small  per- 
centage of  the  words  he  knows. 

If,  as  we  are  told,  the  only  depos- 
itories our  minds  have  for  knowl- 
edge, are  words,  the  subject  of  in- 
creasing our  vocabularies  is  of  vital 
importance  to  us.  It  is  a  thing  we 
have  to  do  for  ourselves.  What  we 
pick  up  from  our  associates  and  our 
reading  is  the  thing  that  counts.  Not 
cheap  reading,  for  that  doesn't  get  us 
anywhere,  even  though  it  may  be  a 


STUDIES  IN  VOCABULARY 


145 


relaxation.  Fine  literature  can  be  clothes,  selecting  some  for  their 
found  dealing  with  every  theme  and  beauty,  others  for  their  richness,  and 
at  the  same  time  doing  it  beautifully,  others  for  their  general  utility,  al- 
ine matter  of  always  using1  the  cor-  ways  bearing  in  mind  that,  like  one's 
rect  word  is  worth  studying.  ''Choose  garments,  the  words  should  be  ap- 
your    words    as    you    would    your  propriate  to  the  occasion." 


Your  Home  Beautiful 

By  Mabel  Margaret  Luke 
Pictures  and  Bric-a-Brac 


THERE  is  no  surer  way  of  ex- 
pressing your  personality 
than  in  the  minor  details,  the 
accessories  that  are  added  after  the 
furniture  is  placed,  the  rugs  are  laid 
and  the  windows  draped.  Ihese  are 
the  accents — the  highlights — of  the 
room  picture.  Ihey  are  the  little 
things  that  distinguish  our  homes 
from  mere  lodgings.  We  often  hear 
the  expression  "a  woman's  touch," 
and  if  we  stop  to  analyze  it  we  will 
find  that  this  feminine  touch  consists 
of  such  things  as  pictures,  books, 
cushions  and  objects  D'art.  Ihey  not 
only  give  an  intimate  clue  as  to  the 
personal  tastes  of  the  members  of 
the  household,  but  may  give  a  dis- 
tinctive and  compelling'  charm  if 
correctly  chosen,  or,  if  not,  will  mar 
an  otherwise  perfect  room. 

William  Morris  says  "Do  not  have 
in  your  home  anything  that  you  do 
not  know  to  be  useful  or  believe  to 
be  beautiful."  One  may  legitimately 
excuse  a  person  who  uses  a  thing 
through  necessity,  even  though  it  is 
not  beautiful,  but  the  accessories  of  a 
room  if  not  beautiful  have  no  other 
excuse  for  being,  and  the  use  of  bric_ 
a-brac  and  pictures,  and  other  ob- 
jects of  questionably  beauty,  or  out- 
right atrocities  has  no  excuse  decora_ 
tively  and  only  results  in  an  expres- 
sion of  vulgarity,  destroying  any 
claim  a  room  might  have  to  charm 
and  dignity. 


DROBABLY  the  most  important 
of  these  accessories  are  pictures 
and  yet  more  decorative  crimes  are 
committed  in  choosing  and  hanging 
them  than  in  any  other  single  medi- 
um. Our  tastes,  ideals  and  culture 
are  revealed  in  the  choice  of  pictures 
which  go  into  our  homes.  It  might 
be  said  :  "Show  me  the  pictures  you 
hang  on  your  walls  and  I  will  tell 
you  what  you  are." 

In  choosing  pictures  for  any  par- 
ticular room  it  is  better  to  wait  until 
the  room  is  finished  before  deciding 
upon  the  pictures  as  the  type,  size 
and  color  will  then  more  or  less  sug- 
gest themselves.  Sometimes,  how- 
ever, our  rooms  are  built  around  a 
lovely  painting  and  so  it  should  be 
hung  first  and  from  it  the  room 
scheme  taken. 

Pictures  should  be  chosen  for  their 
intrinsic  worth  or  decorative  qual- 
ities and  because  of  their  suitabilit)' 
to  the  spirit  of  the  room  in  which 
they  are  to  be  hung.  If  one  does  not 
know  herself  to  be  a  competent  judge 
of  art  it  is  safer  to  choose  the  works 
of  the  great  masters  (not  originals 
for  most  of  us,  to  be  sure,  but  excel- 
lent copies  and  prints)  which  time 
and  artistic  judgment  have  set  a  seal 
upon  and  are  of  unquestionable  and 
permanent  beauty.  Such  are  Medici 
and  real  old  Japanese  prints,  copies 
of  Holbein,  lurner,  Whistler  and 
others.     Real  art  will  nearly  always 


146  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

fit  in.     It  might  be  said  in  passing  print  or  a  modern  picture  with  its 

that  there  are  now  on  the  market  splash  of  colors.     You  must  decide 

reproductions  of  the  old  masters  done  the  type  that  agrees  with  your  room, 

on  canvas,  giving  a  very  real  effect  If  it  is  of  strictly  period  character 

which    for   purposes   of    decoration  then  you   must  choose   pictures   of 

are  as  suitable  as  the  originals.  that  period  and  frame  them  to  agree 

with  the  type  of  decoration  chosen. 

pTCHINGS  and  engravings  have  In  framing  pictures  be  sure  the 

a  quality  of  strong  accent  that  frames  are  suitable  to  the  picture  and 
make  it  desirable  that  they  be  hung  in  harmony  with  their  surroundings, 
by  themselves  as  in  a  man's  room  or  e.  g.  a  small  quiet  picture  would  be 
library,  and  not  in  a  room  with  water  absurd  in  a  wide  gold  frame.  In 
colors  and  oil  paintings.  Water  general  it  might  be  said  oil  paintings 
colors  if  carefully  chosen  are  charm-  require  heavier,  wider  frames  than 
ing,  especially  in  informal  rooms,  do  water  color  prints,  etc.,  which 
Old  Costume  prints,  flower  paint-  should  have  simpler,  narrower 
ings,  framed  pieces  of  old  chintz,  mouldings.  The  weight  of  the  frame 
samplers  maps  and  charts  all  find  should  balance  the  weight  of  the  pic_ 
use  in  certain  rooms.  Landscapes  ture,  that  is,  pictures  with  dark 
and  other  cheerful  pictures  are  suit-  masses  and  contrasts  need  a  wider 
able  in  dining  rooms.  One  may  often  frame  than  those  lighter  in  effect, 
find  excellent  prints  in  some  of  the  Oil  paintings  need  gilt  (not  bright, 
better  magazines.  Avoid  pictures  of  shiny  gold)  frames,  while  etchings 
dead  fish  or  ducks  and  of  harrowing  and  engravings  have  narrow  black- 
sentiment,  also  calendar  art.  Many  mouldings,  or  black  with  a  gold  inner 
pictures  which  are  really  rather  good  line.  Many  prints,  especially  Japan- 
have  become  so  hackneyed  and  com-  ese,  are  good  in  painted  frames,  or 
monplace  with  over-use  that  it  is  well  narrow  gold  ones.  Usually  the  more 
to  avoid  them  for  the  sake  of  indi-  simple  the  frame  the  better  it  is  likely 
viduality.  A  stereotyped  subject  be-  to  be.  Groups  of  pictures,  which 
trays  a  stereotyped  mind.  Do  not  should  be  similar  in  size  and  subject, 
hang  amateurish  attempts.  Repro-  should  be  framed  in  a  uniform  man- 
ductions   of   good   pictures   are   far  ner. 

better  than  poor  originals.  Family  Pictures  should  be  hung  at  eye 
portraits  unless  of  real  worth  as  level,  or  nearly  so,  for  a  picture  that 
paintings  should  not  be  hung  on  the  is  hung  too  high  to  be  seen  is  of  no 
walls  of  your  living  rooms.  Do  not  use.  Of  course,  when  hung  over  a 
hang  pictures  that  are  neither  beau_  piece  of  furniture  a  picture  must  be 
tiful  nor  desired  in  any  other  part  of  hung  so  that  together  they  form  an 
the  house  in  the  children's  room.  Far  agreeable  group.  They  should  be 
better  to  hang  there  copies  of  old  hung  flat  and  parallel  with  the 
masters  so  the  children  by  constant  walls,  never  tipping  forward.  Hang 
contact  grow  to  enjoy  truly  fine  with  two  cords  to  the  picture  mould- 
things,  ing,  or  by  invisible  nails,  never  with 

one  cord  from  one  nail,  which  makes 

DE  careful  in  your  choice  of  pic-  an  ugly  triangular  space  above  the 

tures  that  must  hang  in  the  same  picture,  at  variance  with  the  struc- 

room.     For  instance,  a  Madonna  or  tural  lines  of  the  room  and  so  attract- 

"Innocence"  would  not  agree  in  spirit  ing  undue  attention.    Heavy  pictures 

with  "The  Horse  Fair",  a  sporting  should  be  hung  from  strong  nails 


YOUR  HOME  BEAUTIFUL  147 

and  cords  so  they  seem  to  have  a  Before  leaving  this  subject  let  me 

visible  means  of  support.    The  wires  repeat  the  rule  given  in  a  previous 

may  be  toned  in   with   the  general  lesson :  If  the  walls  are  decorative 

wallcolor.     It  is  highly  appropriate  never   hang   pictures   or   any   other 

to  set  oil  paintings  in  the  panels  of  embellishments  upon  them.     If  this 

a  room,  using  the  panel  moulding  is  done  they  are  forced  to  compete 

as  a   frame.     This  is  especially  so  with  each  other  and  both  lose  their 

above  a  mantel.  importance  thereby.     If  a  picture  is 

Pictures,  rather  than  be  hung  alone  worth    hanging    it    is    worth    open 

should  be  grouped   with   furniture,  spaces  and  freedom   from  competi- 

Usually  the  focal  spot  for  a  picture  tion. 

in  the  living  room  is  above  a  mantel.  Do    not    attempt    an    art    gallery 

Over  a  chest  of  drawers,  sideboard,  effect.     Too  few  pictures  are  better 

groups  at  each  side  of  a  secretary,  than  too  many.     It  is  better  to  use 

highboy  or  dressing  table,  or  above  none  at  all  than  those  that  have  no 

a    couch   or   bookshelves — all    offer  artistic  merit,  and  if  too  many  are 

themselves  as  suitable  places  for  pic.  used,   even   though   gooc],   they   de- 

tures.  tract  one   from   another  until   they 

Be  sure  the  picture  is  not  too  lose  their  effect  A  good  rule  would 
large  or  small  for  the  furniture  with  be  to  follow  the  Oriental  idea.  Thev 
which  it  is  grouped  or  for  the  space  hang  only  one  picture  at  a  time  and 
it  is  to  occupy  on  the  wall.  In  hang-  enjoy  that  to  the  utmost  and  change 
ing  a  pictue  on  a  panelled  wall  be  it  from  time  to  time.  They  use  this 
sure  it  fits  well  within  the  panel  and  rule  also  with  their  bric-a-brac, 
does  not  overlap  at  the  side,  and  it  Family  photographs  are,  as  a  rule, 
should  be  of  the  same  general  shape,  better  in  bedrooms  and  boudoirs  than 
That  is,  a  wide  rectangular  picture  in  living  rooms  as  they  are  of  in- 
should  not  be  hung  in  a  long  narrow  terest  only  to  the  family  circle, 
panel.  Observe,  too,  the  principle  However,  one  or  two  photographs 
of  balance,  remembering  that  pic-  of  real  worth,  properly  framed  add 
tures  may  be  used  to  help  balance  a  personal  touch  to  a  living  room 
furniture.  Groups  of  pictures  should  and  may  be  set  on  a  table,  low  book- 
be  hung  with  their  tops  even  or  di-  case,  etc,  but  seldom  is  it  permis- 
rectly  underneath  one  another,  never  sible  to  hang  them  on  the  wall 
in  "steps,"     They  should  be  hung 

about  two  or  three  inches  apart  so  ONE  of  the  most  valuable  decora- 

they  seem  to  form  a  decorative  unit.  vy  tive  mediums,  yet  one  perhaps 

Pictures  should  be  hung  so  they  most  seldom  employed  is  the  use  of 
get  the  best  light  possible,  and  that  wall  hangings.  They  have  been  used 
from  only  one  direction.  Light  from  in  nearly  all  great  art  periods  and 
two  ways  as  on  a  picture  hung  be-  they  should  not  be  overlooked  in 
tween  two  windows  only  detracts  present  day  decoration.  To  be  sure 
and  confuses.  Oil  paintings  may  the  wall  on  which  they  are  hiinj* 
have  special  artificial  lighting,  either  must  be  a  background  wall,  and  ton 
at  top  or  bottom  which  throws  the  many  of  them  should  not  be  used  in 
light  on  the  picture.  Practically  the  same  room.  Only  the  verv 
the  same  effect  may  be  secured  by  wealthy  can  afford  the  antique  tap- 
putting  shields  on  candlesticks  and  estries  and  embroideries,  but  there 
lamps  placed  in  front  and  side  of  are  many  fine  reproductions.  How- 
pictures,  ever,  caution  should  be  used  in  buy- 


148  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

ing    the    machine-made    tapestries,  liand   with   beauty   and   the   articles 

most  of  which  are  so  obviously  com-  that  adorn  have  a  definite  use  and 

mon  and  cheap  looking.     Be  on  the  the  articles  one  requires  for  daily  use 

watch  for  the  very  fine  and  unusual,  have  a  note  of  beauty.     However, 

A  Chinese  embroidery,  a  length  of  one  still  finds  many  people  who  make 

damask,  velvet  or  brocade,  a  batik,  museums  of  their  rooms  in  their  use 

or  hanging   of   hand-blocked   linen,  of    accessories, — cluttered    up    with 

Oriental,  Persian,  East  Indian,  Java  "calendars,    sea   shells,    cheap    vases, 

and  Egyptian  textiles  all  adorn  the  artificial   flowers,   statuettes,   photo - 

wall  in  an  excellent  manner,  provid-  graphs,    cushions,    souvenirs,    dried 

ing  always  that  they  are  appropriate  grass  and  cattails,  tidies  and  others 

in  period,   color  and  scale  to  your  too  numerous  to  mention,  cheap,  un- 

room.     Such  delightful  pieces  may  beautiful  articles  that  rob  a  room  of 

also  be  used  for  table  covers,  scarfs,  its   dignity.      Small   articles   can,   if 

drapes  for  piano  and  even  for  bed-  correctly  chosen  and  displayed  play 

spreads.     Peasant  weaving  and  em-  a  real  part  in  the  decorative  scheme. 

broidery  are  very  delightful  for  small  But  restraint  in  their  use  must  be  a 

homes  and  informal  rooms.     Unless  guiding  principle,  and  until  one  is 

the  hanging  is  of  sufficient  size  to  very  sure  of  her  ability  to  choose 

nearly  cover  the  wall  so  it  seems  to  an  article  for  its  beauty  and  artistic 

be  a  part  of  it  there  should  De  some  value  alone  it  is  better  to  choose  for 

article  of  furniture  or  structural  fact  use.     Ornament  for  the  sake  of  or- 

with  which  it  may  seem  to  group,  nament  is  vulgar,  and  it  is  far  better 

Wall  plaques,  carvings,  flower  pock-  to  eliminate  even  to  a  condition  of 

ets   and   plaster   bas   reliefs   are   all  bareness  than  to  have  anything  which 

charming  wall  decorations  when  used  is  not  useful  or  which  is  not  abso- 

with  discretion  and  care.  lutely  essential  as  a  decorative  note 

^  fTDDADc           r             1            •  in  the  general   scheme   so  that  the 

MIRRORS  are  ofgreat  decorative  rQOm  ^  finished  ig  a  unk>  a  har_ 

usefuness.    They  may  be  used  m         in   color?    forrn>   texture   aml 

in  practically  any  place  a  picture  can,  ... 

and  it  is  wise  decoration  to  use  them  r>  •'       i           1111        1       1 

in  place  of  pictures  to  a  large  ex-  *r£a-b™  should.be   l^ced   so 

tent,  especially  in  a  small  house  or  ?*}  ?\fy  ba'a^C  a"d  ar?  '"  *& 

„™^_  i-     u        4.U              £      •  but  following  this  general  principle 

apartment  where  the  use  of  mirrors  &           &          •   '  •     .    • 

,  ;11      •  fl                      r           .  you  can  use  your   own   instinct   in 

will   give   a  sense  of   spaciousness,  *     ;       them      Don,t  be  a          ist 

???  °", r^T              g'Ve  P7f C"  They  must  agree  in  texture  with  the 

tive  and  depth  to  your  room.    Above  ..J,                u-  u   4-t,       ~-     „u„aj 

.  u            ,  , '       .   ;         ..                .  .  articles   on   which   thev   are   placed^ 

the  mantel  a  mirror  set  in  a  panel  is  £             ,J  n4,  m  T  „r^„i a 

.  «    ,             .     .         '  e.  g.  a  piece  of  peasant  potterv  would 

an  especially  happy  device.  °  ,   1       .,  ,  /              \  u i    '   £    ra 

c   l           J       ^^J      ,            .            ,  not  be   suitable  on   a  table   ot   nne 

Screens  are  very  decorative  and  mah               Thev  must  agree  also  in 

make  charming  backgrounds,  and  are  co,or  g  ^      0/      thing  give  for- 

of  much  use  ,n  preventing  drafts  and  ,  ba,ance  and  £    k     if   set  on 

hiding  ugly  corners.  ..,          -j       r             ?      1-u:^^      t*, 

8     s  J  either  side  of  a  center  object.     In- 

/^\NE  of  the  most  admirable  de-  teresting  balance  may  be  secured  by 

velopments  in  the  modern  home  two    unlike    articles    of    the  _  same 

is  the  elimination  of  the  innumerable  weight-effect.     Make  one  article  of 

bric-a-brac  that  formerly  cluttered  up  a  group  the  center  of  attraction — do 

every   available   space.      Now   to   a  not  scatter  interest  too  much.     For 

large    extent    utility    goes    hand    in  instance,  if  the  over-mantel  decora- 


YOUR  HOME  BEAUTIFUL 


149 


tion  is  a  fine  painting  then  on  the 
mantel  have  only  subordinate  articles, 
nothing  that  will  take  attention  from 
the  focal  point.  Never  use  draper- 
ies or  hangings  of  any  sort  on  the 
mantel. 

Chinese   bird   cages   at   a   sunny 
window  lend  a  homelike  atmosphere. 
Rare  porcelains  and  china,  such  as 
Spode,    Wedgwood,    Spanish    Mor- 
esque, Chinese  powder  blue  pottery, 
Gonda  ware  from  Holland,  Serves 
from  France,  Dresden,  etc.,  and  old 
and  new  pewter  look  well  in  a  corner 
cupboard  or  cabinet,  or  set  on  tables 
or  mantel.    A  large  pottery  vase  is 
suitable  as  an  umbrella  stand.    Book 
ends  of  solid  material  that  will  really 
hold  up  books,  cushions  made  to  be 
used,  single  odd  and  lovely  tiles  as 
Maiolica,  old  and  rare  glass  as  Bris- 
tol  and   Venetian,   incense  burners, 
small  lacquer  boxes,  workbaskets  and 
flowers    (real,    never  artificial)    are 
some   examples   of    what   might   be 
used.     The  field  is  unlimited  as  one 
can    easily    see    in    any    department 
store,  decorator's  shop  or  even  in  the 
10  and  15  Cent  store.    We  are  limit- 
ed by  our  ability  to  choose  the  right 
thing    and    we    cannot    always    be 
guided  by  its  expensiveness  or  by  its 
age,  but  by  its  fundamental  beauty 
and  agreement  with  the  place  it  is  to 
occupy.      Never  buy  a   number   of 
things  which  are  capable  only  of  col- 
lecting dust.    And  never,  for  the  sake 
of  "sentimental  foolishness"  use  as 
decoration  articles  which  have  been 
gifts  from  some  loved  one,  if  they 
have   no   artistic    value.      You    can 
store  them  away,  out  of  sight  with- 
out in  any  way  affecting  your  feel- 
ing toward  the  giver.     There  is  an 
opportunity  for  fine  distinction  in  the 
selection  and  arrangement  of  bric-a- 
brac.      Do   not  be   afraid   of   plain 
spaces,  however.  Overcrowding  min- 
imizes  the  effect   of   each   separate 
object. 


Look  at  your  sideboard  and  man- 
tel, two  pitfalls.  Are  you  making  an 
ostentatious  display  of  silver,  glass 
and  china  on  your  sideboard?  Is 
your  mantel  the  catchall  for  baby 
cups,  photographs,  and  souvenirs? 
Three  good  pieces,  at  most  five  are  all 
that  are  necessary,  and  none  at  all 
if  they  are  not  good.  Concentrate  on 
a  few  choice  things  rather  than 
many  of  a  mediocre  sort. 

JN^OTHING  will  give  that  home- 
like air  to  a  room  as  much  as 
books.  They  give  a  lived-in  look 
suggesting  the  presence  of  those  who 
are  never  lonely.  Books  in  your 
home  give  evidence  that  the  inmates 
come  in  contact  with  other  minds. 
Nothing  so  suggests  a  home  of  cul- 
ture as  good  books,  and  books  con- 
stantly at  hand  will  have  an  influence 
in  cultivating  in  children  a  love  of 
good  literature.  American  homes  are 
lavish  in  their  use  of  books,  suggest- 
ing our  national  ideal,  education  of 
the  masses. 

But  books  have  a  decorative  value 
as  well.  They  are  so  companionable 
we  do  not  to  a  large  extent  need  to 
worry  about  the  colors  of  their  bind- 
ings and  if  they  are  old  and  worn 
they  may  be  covered  with  dark  oil- 
cloths and  the  titles  painted  along 
the  back. 

Books  should  be  properly  housed. 
Shelves  on  either  side  of  the  fire- 
place seem  particularly  suitable.  Book 
shelves  set  below  a  window  seat,  at 
one  end  of  the  room,  and  above 
doors,  in  an  unused  door,  in  wall 
niches,  on  either  side  of  a  large  win- 
dow, in  tall  narrow  cabinets  for  nar- 
row spaces,  hanging  shelves — all 
are  suitable  places.  The  shelves  may 
be  painted  to  match  the  woodwork 
and  lined  with  a  predomir^+mg:  color 
in  the  room.  Movable  bookshelves 
now  come  in  many  attractive  styles 
to  harmonize  with  vour  stvle  of  dec- 


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oration.  A  few  books  set  between 
bookends  on  an  occasional  table, 
cbest  or  desk  or  in  a  book  trough 
keep  current  books  within  easy  reach, 
and  with  books  we  must  not  forget 
magazines,  which  add  greatly  to  the 
comfort  of  a  fireside.  It  is  some- 
times a  good  device  to  break  up  a 
row  of  books  with  a  fine  bit  of  pot- 
tery, copper  or  pewter  or  a  lovely 
figurine,  or  to  use  the  top  shelf  for 
a  vase  or  a  bowl  of  ivy.  Flowers 
grouped  with  books  are  always  good. 


They  seem  to  have  a  natural  affinity 
for  each  other. 

To  summarize,  then.  Do  not  put 
too  many  things  in  one  room,  even 
though  lovely,  for  no  amount  of 
individual  beauty  the  objects  possess 
in  themselves  will  permit  this  mis- 
take. "Any  work  of  art,  regardless 
of  its  intrinsic  merit  must  justify  its 
presence  in  a  room  by  being  more 
valuable  than  the  space  it  occupies. 
And  judging  from  this  standard  we 
may  say  that  a  good  book  always 
justifies  its  presence  in  the  home. 


Remembrance 

By  Claire  S.  Bayer 

Regrets  are  the  thorns  on  the  stem  of  life, 

No  matter  the  rose's  grace, 

No  matter  the  bloom 

Nor  its  rare  perfume 

As  you  lift  it  to  your  face  ; 

Regrets  are  the  thorns  that  prick  and  burn 

And  the  hurt  will  never  cease. 

For  your  blood  will  run 

Till  the  day  is  done, 

And  the  rose  will  bring  no  peace. 


11:1. 


Bread  Upon  the  Waters 

By  Annie  Wells  Cannon 
'Cast  thy  bread  upon  the  waters  for  thou  shalt  find  it  after  many  days."— Eccl. 


SITTING  one  evening  under 
the  spell  of  the  twilight  hour 
the  thread  of  memory  slowly 
unwound,  and  numerous  pictures 
of  experiences  connected  with  Re- 
lief Society  work  through  many 
years  of  service  came  before  me. 

Service  not  of  my  own,  but  of 
many  with  whom  I  have  been 
closely  associated. 

As  time  passes  more  and  more 
am  I  impressed  with  the  fact  that 
every  act  of  our  lives  is  recorded 
in  the  heavens,  as  that  events  are 
registered  on  the  human  mind  and 
stored  away  to  be  recalled  at  will 
or  flashed  like  electric  sparks  as 
occasion  requires.  The  pictures 
thus  brought  back  to  me  were 
many  and  they  were  beautiful. 
Would  it  were  possible  to  pass 
them  on  for  others  to  see,  espe- 
cially those  experiences  relating 
to  that  band  of  humble  women, 
who  labor  as  ward  teachers ;  de- 
voted women  who  contact  every 
class  of  people,  and  learn  as  no 
others  can,  every  condition  of  life. 

Out  of  the  many  pictures  that 
illustrate  the  thought  of  this  writ- 
ing let  one  stand  as  a  symbol,  for 
well  I  know  that  thousands  of 
teachers  have  had  similar  experi- 
ences;  going  as  they  do  among 
the  people  like  angels  of  mercy. 

^\NE  of  my  first  Relief  Society 
trips  was  in  company  with  Sis- 
ter Emma  Woodruff  to  the  Uinta 
Stake.  There  were  also  represen- 
tatives from  the  Young  Ladies' 
and  Primary  Associations. 

The  occasion  was  of  more  sig- 
nificance   than    Usual,    as    a    new 


Stake  Tabernacle  was  to  be  dedi- 
cated and  at  this  Stake  Conference 
all  the  organizations  were  to  be 
represented. 

The  time  was  before  good  roads 
and  automobiles.  President  Jo- 
seph F.  Smith  and  his  party  in 
their  own  carriages  took  the  route 
through  Summit  and  Wasatch 
Counties  while  the  delegates  from 
the  auxiliaries  went  by  train  to 
Mack,  Colorado,  on  the  Denver 
and  Rio  Grande  railroad ;  chang- 
ing there  to  a  small  train  on  a  nar- 
row gauge  track  which  rocked  and 
whirled  like  a  ship  high  on  the 
sides  of  the  Uinta  Mountains  to  a 
place  called  Daggett.  After  a 
night  there  we  went  by  stage  over 
a  desert  country,  stopping  at  a 
very  lonely  ranch  house  for  dinner 
and  then  on  to  Green  River  to  be 
ferried  across  that  picturesque 
stream,  stage  and  all ;  then  off 
again  by  stage  to  Vernal. 

A  trip  full  of  thrills  but  inter- 
esting with  all,  save  for  the  fact 
of  the  crowded  stage  whose  occu- 
pants were  all  men  with  the  ex- 
ception of  the  four  women  dele- 
gates. 

Three  of  us  had  the  second  seat 
in  the  coach  but  it  fell  to  my  lot,  I 
being  the  youngest  in  the  group, 
to  sit  in  front  with  the  driver,  the 
other  occupant  of  this  seat  was  a 
man,  who  had  been  quite  courte- 
ous to  us,  especially  to  Sister 
Woodruff,  who  had  great  diffi- 
culty in  mounting  on  and  off  the 
high  steps  of  the  stage  and  in 
other  ways  found  the  journey  dif- 
ficult. 


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r\URING  the  three  days  of  this 
trip  conversation  was  at  times 
general,  and  naturally  we  learned 
something*  of  each  other.  I  do  not 
recall  the  name  of  the  man  who 
sat  by  me  in  the  stage,  perhaps  I 
never  knew,  but  he,  very  much 
surprised  me  after  we  told  him  of 
our  mission,  by  remarking,  "I 
know  something  about  the  Relief 
Society  of  the  Mormon  Church, 
and  have  a  very  high  regard  for 
your  organization." 

"Indeed,"  I  answered,  "how- 
does  that  happen  ?" 

"It  touches  one  of  the  saddest 
but  sweetest  memories  of  my  life, 
and  though  I  seldom  speak  of  it, 
I  will  tell  you.  I  am  connected 
with  the  Denver  and  Rio  Grande 
railroad  company.  It  is  in  their 
interest  I  am  taking  this  trip. 
When  I  first  came  West  I  was 
located  at  Provo,  my  young  wife 
and  little  son,  not  quite  three  years 
old,  came  with  me.  We  had  never 
been  in  a  Mormon  community  and 
had  our  prejudices,  so  we  did  not 
make  friends. 

"This  little  boy  was  his  moth- 
er's only  companion  during  the 
hours  I  had  to  be  at  the  office  and 
she  idolized  him  ;  in  a  man's  way 
so  did  I.  One  day  he  became  very 
sick  and  when  the  doctor  came,  to 
our  horror,  he  pronounced  the  ill- 
ness diphtheria.  My  wife  young, 
inexperienced,  alone,  and  fright- 
ened was  in  despair,  when  two 
women  came  to  the  door.  Even 
the  step  on  the  porch  and  knock 
at  the  door  that  broke  the  silence 
was  a  relief.  Mary  (my  wife)  told 
me,  afterwards,  that  never  had 
she  heard  such  gentle  voices,  such 
welcome  words  as  came  from 
those   two   women. 

'We  were  passing,'  said  one 
of  them  'on  our  way  and  we  saw 
the  doctor  come  out  of  vour  house. 


Knowing  you  were  strangers,  we 
thought  we  would  come  in  and 
see  if  we  could  help  you.  Is  it  the 
little  curly  haired  boy  we  have 
seen  you  playing  with  that  is 
sick?' 

"My  wife  answered,  'Yes,  it  is 
our  baby.  He  has  diphtheria  and 
my  husband  will  have  to  stay 
from  home,  until  some  one  comes 
to  relieve  him  at  the  office.  Per- 
haps you  know  some  nurse  you 
could  send  me?' 

"Just  then,  the  little  follow 
cried  out  and  the  mother  rushed 
in  to  him.  One  of  these  women  % 
followed  her  to  his  room  telling 
the  other  one  to  go  on,  and  she 
would  see  what  she  could  do  to 
help.  She  proved  a  wonderful 
comfort  and  knew  everything  to 
do,  at  least  it  seemed  so  to  us. 
She  stayed  with  us  during  that 
week  and  when  the  baby  died  she 
prepared  him  for  burial.  When 
we  offered  to  remunerate  her  she 
told  us  that  she  was  a  Relief  So- 
ciety teacher  and  it  was  her  mis- 
sion to  comfort  and  help  wherever 
she  could,  but  she  hoped  we 
would  always  have  a  good  word 
for  her  people. 

"We  could  never  forget  such 
kindness.  It  was  more  Christ-like 
than  anything  1  ever  knew.  Af- 
ter we  took  our  precious  baby 
home  to  bury  him,  we  were  sta- 
tioned in  Salt  Lake,  but  such  kind- 
ness made  my  wife  and  this  good 
lady  lasting  friends  and,  of  course, 
changed  our  attitude  towards  the 
Mormon  people  altogether." 

How  far-reaching  this  kind  deed 
of  one  ward  teacher  became  she 
will  never  know  and  when  one 
contemplates,  that  daily,  hundreds 
of  those  engaged  in  this  good 
work  are  in  some  similar  way 
"going  about  doing  good"  surely 
the  bread  cast  upon  the  waters 
will    come   back   after1  many   days. 


Culture  in  Entertainment 


By  Emma  A.  Empey 


THE  success  of  social  enter- 
tainment depends  largely 
upon  the  culture  associated 
with  it.  Culture  is  the  practice  of 
good  manners.  Good  manners  are 
the  result  of  unselfishness,  a  kind 
considerate  heart  and  careful  home 
training".  As  a  guide  to  culture, 
rules  of  behavior  have  been  formu- 
lated and  handed  down  and  classified 
as  etiquette.  While  unselfishness,  a 
love  of  our  fellows  and  a  genuine 
desire  to  please  are  the  greatest  stim- 
ulant to  real  culture,  still  it  is  im- 
portant to  know  those  simple  and 
sensible  rules  of  etiquette  which 
have  proven  a  great  asset  in  our 
social  intercourse.  For  example  one 
might  wonder  why  the  rule  was  made 
that  waiters  at  table  should  pass 
food  at  the  left ;  but  the  convenience 
resulting  from  this  custom  was  the 
basis  for  the  rule.  The  inconven- 
ience of  a  person  trying  to  take  food 
from  a  dish  at  his  right  is  readily 
apparent,  as  is  also  the  reason  for 
placing  the  knife  at  the  right  of  the 
plate. 

What  is  lovelier  than  a  well  man- 
aged home  entertainment?  Take  a 
dinner  for  example — The  steps  to  be 
taken  are  as  follows : 

First  decide  on  the  personnel  of 
the  guests  inviting  at  a  given  time 
only  those  whom  you  know  will  be 
congenial  to  each  other,  reserving 
other  friends   for  another  occasion. 

Second,  decide  on  the  menu  which 
should  be  done  at  least  one  day  pre- 
vious to  the  dinner. 

Third,  make  a  plan  of  your  table 
indicating  where  each  guest  shall  be 
seated.     Guests  of  honor  should  be 


placed  at  the  right  of  the  host  and 
hostess  who  are  seated  at  opposite 
ends  of  the  table. 

On  the  day  of  the  dinner  the  house 
should  be  put  in  perfect  order  early 
in  the  morning,  so  that  no  later 
thought  need  be  given  to  the  matter. 
The  table  should  be  completely  set 
long  before  the  time  of  serving,  this 
will  leave  the  hostess  free  to  either 
cook  her  dinner  herself  or  direct  the 
cooking  of  it.  As  the  dinner  hour 
approaches  the  hostess  will  be  calm 
and  confident  and  ready  to  receive 
and  properly  welcome  her  guests. 

Other  home  entertainments  should 
receive  the  same  careful  considera- 
tion. She  can  put  aside  all  thought 
of  how  the  house  looks,  whether  all 
is  running  smoothly  in  the  kitchen 
or  dining  room,  as  all  of  this  has 
received  earlier  attention,  also  the 
thought  of  how  she  looks,  she  is  then 
free  to  anticipate  an  evening  of 
pleasure  with  her  guests.  Many 
dinners  and  other  functions  in  the 
home  are  spoiled  because  of  a  lack 
of  planning  and  preparation. 


A 


LL  social  entertainment  such  as 
our  Relief  Society  parties 
should  also  receive  the  same  careful 
attention. 

First  step  in  such  entertainment 
would  be  the  appointment  of  com- 
mittees. For  a  reception  three  com- 
mittees are  suggested — decoration, 
reception  and  refreshment.  These 
committees  should  meet  jointly  at 
first  to  make  complete  plans  and 
divide  responsibility.  Afterwards 
meeting  separately  to  arrange  details. 

The  decoration  committee  should 


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first  see  to  it  that  the  rooms  to  be 
used  are  immaculately  clean  and  that 
the  work  of  decorators  and  all  evi- 
dence of  it  is  out  of  the  way  well 
in  advance  of  the  time  of  gathering. 

The  work  of  the  reception  com- 
mittee also  needs  very  careful  atten- 
tion and  planning  for  the  success  of 
a  social  gathering  depends  largely 
upon  the  reception  committtee.  It 
is  therefore  important  to  choose 
women  of  tact,  refinement  and  re- 
sourcefulness, women  who  are 
willing  to  devote  their  entire  time  to 
the  comfort  and  enjoyment  of  their 
guests,  women  who  understand  that 
to  introduce  strangers  is  but  the  be- 
ginning of  their  responsibilities  to 
them.  The  reception  committee 
creates  the  atmosphere  of  an  enter- 
tainment which  will  immediately  be 
felt  by  the  guests  on  entering  the 
building.  The  reception  committee 
should  be  at  the  place  of  entertain- 
ment far  in  advance  of  the  guests. 
W)here  there  is  a  receiving  line  those 
who  stand  in  line  should  also  be 
early.  The  receiving  line  may  be 
composed  of  executive  officers,  dis- 
tinguished visitors,  past  officers, 
some  senior  board  members,  or  it 
may  consist  of  an  entire  board ; 
however,  it  seems  preferable  not  to 
have  too  many  in  a  receiving  line 
as  this  restricts  the  activities  quite 
often  of  some  of  the  most  clever 
entertainers  who  could  give  better 
service  scattered  among  the  guests. 
Special  attention  should  be  given  to 
people  who  are  inclined  to  be  shy 
or  backward.  It  is  a  good  idea 
sometimes  to  solicit  their  help  in 
entertaining  for  often  when  once 
the  ice  is  broken  a  wealth  of  under- 
standing and  kindness  will  be  found 
to  draw  upon  in  making  successful 
interchange. 

It  is  the  duty  of  the  refreshment 
committee  to  plan  the  refreshments 


and  arrange  the  service.  Most  of 
our  churches  are  equipped  with 
kitchen  and  dining  room.  The  use 
of  these  rooms  will  depend  on 
whether  the  reception  is  large  or 
small,  simple  or  elaborate.  If  light 
refreshments  such  as  punch  and 
wafers,  candy,  etc.,  are  served  from 
one  or  more  tables,  they  are 
usually  partaken  of  while  standing 
and  people  rarely  stand  long  in  one 
place,  so  the  service  is  not  difficult. 
However,  if  somewhat  more  elab- 
orate refreshments  are  to  be  served, 
the  guests  should  be  seated  the  while. 
There  should  be  a  comparatively 
large  room  with  chairs  close  to- 
gether around  the  walls,  a  center 
table  with  beautifully  laundered 
(linen  table  cloth  or  a  lace  and  linen 
if  possible)  decorated  with  a  center 
piece  of  flowers  and  room  sufficient 
for  side  dishes  and  the  silver,  which 
should  be  attractively  arranged. 
Soiled  plates  etc.  should  not  be  put 
on  this  table  but  should  be  taken 
immediately  to  the  kitchen  and 
washed  for  use  again.  The  use  of 
attractive  paper  plates,  doiles,  nap- 
kins, etc,  is  permissible,  but  the 
nicest  of  food  can  be  spoiled  by  the 
use  of  ill  kept  iron  forks  and  spoons. 
The  standard  in  dining  room  service 
can  be  raised  by  the  use  of  silver, 
a  high  grade  silver  plate  is  really 
not  expensive  when  you  consider  its 
years  of  service,  but  it  must  have 
good  care  in  order  to  look  well.  Use 
always  a  good  silver  polish  for 
cleaning,  and  never  mix  knives, 
forks  and  spoons,  either  in  collect- 
ing, washing,  wiping  or  putting 
away  for  use  again.  One  of  the 
greatest  attractions  in  the  dining 
room  will  be  a  bevy  of  prettily 
dressed,  intelligent  young  girls  to 
serve,  girls  who  are  delicately  sen- 
sitive to  the  needs  and  enjoyment 
of  older  people. 


CULTURE  IX  EXTERTA/XMJiXT 


55 


In  large  gatherings  it  is  well  to 
begin  serving  early  in  order  to  ac- 
commodate any  who  must  leave 
early.  Crowding  in  the  doorway  of 
the  refreshment  room  should  be 
avoided  and  the  reception  committee 
should  make  an  effort  to  see  that  this 
is  not  done.  A  little  patience  exer- 
cised on  the  part  of  the  guests  will 
also  be  appreciated  by  those  in 
charge.  At  a  large  reception  it  is 
important  to  have  plenty  of  help  in 
the  kitchen  and  each  person  there 
should  have  a  definite  understanding 


of  her  duties.  Those  appointed  to 
serve  and  assist  in  the  dining  room 
should  not  loiter  in  the  kitchen,  as 
this  is  most  confusing  and  makes 
progress  difficult.  All  unnecessary 
conversation  among  those  assisting 
should  be  avoided.  As  indicated  in 
the  beginning,  our  entertainments 
should  represent  the  best  that  we 
have  in  the  way  of  culture  and  re- 
finement and  the  Relief  Society 
women  who  are  the  mothers  in  the 
church  should  set  the  pace  for  high 
standards. 


Neighbors 

By  Merlin g  D.  Clyde 


A  neighbor  is  the  greatest  gift 
That  God  can  mortal  send, 
When  others  pass  unheeding  by 
On  her  we  can  depend. 

When  sadness  comes  she  stands  close 

by 
With  words  that  comfort  bring; 
And  in  the  midst  of  happiness 
Her  friendly  laugh  will  ring. 


Though  Life's  routine  may  chain  us 

fast, 
The  day  grow  dark  and  drear. 
Yet  in  the  very  darkest  hour 
We  feel  her  presence  near. 

There  is  no  gift  so  great  as  this. 
As  through  life's  hours  we  labor. 
The  God-like  counterpart  of  Love — 
The  friend,  who  is  our  neighbor. 


Seeking  to  Discredit  Religion,  the  Bible 

and  Deity 


By  Bishop  Edwin  F.  Parry 


THERE  seems  to  be  an  attempt 
with  some  writers  to  destroy 
confidence  in  religion  and  the 
Bible,  and  to  deny  that  God  has  any- 
thing to  do  with  human  affairs  or 
has  any  place  in  the  universe.  Unin- 
formed or  misinformed  writers  rush 
in  print,  evidently  feeling  that  they 
have  a  message  for  mankind  that 
ought  to  be  sent  broadcast  to  the 
ends  of  the  earth  as  a  warning 
against  what  they  consider  supersti- 
tion. When  examined,  their  claims 
are  found  to  be  nothing  but  bare  as- 
sumptions without  proof.  And  yet 
they  speak  in  tones  of  authority, 
making  dogmatical  statements  which 
no  doubt  they  expect  their  readers 
to  accept  for  solemn  truths. 

The  world  has  had  such  pessimists 
before  to  contend  with.  More  than 
one  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago  a 
celebrated  French  writer  said  that  in 
one  hundred  years  from  the  time  of 
his  writing  the  Bible  would  be  for- 
gotten as  a  thing  of  the  past !  And 
yet  more  Bibles  have  been  printed 
and  sold  since  his  day  than  during 
all  time  before,  while  the  man  and 
his  writings  are  forgotten  long  ago ! 
A  very  prominent  American  writer 
of  the  past  generation  blasphemously 
criticized  the  Deity  for  being  so  vain 
as  to  demand  the  worship  of  his 
creatures.  Had  the  writer  con- 
sidered the  matter  more  seriously  or 
sought  advice  from  wiser  men  he 
might  have  learned  the  true  purpose 
of  worship.  Worship  is  deep  admi- 
ration. When  a  person  possesses 
estimable  qualities,  people  admire 
him,   and    that   is    the   leading   step 


towards  acquiring  those  qualities. 
The  Lord  desires  his  children  to 
cultivate  his  attributes  and  become 
like  him,  and  by  worshiping  him 
they  will  be  led  to  do  this. 

pEOPLE  who  sneer  at  religion  are 
ignorant  of  what  religion  really 
is.  Honesty,  playing  the  game  of  life 
fairly,  moral  cleanliness,  the  love  of 
God  and  fellow-man  are  the  most 
prominent  or  essential  parts  of  re- 
ligion. Can  anyone  ignore  any  of 
these  virtues  ?  Men  may  differ  as 
to  the  forms  and  ceremonies  of  re- 
ligion, which  are  helps  and  safe- 
guards to  the  worshiper,  but  the 
consciousness  that  men  and  women 
have  that  they  are  responsible  to  God 
for  their  conduct,  and  that  some 
day  they  will  have  to  give  an  account 
of  their  acts  is  what  preserves  civili- 
zation intact.  Remove  religion  out 
of  the  world  and  civilization  will 
cease. 

Religion  has  furnished  the  highest 
incentives  for  achievement  tending 
to  the  betterment  of  man  in  every 
branch  of  endeavor.  Most,  if  not 
all,  the  great  benefactors  of  the  race 
have  been  religionists.  Men  have 
devoted  their  lives  in  medical  and 
surgical  lines  to  lessen  the  suffer- 
ings of  their  fellows  through  love 
for  them  :  and  love  of  neighbor  is 
next  to  love  of  God.  Scientists  and 
inventors  have  spent  their  lives  and 
fortunes  in  contriving  scientific  and 
mechanical  improvements  for  the 
comfort  of  humanity.  And  this  has 
been  done  through  love  of  mankind 
inspired  by  religious  impulses.    Hos- 


SEEKING  TO  DISCREDIT  RELIGION 


157 


pitals  and  homes  for  the  aged  and 
afflicted  are  sponsored  mostly  by 
religious  societies  or  through  the  in- 
fluence of  religious  people. 

^PHE  Bible  has  furnished  inspira- 
tion for  artists,  musicians,  poets, 
dramatists  and  others.  From  it  the 
foundation  of  the  laws  of  civilized 
nations  has  been  derived.  Many  of 
the  laws  of  hygiene  have  been  gath- 
ered from  this  wonderful  book.  The 
foremost  nations  of  the  earth  are 
believers  in  the  Bible  and  have  at- 
tained their  high  enlightenment 
through  its  influence.  It  has  done 
more  good  in  the  world  than  any 
other  book,  then  why  speak  dispar- 
agingly of  it?  To  reject  the  Holy 
Scriptures,  the  source  of  so  much  of 
the  good  in  the  world,  is  like  de- 
nouncing a  true  friend  and  benefac- 
tor. 

AS  to  God  directing  the  destiny  of 
man  and  of  the  universe,  the 
words  of  the  late  Thomas  A.  Edison 
might  be  quoted : 

"I  know  that  the  world  is  ruled 
by  infinite  intelligence.  It  required 
infinite  intelligence  to  create  it,  and 
it  requires  infinite  intelligence  to 
keep  it  on  its  course.  Everything 
that  surrounds  us,  everything  that 


exists,  proves  that  there  are  infinite 
laws  behind  it." 

Mr.  Edison  also  said,  "I  believe 
in  the  teachings  of  our  Lord  and 
Master.  There  is  a  great  Directing 
Head  of  people  and  things — a  Su- 
preme Being  who  looks  after  the 
destinies  of  the  world." 

The  Literary  Digest  for  Novem- 
ber, 1931,  has  this  quotation  from 
an  unnamed  author : 

''Religion  affirms  a  God. 

"Science  is  coming  to  that  assump- 
tion. The  purpose  and  plan  scien- 
tists find  in  the  cosmos  require  it. 
It  is  the  key  to  the  puzzle  of  the 
universe. 

"In  other  words,  scientific  re- 
search has  been  swinging  away  from 
the  notion  that  the  universe  is  a  vast 
piece  of  mechanism  controlled  by 
purely  mechanical  laws.  Leading 
scientists  are  asserting,  rather,  that 
the  universe  has  purpose  and  direc- 
tion." 

The  "infinite  intelligence"  by 
which  Edison  says  the  world  is  ruled 
and  the  force  which  gives  the  uni- 
verse "purpose  and  direction."  as 
scientists  assert,  is  the  same  as  what 
we  call  the  power  of  God,  the  Crea- 
tor. It  is  infinitely  superior  to  that 
of  mortal  man  in  knowledge  and 
intelligence. 


Poverty 

By  Clara  Home  Park 


I  know,  they  say  it's  poverty ; 

It  may  be  of  a  kind. 
I  haven't  much  that  looks  like  wealth, 

But  I  don't  seem  to  mind. 

For  roses  bloom  around  my  door, 

And  far  as  I  can  see, 
Trees  and  flowers  are  everywhere, 

And  robins  sing  to  me. 


And  one  day  as  I  wrote  my  lines, 

I  had  a  taste  of  bliss, 
A  child  peeked  in  my  open  door 

And  wafted  me  a  kiss. 

And  I  can  hear  and  laugh  and  feel, 
And  think  and  talk  and  see, 

And  walk  a  mile  of  highland,  so- 
It  can't  be  poverty. 


FIRST     PRIZE     FOR     MODERN     OUILT 


One  Thousand  Quilts 

By  Arthur  M.  Richardson 


OX  E  Thousand  Quilts  ! 
Did  you  ever  see  that  many 
hanging  from  the  same  rack 
and  awaiting  your  attention  ? 

That's  the  number  there  were  at 
this  year's  Eastern  States  Exposition 
held  in  Springfield,  Massachusetts. 
Quilts  from  every  state  in  the  Union 
except  Nevada.  There  they  hung, 
just  out  of  reach,  but  close  enough 
to  permit  careful  inspection.  For 
the  plain  simplicity  of  geometrical 
design  to  those  more  gorgeously  dec- 
orated, each  bore  its  silent  tribute 
to  the  deft  fingers  that  created  it. 

The    prize    winning    quilts    were 


hung  on  the  first  floor  of  the  town 
hall  in  Storrowtown.  This  old  New 
England  village  is  the  home  of  the 
"Home  Department,"  which  spon- 
sors the  quilt  exhibit,  and  is  a  sec- 
tion of  the  fair  grounds  made  up 
of  a  group  of  early  New  England 
buildings  brought  from  their  original 
settings  and  placed  around  a  village 
green  and  appropriately  furnished. 

Those  quilts  which  received  hon- 
orable mention  together  with  all  the 
others  were  in  the  Industrial  Arts 
Building.  One  of  the  antique  quilts 
exhibited  by  Mrs.  Lucy  Lust  of 
Marion,  Ohio,  was  a  monument  to 


ONE   THOUSAND   QUILTS 


159 


^# 


«m 


&sw  ;  &■>.■- 


W     WW 


-c:-v: 


▼%   w 


^t*#r 


FIRST    PRIZE    FOR 

patience  and  patriotism,  containing 
10,436  red,  white,  and  blue  pieces 
and  1600  yards  of  thread.  It  was 
60  years  old.  This  one  received  hon- 
orable mention. 

The  cash  award  of  $50.00  and  a 
silver  trophy,  denoting  first  prize,  in 
the  antique  group  was  taken  by  Mrs. 
John  H.  Smith,  40  Shepherd  Street, 
Cambridge.  Massachusetts.  The 
charm  of  this  quilt  lies  in  its  colors, 
softened  by  age ;  its  close  padded 
quilting ;  and  its  prim,  quaint  ap- 
plique design.     As  can  be  seen  from 


ANTIQUE    QUILT 

the  illustration  the  date  and  name 
of  maker  of  this  antique  prize  win- 
ner are  incorporated  in  the  body  of 
the  quilting.     It  was  made  in  1854. 

The  first  prize  for  the  modern 
quilts,  $50.00  and  silver  trophy,  was 
awarded  to  Clara  T.  Post,  Tyndall, 
South  Dakota.  This  quilt  ranks 
highest  in  workmanship  of  any  quilt 
in  the  contest.  The  conventional 
tiower  motif,  which  is  developed  in 
egg-shell  color,  lends  itself  to  any 
favored     pastel     background.     The 


160 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


use  of  only  two  colors  gives  quiet- 
ness and  serenity. 

Quilt  making  is  an  art,  and  one 
with  which  manv  of  the  Relic f  So- 


ciety members  are  familiar.  It 
would  certainly  be  nice  to  sec  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Society  receive  recogni- 
tion in  next  year's  exhibit. 


My  Pretty  Patchwork  Quilt 


By  Ada  Wootton 


Yes,  it  surely  seems  a  crime 
Thus  to  spend  such  precious  time, 
Piecing  silks  and  satins  gay 
Xight  and  morning,  all  the  day, 
Just  to  make  a  cover  fine 
For  that  old-style  bed  of  mine ; 
Pieces  all  of  this  and  that 
Placed  to  fit  so  nice  and  pat 
My  pretty  patchwork  quilt. 

Cutting,  basting,  fitting  all 
Into  space  that  seems  too  small, 
But  they  all  are  placed  at  last 
On  the  block  secure  and  fast 
Strips  of  yellow,  bands  of  green 
Held  by  stitches,  quite  unseen  ; 
'Till  I  think  I'll  surely  wilt 
Working  on  this  patchwork  quilt. 
My  pretty  patchwork  quilt. 


But  each  piece  a  story  tells, 
Buddy's  blouse — a  dress  of  Nell's; 
And  this  dainty  ribbon  scrap 
Was  from  Grandma's  Sunday  cap. 
So  each  block  does  thus  remind 
Of  someone  dear,  someone  kind, 
Some-cne  far,  and  some-one  near 
Some-one  gone  and  some-one  here. 
My  pretty  patchwork  quilt. 

So,  I  sit  and  piece  the  while 
Sometimes  sad,  sometimes  I  smile  ; 
Memories  of  things  that  were 
All  my  thoughts  and  feelings  stir 
But  altho'  I  do  get  tired 
With  ambition  still  I'm  fired 
Just  to  see  my  work  complete 
And  all  finished  nice  and  neat 
My  pretty  patchwork  quilt. 


Adventuring 


By  Agnes 

Today  I'll  go  adventuring 
Along  life's  cheerful  way: 

I'll  sweep  the  floors  and  make  the 
beds 
And  put  the  toys  away. 

I'll  bake  the  lightest  loaves  of  bread 
With  brown  and  crispy  crust : 

I'll  pause  to  watch  a  fleeting  cloud 
Then  run  along  and  dust. 

Perhaps  I'll  sew  a  little  bit, 

I  think  I'll  make  a  shirt 
And  put  a  patch  on  Bobby's  knee 

To  keep  out  cold  and  dirt. 


Just  Reid 

Then  I  must  make  a  "ginger  man'' 

For  curly  headed  Ted 
And  let  him  put  the  raisins  in 

About  the  creature's  head. 

And    there    is    "Mother    Goose"    to 
read, 

Small  Jimmie  wants  his  share. 
And  after  that,  I'll  make  a  cake 

If  there  is  time  to  spare. 

And  night  will  find  me  tired,  perhaps, 
But  full  of  sweet  content, 

So  I'll  keep  on  adventuring 
Until  my  life  is  spent. 


Hard  Times 


By  Mabel  S.  H armor 


BARBARA  greeted  the  knowl- 
edge of  the  coming  of  her 
child  with  a  feeling  some- 
thing akin  to  panic.  It  had  heen 
entirely  different  with  the  other 
two.  Small  Joan  had  been  welcomed 
with  the  ecstasy  accorded  a  firstborn 
and  when  Bobby  arrived,  two  years 
later,  Barbara  had  airily  announced 
to  the  nurse  that  she  intended  to 
have  at  least  half  a  dozen.  She  re- 
membered now.  with  a  smile  of 
amusement,  the  Sou-poor-benight- 
ed-thing'  loolc  the  nurse  had  given 
her. 

But  this  time  it  was  different. 
Paul's  salary  had  already  suffered 
two  cuts  and  there  was  always  the 
fear  lurking  in  the  background  that 
he  would  lose  his  position  altogether. 
It  had  been  months  since  they  had 
been  able  to  save  anything. 

Barbara  had  figured  until  her  head 
ached.  Well,  there  was  no  other 
way  out — they  simply  must  dispense 
with  things  which  she  had  long  re- 
garded as  necessities. 

First  the  telephone  must  go — it 
was  practically  the  same  as  cutting" 
yourself  off  from  the  world ;  next 
the  new  winter  coat  she  had  been 
planning  on.  At  any  rate  she 
wouldn't  be  going  out  much  and  the 
old  one  would  do.  She  hesitated 
next  between  Joan's  music  lessons 
and  Mrs.  Fisher's  day  with  the 
housework  and  then  finally  decided 
that  they  would  both  have  to  go.  It 
was  too  bad — Joan  was  getting  such 
a  good  start  with  her  music  and 
Barbara  would  really  need  help  more 
than  ever  now — but  it  couldn't  be 
helped,  there  was  only  a  few  months 


left  in  which  to  save  the  two  hundred 
dollars  that  would  be  the  least  they 
could  expect  to  get  along  with. 

She  pushed  her  pencil  and  paper 
aside  and  decided  to  take  a  walk. 
There  was  no  use  in  getting  morbid 
about  it  They  would  have  to  man- 
age somehow. 

Putting  on  her  hat  and  a  light 
wrap  she  started  down  the  street  in 
the  direction  of  Aunt  Emmy's.  When 
her  mother  had  left  for  California 
to  spend  the  winter  she  had  said. 
"Now,  do  look  in  on  Aunt  Emmy 
once  in  a  while — the  poor  soul  gets 
so  lonely" — and  Barbara  had  tried 
to  walk  down  there  at  least  once  a 
week. 

She  found  Aunt  Emmy  deep  in 
her  photographs  and  other  relics  of 
the  past,  in  which  she  seemed  to  live 
to  a  greater  extent  now  than  in  the 
present. 

"Come  in,  dearie,"  she  called,  on 
catching  sight  of  Barbara.  "It's  so 
kind  of  you  to  call  on  an  old  lady." 

Barbara  cleared  some  space  on  the 
sofa  and  sat  down. 

"By  the  way,"  said  Aunt  Emmy 
holding  up  a  paisley  shawl,  "did  I 
ever  show  you  this?  Jim  brought 
it  to  me  when  he  came  from  his 
mission." 

Barbara  had  seen  it  at  least  a 
dozen  times  but  she  smiled  politelv 
and  said,  "Yes  thank  you,  Aunt 
Emmy,  I  have  seen  that  one,  but 
what  is  this?"  holding  up  a  small 
white  silk  one,  "it  looks  like  a  baby 
shawl." 

Aunt  Emmy  beamed.  Doesn't  it 
seem  strange?  That  was  my  own 
baby  shawl.    It's  nearly  eighty  years 


162 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


old  now."  The  wrinkled  hands 
caressed  the  bit  of  silk  lovingly.  She 
looked  up  at  Barbara.  "Shall  I  tell 
von  the  story?" 

"Oh,  do!"  exclaimed  Barbara, 
whose  mind  had  been  dwelling  rather 
intently  on  baby  things. 

Aunt  Emmy  toyed  with  the  silken 
fringe  a  moment  and  then  began. 
"My  parents  were  living  in  a  little 
town  in  Illinois  at  the  time  and  built 
a  very  comfortable  home.  It  was 
November  and  the  crops  had  been 
harvested.  A  right  nice  lot  of  corn 
too,  they  said.  Mother  and  Father 
had  left  one  home  two  years  before 
and  hoped  now  for  a  little  peace, 
but  they  were  constantly  being 
threatened  by  the  non-Mormons. 
They  hoped  for  the  best  however, 
and  had  worked  hard  to  secure  them- 
selves   against    the    coming    winter. 

It  was  now  late  November  and 
the  weather  had  turned  rather  cold. 
There  was  a  two  year  old  boy  in  the 
family  and  a  new  baby  was  expected 
in  January. 

One  cold  evening  after  the  family 
had  gone  to  bed,  my  father  was 
awakened  by  a  light  outside.  He 
ran  to  the  window  and  was  shocked 
to  see  his  barn  and  haystack  in 
flames.  At  the  same  time  there  came 
a  knock  at  the  door  and  a  harsh 
voice  said,  "The  house  goes  next  and 
ye  Ye  just  got  time  to  hitch  up  your 
wagon  and  join  your  crowd  down 
the  road." 

Father  opened  the  door  and  plead- 
ed with  the  men  outside.  His  wife 
was  ill.  It  might  kill  her  to  take  her 
out  in  a  night  like  this. 

The  men  laughed  and  said  he 
should  have  thought  of  all  that  be- 
fore he  joined  the  Mormons. 

Sorrowfully  the  little  family 
dressed,  gathered  up  a  few  clothes 
and  a  small  amount  of  food  and  went 


out  to  their  wagon — now  their  sole 
possession. 

They  joined  the  rest  of  their 
friends  in  a  little  grove  of  trees  out- 
side of  the  town.  They  had  built  a 
bonfire  and  were  doing  their  best  to 
keep  up  each  other's  courage. 

During  the  night,  I  was  born  in 
the  old  wagon  and  destitute  as  those 
people  were,  they  gathered  up  a  scrap 
of  clothing  here  and  there  for  the 
new  baby.  One  good  woman  gave 
this  shawl.  No  daubt  it  was  a 
prized  possession  since  they  had 
only  time  to  gather  up  a  few  things. 
I  have  always  loved  it.  Perhaps  it 
helped  to  save  my  life." 

"And  such  a  useful  life,"  said 
Barbara  with  a  loving  smile  as  she 
patted  the  old  lady's  knee. 

"Well,  I've  had  my  ups  and  downs 
— but  my  parents — they  were  the 
ones  who  had  the  hard  times." 

"Yes,"  echoed  Barbara,  with  tears 
in  her  eyes,  "those  were  the  hard 
times.  I  must  run  now,"  she  said, 
standing  up,"  and  thanks  for  the 
story.  You  don't  know  how  it  has 
helped  me." 

She  walked  home  with  light  feet. 
The  odors  of  Autumn  were  in  the  air. 
Ripe  apples,  chili  sauce  cooking  and 
burning  leaves.  "How  good  every- 
thing is,"  she  thought. 

As  she  entered  her  pretty  home 
she  looked  about  with  an  almost 
guilty  air.  She  was  surrounded  by 
every  convenience  that  modern  sci- 
ence had  invented.  And  she  had  been 
afraid !  Afraid  of  losing  some  of 
her  luxuries.  After  all,  they  really 
were  that. 

She  went  to  her  cedar  chest  and 
opened  the  lid.  In  neat  piles  were 
the  partly  worn  baby  garments  of 
Joan  and  Bobby.  "Almost  enough 
of  everything,"  she  thought,  "how 
lovely." 


By  Holly  Bax 

IN  like  a  lamb ;  out  like  a  lion." 
Do  you  have  a  person  in  your 
home  with  a  March  disposition  ? 
Who  is  as  fickle  and  changeable  as 
March  weather?  He  can  be  gentle 
and  agreeable  if  everything  goes  his 
way  and  yet  he  will  fly  into  a  fury 
for  almost  no  reason  at  all  ?  This 
person  invariably  disrespects  the 
rights  of  others  ;  he  fai^s  to  consi- 
der that  it  is  "difference  of  opinion 
that  makes  the  world  go  around." 
The  sooner  this  fact  is  made  part  of 
his  daily  life  the  better  for  him  and 
his  associates.  This  explosiveness  is 
more  easily  corrected  in  a  child  than 
in  the  adolescent  or  adult,  therefore, 
if  you  have  such  a  problem  in  your 
home,  now  and  tomorrow  and  until 
you  have  succeeded  is  the  time  to 
teach  this  child  self  control,  fair- 
ness and  generosity. 

The  March  Social  Service  lesson 
is  on  "Socialized  Conduct."  Much 
can  be  learned  by  attending  this 
class.  It  may  be  that  your  own 
problem  will  be  discussed  and  the 
class  leader  will  be  very  pleased  if 
you  find  help.  I  know  the  satisfac- 
tion of  a  friend  saying,  "your  lesson 
helped  me  so  much  ;  it  seemed  to  be 
given  just  for  me." 

Everyday  Problems  of  the  Every 
Day  Child  by  Thorn  is  a  splendid 
reference  for  child  behavior  prob- 
lems. 

Misunderstood  children  by  Harri- 
son is  a  book  every  parent  should 
read.  Again  I  suggest  taking  notes 
— unless  your  memory  serves   you 

better  than  mine  serves  me. 

***** 


ter  Keddington 

T  WANT  you  to  meet  the  lowly  ten- 
pound  sugar  sack  and  her  rela- 
tive<  that  contain  corn  meal  and 
other  cereals.  A  display  of  articles 
made  by  a  busy,  thrifty  young  moth- 
er was  made  entirely  from  such 
sacks.  Baby's  and  Children's  bibs, 
small  slip  aprons  | made  from  two), 
child's  dresser  set,  bed  spread  and 
quilt,  dust  cloths  (made  from  the  less 
desirable  ones)  covers  for  quilts  and 
blankets  for  summer  storing,  baby 
pillows  (with  dimity  and  print 
hems),  backs  for  print  and  voile 
pillows  and  last  but  far  from  least 
was  a  luncheon  set  (a  boon  to  any 
mother  of  a  small  family),  all  of 
these  made  from  good  material  that 
might  ordinarily  be  thrown  away. 

The  luncheon  set  consisted  of  a 
center  cloth  the  full  size  of  the  sack 
and  place  cloths  for  each  place.  All , 
were  bound  with  bright  orange  bind- 
ing and  the  youngsters  had  added  a 
bit  of  bright  embroidery.  Have 
more  place  cloths  than  your  need  at 
once  and  if  a  child  spills  at  his  own 
place  the  whole  cloth  is  not  ruined 
and  a  fresh  place  cloth  may  be  sub- 
stituted. Your  girl  can  learn  to 
embroider  2nd  iron  on  this  set  of 
small  pieces.  All  of  these  articles 
were    well    worth   the   binding   and 

time  put  on  them. 

***** 

A  man  recenty  said  of  his  wife, 
after  many  years  of  the  struggle  and 
stress  of  rearing  a  family,  "I  think 
I  love  my  wife  more  for  her  ever- 
ready  smile  and  her  sense  of  humor 
than  anything  else — she's  needed 
them  too,  I  tell  yon." 


Avoiding  Obesity 

By  Lucy  Rose  Middleton 


"]Y  M  OST  women  still  desire  the 
I  y  I  slim  figure,  so  how  to  keep 
slender  is  as  timely  a  topic 
as  ever.  This  is  no  wonder  since 
modern  feminine  modes  in  dress 
make  it  practically  impossible  to 
conceal  excess  weight. 

Until  one  is  thirty-five  it  is  better 
to  be  slightly  overweight  than  under- 
weight. Tuberculosis  is  the  chief 
cause  of  death  among  the  young 
adults  and  ample  nutrition  is  the 
best  safeguard  against  this  disease. 
Doctors  say  the  desire  to  be  slender 
has  endangered  the  health  of  many 
young  girls  since  their  obesity  cures 
are  undertaken  not  from  the  health 
standpoint  but  for  esthetic  reasons. 
With  no  reserve  in  the  form  of  fat 
for  the  body  to  draw  on,  the  vital 
tissues  suffer.  Furthermore,  a  little 
excess  fat  helps  toward  'buoyant 
j-ather  than  merely  passable  health. 

Excess  weight  after  thirty-five,  on 
the  other  hand,  is  conducive  to  de- 
generative diseases  such  as  high 
blood  pressure,  hardening  of  the 
arteries,  heart  failure,  and  diabetes, 
which  are  the  chief  causes  of  death 
in  elderly  persons. 

It  is  stated  that  fifty  per  cent  of 
the  cases  of  obesity  is  of  hereditary 
origin,  while  the  rest  may  be  due  to 
disturbances  of  the  glands  of  inter- 
nal secretion,  unbalanced  diets,  over- 
eating, or  lack  of  exercise. 

A  thorough  examination  into  the 
lives  and  habits  of  those  who  wish 
to  reduce  should  be  made  to  be  sure 
that  dieting  is  the  solution  of  the 
problem.  If  the  doctor  says  "go 
ahead"  then  it  is  safe  to  make  the 
attack  on  corpulence. 


Fat  people  usually  claim  to  be 
small  eaters,  but  a  strict  record  of 
the  food  consumed  daily  would 
doubtless  show  that  they  are  eating 
more  than  their  age,  weight,  and 
mode  of  living  require. 

In  following  a  reducing  diet  there 
are  certain  daily  nutrients  necessary 
but  aside  from  these  the  body  should 
be  forced  to  use  some  of  its  stored 
energy.  There  will  be  hunger  pains 
but  these  can  be  partially  relieved 
by  eating  bulky  foods  of  low  caloric 
value.  In  subtracting  calories  from 
the  diet  foods  with  high  caloric  value, 
such  as  white  bread,  cakes,  pastries, 
puddings,  cereals,  candies,  fat  meat, 
butter,  cream,  and  fried  foods, 
should  be  cut  low  and  many  of  them 
eliminated  entirely. 

Our  daily  requirement  is  for  foods 
rich  in  minerals,  vitamins,  and 
roughage.  The  caloric-poor  foods 
we  select  should  supply  these  needs. 

Every  day  plan  to  use : 
One  egg 
One  pint  milk 

Skimmed    milk   or   buttermilk    is 
preferable. 
Fruits : 

Oranges,    grapefruit,    lemons, 
strawberries,    and    apricots    are    of 
lower  carbohydrate  content  than  figs, 
dates,  raisins  and  bananas. 
Vegetables : 

Asparagus,  brussel  sprouts,  spin- 
ach, celery,  lettuce,  cabbage,  and 
tomatoes  may  be  eaten  in  abundance, 
while  carrots,  sweet  potatoes,  corn, 
onions,  and  winter  squash  must  be 
eaten  sparingly. 

Lean  meat — one  serving  a  day. 

The  amount   of   food  cannot  be 


AVOIDING  OBESITY 


1'65 


given  exactly  because  the  caloric 
needs  of  each  person  are  different. 
One  may  gain  on  the  same  diet  that 
causes  another  to  lose.  There  will 
be  a  trial-and-error  period  before 
you  discover  just  how  much  you  can 
eat  and  still  lose  weight. 

Reducing  Diet  for  One  Day 

BREAKFAST: 

1  medium  size  orange. 78  calories 

1  poached  egg 75  calories 

1  thin  slice  of  whole 

wheat  toast 50  calories 

1/2  cup  skimmed 

milk   (hot) 45  calories 

248  calories 

LUNCH: 

%  cup  cream  of 

spinach  soup.  ...  100  calories 

Asparagus  on  toast.  .135  calories 
7  stalks  asparagus 

35  calories 
1  slice  toast 

50  calories 
V2  tablespoon  butter 

50  calories 

Salad   90  calories 

Lettuce — *4  head 

15  calories 
1  medium  size  tomato 

15  calories 
6  slices  cucumber 

10  calories 
1  tablespoon  french 
dressing — 50  calories 
Vs  cup  apple  sauce .  .   97  calories 


422  calories 


DINNER: 

Jellied  boullion 15  calories 

Broiled  lamb  chops.  .100  calories 

1  baked  potato 100  calories 

V2  tablespoon  butter .    50  calories 


String  beans 34  calories 

Salad    170  calories 

1  slice  pineapple 

130  calories 
*/4  head  lettuce 

15  calories 
Boiled  dressing 

25  calories 

Lemon  snow  Y2  cup.    75  calories 
with  14  cup  custard .    75  calories 


619  calorie.* 


Total  for  the  day 1289  calories 

Ordinary  requirement  .  2200  calories 

SALAD  SANDWICH  LOAF 

1    small  loaf  sandwich  bread 
V2  cup  butter 

3  cups  salad 
Lettuce 
Mayonnaise  or  cheese 

Remove  crusts  from  bread  and 
cut  in  4  slices  lengthwise.  Cream 
butter  and  spread  on  both  sides,  top 
and  bottom  slice  on  1  side  only.  On 
bottom  slice,  buttered  side  up,  ar- 
range layer  of  lettuce  and  salad. 
Cover  with  slice  buttered  on  both 
sides.  Arrange  another  salad  layer. 
Repeat  and  put  on  top  slice,  buttered 
side  down.  Press  under  light 
weight.  Spread  surface  with  may- 
onnaise or  cream  cheese,  mashed 
and  moistened  with  cream  or  salad 
dressing.  Garnish  as  desired.  Cut 
in  1-inch  slices  for  serving. 

One  salad  may  be  used  for  all 
layers,  or  a  combination,  such  as 
vegetable  salad  and  chicken  salad, 
may  be  used. 

SARDINE  SALAD  LOAF 

1  large  tin  sardines 

4  hard-cooked  eggs 

*/2  cup  shredded  lettuce 


66 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


Stiff  mayonnaise 

1  small  sandwich  loaf 
y%  cup  butter 
Pickles 

Remove  skin  and  bones  from  sar- 
dines. Slice  1  egg,  chop  others, 
and  add  to  sardines  with  lettuce  and 
mayonnaise  to  moisten.  Arrange 
bread  as  for  salad  sandwich  loaf, 
put  mixture  between  slices  of  bread. 
Spread  entire  outside  with  mayon- 
naise. Garnish  with  sardine,  sliced 
egg,  and  pickles. 

FRUIT  AND  GINGER  ALE 
SALAD 

2  tablespoons    granulated    gelatine, 
soaked  in  2  tablespoons  cold  water 

x/b  cup  boiling  water 


*/4  cup  lemon  juice 
2  tablespoons  sugar 
Few  grains  salt 

1  cup  ginger  ale 

3/3  cup  skinned  grapes,  seeded  and 

cut  in  halves 
Yb  cup  each  diced  apple,  pineapple 

cubes,  diced  celery 

2  tablespoons  chopped,  candied  gin- 
ger. 

Dissolve  soaked  gelatine  in  boiling 
water.  Add  lemon  juice,  sugar,  salt, 
and  ginger  ale.  When  mixture  be- 
gins to  set,  fold  in  other  ingredients. 
Turn  into  border  mold  and  chill. 
Unmold,  garnish,  fill  center  with 
mayonnaise.  Other  fruit  combina- 
tions may  be  used  with  this  ginger 
ale  jelly  foundation. 


God's  Gifts  to  Mankind 

By    Camilla    C.    Nuffey 

CPRING!  What  magic  has  the  word!  The  reawakening  of  new  life. 
Each  thing  from  the  smallest  bud  to  the  great  earth,  throbs  with  the 
expectancy  of  birth.  Man's  soul  soars  away  on  the  wings  of  hope.  New 
ambition  swells  in  his  breast  as  he  turns  over  the  moist  brown  soil — his 
heritage.  The  earth  kissed  with  sunshine  and  spring  rain,  gives  forth  her 
bounteous  gifts  to  man.  Streams  unleashed  from  their  winter  prisons, 
splash  gaily  away  to  water  the  valleys  below  that  man  might  reap  a  golden 
harvest.  God's  gifts  are  ever  before  his  children;  the  music  of  songsters, 
magic  of  growing  things,  the  breath  of  scented  breezes  at  twilight. 

D  US  I  NESS  depressions  and  panics  may  sweep  the  earth,  causing  people 
to  feel  that  they  are  sorely  afflicted.  But  let  us  think  for  one  moment : 
If  the  sun  should  cease  to  shine,  the  rains  cease  to  fall ;  if  the  seasons  each 
with  their  numerous  blessings  should  cease  to  visit  the  earth ;  if  all  nature's 
gifts  were  suddenly  lost  to  us — then  indeed  we  should  know  real  panic. 
How  good  is  God  !  how  blessed  is  man  ! 


To  Our  Visiting  Teachers 

By  La  Rene  King  Blecckcr 

Who  shall  declare  the  joy  of  the  Service, 

Who  shall  tell  of  the  pleasure's  in  sight? 
Singing  and  serving — the  spirit,  God-given 

Sweeping,  wide- winged,  through  the  blue  dome  of  light. 
"Everything  mortal   has   moments   immortal, 

Sweet  and  God-gifted,  immeasurably  bright." 

So  with  the  joy  of  the  cheer-spreading  teachers, 
Harbingers  always  of  hope  and  good  cheer. 

Hearts  that  were  sad  no  longer  are  shadowed, 
The  sunlight  of  hope  dissolves  through  their  tears. 

Joy  in  the  hearts  of  the  visiting  teachers, 
Angels  of  Mercy  throughout  all  the  years. 


Sonnet  of  Friendship 

(Inscribed   in   tribute   of  friendship   to  my   many  friends   of   Relief   Society N 

By  Bertha  A.  Kleinman 

Before  I  lose  the  beauty  of  today, 

And  night  shall  pencil  out  the  horizon, 
Let  me  respond  with  something  brave  to  say, 

Some  song  to  linger  when  the  day  is  gone, 
Before  I  lose  the  glint  of  this  sweet  hour, 

While  friends  and  friendships  spur  me  to  my  best, 
Let  me  some  message  with  its  worth  empower, 

Some  thought  that  shall  my  gratitude  attest, 
Before  I  lose  the  theme  of  life's  sweet  song, 

And  twilight  shall  obscure  my  Perfect  Day, 
Let  me  some  note  of  harmony  prolong, 

To  last,  to  linger  in  the  Far-away ; 
Thus  shall  I  strive  an  oracle  to  be 
And  friendship  live  and  speak  because  of  me. 


To  a  Friend 

(Inscribed  to  President  Louise  Y.  Robison) 

By  Lovinia  M.  Wood 

Friendship  is  like  a  garment 

So  fine  and  so  strong 

You  may  keep  and  use  it,  your  whole  life  long. 

But  it  differs  from  garments  as  everyone  knows 

It  gets  finer  and  stronger,  the  older  it  grows. 


Notes  from  the  Field 


European  Mission. 
TOURING  the  summer  of  1933, 
Xettie  L.  Woodbury  and 
Ileen  Ann  AYaspe,  two  young 
women  missionaries  from  Utah, 
made  a  tour  of  the  European  mis- 
sions, in  the  interest  of  the  auxil- 
iary work  of  the  Church.  During 
that  time  they  met  and  worked 
with  the  local  mission  auxiliary 
boards,  which  at  present  consist 
of  a  president,  two  counselors  and 
a  secretary.  In  their  report,  the 
work  of  President  Widtsoe  is  in 
evidence,  and  a  good  beginning- 
has  been  made  toward  strengthen- 
ing the  work  and  building  up  Zion 
in  the  world.  In  most  of  the  mis- 
sions visited  the  local  sisters  are 
in  charge,  under  the  supervision 
of  the  Mission  Mothers.  The  fol- 
lowing missions  were  included  in 
this  general  survey :  Danish, 
Swedish,  Norwegian,  German- 
Austrian,  Czecho-Slovakia,  Swiss- 
German,  French,  Netherlands. 

The  Relief  Society  work  is 
progressing  very  satisfactorily  in 
most  of  the  missions.  The  wom- 
en on  the  boards  are  all  full  of 
faith,  and  are  anxious  to  do  what- 
ever is  asked  of  them. 

The  Mission  Mothers  are  won- 
derful women  and  certainly  have  a 
heavy  load  to  carry — supervising 
the  mission  home ;  supervising 
auxiliaries  ;  many  of  them  caring 
for  their  own  small  children  and 
giving  help  and  counsel  to  their 
husbands,  to  say  nothing  of  look- 
ing after  the  welfare  of  the  mis- 
sionaries. 

Elsie  F.  Par  ton. 

npH  E  wide  extent  of  Relief  So- 
ciety, and  the  interest  taken  by 


women  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  is 
well  demonstrated  by  the  results 
of  the  Eliza  R.  Snow  Poem  Con- 
test. Alberta  Huish  Christensen. 
whose  home  is  in  New  York,  and 
Elsie  F.  Parton,  who  lives  in  far 
off  Australia,  tied  for  first  place  in 
the  contest,  and  both  submitted 
poems  of  very  great  beauty  and 
deep  spiritual  appeal.  Sister  Par- 
ton  writes  :  "I  have  had  two  great 
ambitions  in  life,  one  was  to  secure 
first  place  in  the  Eliza  R.  Snow 
Poem  Contest,  and  the  other  is  to 
go,  with  my  husband  and  two 
sons,  through  the  Temple  of  the 
Lord." 

Sister  Parton  has  been  a  very 
active  member  of  the  Church  since 
her  baptism  in  1922.  She  and  her 
husband  were  at  that  time  resi- 
dents of  Tasmania.  Their  hearts 
were  touched  by  the  truth  of  the 
everlasting  Gospel,  and  each  year 
Sister  Parton  says  her  "faith  has 
grown  firmer."  She  has  been  very 
active  in  the  Church  and  Relief 
Society,  serving  as  visiting  teach- 
er, theological  class  leader,  and  a 
counselor  to  the  Relief  Society 
President  of  the  branch.  She 
writes:  'T  thank  my  Heavenly 
Father  for  the  success  I  have  had. 
I  sent  my  first  entry  in  the  poem 
contest  in  1928,  and  secured  third 
honorable  mention,  and  have  en- 
tered every  year  since  without  suc- 
cess, until  1933,  when  I  tied  for 
first  prize." 

Australkui  Mission. 
TN   the   Fall  of   1933,  a  very  de- 
lightful letter  came  from  Mrs 
Hazel  B.  Tingey,  President  of  the 
Australian    Mission   Relief  Socie- 
ties.    To  quote  in  part  from  the 


NOTES  FROM  THE   FIELD 


109 


AUSTRALIAN 

letter:  "During  the  past  year  a 
wonderful  work  has  been  done  to 
relieve  distress  and  to  bring-  cheer 
and  comfort  to  a  large  number  of 
our  members,  also  to  many  who 
are  not  of  our  faith.  Food-stuffs, 
clothing,  bedding,  shoes  and  even 
new  suits  for  men  have  been  dis- 
tributed. Really  it  is  surprising 
the  amount  of  help  that  has  come 
from  our  own  little  organization. 
Just  last  month  the  Hurstville 
Branch  Relief  Society  presented 
to  that  branch  ten   pounds   (ster- 


HAND    WORK 

ling)  as  the  very  first  contribution 
towards  the  building  fund  for  a 
little  chapel.  This  is  our  youngest 
branch,  and  is  not  yet  a  year  old 
until  January  next,  and  of  course 
we  are  now  meeting  in  a  little 
rented  hall.  How  happy  these 
sisters  were  to  be  the  ones  to  make 
the  first  contribution.  We  now 
have  eight  fully  organized  Relief 
Societies  and  hope  soon  to  organ- 
ize the  ninth. 

'rI  am  very  happy  to  report  that 
all  our  sisters  engaged  in  the  work 


170 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


enjoy  it  very  much  and  are  most 
faithful.  YVe  would  like  to  see 
more  of  our  sisters  enroll,  but  the 
distance  most  of  them  live  away 
from  the  church  makes  it  rather 
impossible  to  do  so.  We  do  ap- 
preciate the  lessons  and  other 
readings  in  the  Magazine. " 

The  picture  shows  the  beauti- 
ful handwork  which  was  sent  from 
far  away  Australia.  Every  one  of 
the  enterprising  branches  sent  in 
some  articles  which  were  placed 
on  exhibition  in  the  General  Board 
room  in  Salt  Lake  City. 

Hawaiicui  Mission. 
^PHE    picture    is    of    the    Kapaa 
Branch  on  the  Island  of  Kauai 


received  a  very  delightful  and  nov- 
el gift  from  the  Relief  Society  in 
Hawaii.  The  picture  indicates  the 
exhibit  of  beautiful  native  work, 
which  was  arranged  in  the  Gen- 
eral Board  room  in  Salt  Lake 
City.  The  following  account  of 
the  exhibit  here  in  Salt  Lake  ap- 
peared in  the  "Salt  Lake  Tribune." 
December  25,  1933:  "Not  often 
do  Salt  Lakers  receive  so  novel  a 
gift  as  arrived  for  Mrs.  Louise 
V.  Robison,  president  of  the  Na- 
tional Woman's  Relief  Society, 
and  other  general  officers,  re- 
cently. 

"Members  of  the  L.  D.  S.  Re- 
lief Societies  in  Honolulu    T.  H., 


KAPAA    BRANCH 


was  taken  upon  the  32nd  anni- 
versary. The  president  of  this 
enterprising  branch  is  Sister  Ben- 
j amine  Ohai ;  herself  the  mother  of 
six  small  children,  she  is  doing  a 
very  splendid  work  among  the  sis- 
ters in  the  organization  in  Kapaa. 

Early  in    December,   1933,    the 
General    Board   of   Relief   Society 


decided  to  send  a  gift  which  was 
within  their  means  and  yet  which 
would  be  appreciated. 

"So  they  sent  a  variety  of  lunch- 
eon accessories  woven  expertly 
from  the  leaf  of  the  hala  tree,  one 
of  the  most  useful  trees  growing 
in  the  Hawaiian  Islands. 

"Included  is  a  set  of  four  small 


NOTES  FROM  THE  FIELD 


171 


luncheon  covers ;  a  large  beauti- 
fully designed  center  cloth  ;  a  fruit 
basket ;  three  fans,  also  of  unique 
pattern  and  workmanship ;  four 
flower  cones  with  artificial  flowers 
showing  several  varieties  of  the 
Hibiscus  of  which  there  are  1,500 
varieties ;  a  pillow ;  six  leis  or 
necklaces,  one  for  each  of  the  Ha- 
waiian Islands ;  a  cocoanut  with 
the  outer  shell  colored  and  figured, 
also  a  tapa  cloth  made  by  Hawaiian 


members  of  the  church  at  Laie. 

"Accompanying  the  gifts  was  a 
greeting  from  Mrs.  Verna  F.  Mur- 
phy, president  of  the  mission  Re- 
lief Societies,  and  wife  of  Castle 
F.  Murphy,  president  of  the  L. 
D.  S.  Hawaiian  mission." 

The  enthusiasm  of  the  faith  and 
spirituality  of  the  sisters  of  Ha- 
waii have  long  been  a  source  of  in- 
spiration to  the  general  organiza- 
tion. 


EXHIBIT  FROM  HAWAII 


172 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


O 


Tableaux  Featured  in  Liberty  Stake 
,NE  of  the  most  delightful  fea- 
tures of  Liberty  Stake  Relief 
Society  work  was  the  tableau  review 
of  the  Sermon  on  the  Mount  with 
a  poetic  prologue  and  postlogue,  and 
a  musical  background,  the  eight  be- 
atitudes were  portrayed  in  modern 


dress  and  manner.  Such  features  as 
Sunshine  workers  and  the  campaign 
against  intolerance  brought  the  be- 
atitudes close  to  life  today. 

In  the  picture  of  the  Pure  in 
Heart,  motherhood  and  childhood 
accompanied  by  a  lullaby  made  an 
impressive  scene. 


THE  PURE  IN   HEART 

In  pure  delight  God  made  His  perfect  earth, 
And  moulded  harmony  into  its  ways : 
Clear  skies,  translucent  waters,  then  He  prayed 
And  human  hearts  more  pure  were  given  birth : 
The  mother  heart  that  in  its  purity 
Hallows  all  life  with  love  divinely  spun, 
The  child's,  whose  innocence  and  piety 
Make  daily  earth  and  heaven  strangely  one ! 


MOTHERHOOD  AND  CHILDHOOD 

Edna  Mathews  Gessel  and  her  grandchildren,  Ardeth  and  Stephen. 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  OF  THE  CHURCH  OF 
JESUS  CHRIST  OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS 

Motto — Charity  Never  Faileth 

THE  GENERAL  BOARD 

MRS.    LOUISE   YATES    ROBTSON President 

MRS.    AMY    BROWN   LYMAN  -         - First  Counselor 

MRS.   JULIA   ALLEMAN   CHILD Second  Counselor 

MRS.   JULIA  A.   F.   LUND General   Secretary  and   Treasurer 

Mrs.  Emma  A.  Empey  Mrs.  Amy  Whipple  Evans  Mrs.    Ida    P.    Beal 

Miss  Sarah  M.   McLelland  Mrs.   Ethel  Reynolds  Smith  Mrs.    Katie   M.   Barker 

Mrs.  Annie  Wells  Cannon  Mrs.   Rosannah  C.  Irvine  Mrs.  Marcia  K.  Howells 

Mrs.    Jennie    B.    Knight  Mrs.  Nettie  D.  Bradford  Mrs.  Hazel  H.   Greenwood 

Mrs.   Lalene  H.   Hart  Mrs.  Inez  K.  Allen  Mrs.  Emeline  Y.  Nebeker 

Mrs.   Lotta   Paul    Baxter  Mrs.  Elise  B.  Alder  Mrs.   Mary   Connelly   Kimball 
Mrs.    Cora   L.    Bennion 

RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Editor  Mary    Connelly    Kimball 

Manager Louise    Y.    Robison 

Assistant    Manager Amy    Brown    Lyman 


Vol.  XXI 


MARCH.  1934 


No.  3 


EDITORIAL 


March  17,  1934 


A  NOTHER  year  has  winged  its 
way  into  history  and  our  anni- 
versary comes  to  bring  forth  the 
ingenuity  of  the  officers,  to  challenge 
the  associations  to  prepare  and  carry 
out  programs  that  shall  be  worthy 
of  our  great  organization,  and  to  call 
us  to  contemplate  the  history  of  past 
achievements  and  to  voice  our  grati- 
tude for  the  opportunities  the  Relief 
Society  offers  and  the  inestimable 
"blessings  it  confers. 

The  past  year  has  been  outstand- 
ing in  accomplishments.  The  work 
and  business  display,  that  was 
Church-wide  in  its  scope,  held  in 
connection  with  our  April,  1933 
Conference,  gave  the  most  concrete 
example  in  our  history  of  what  the 
Relief  Society  women  are  doing  in 
this  department.  Leading  brethren 
expressed  themselves  as  delighted 
and  surprised  that  such  things  were 
being  accomplished  in  the  organiza- 


tion, and  many  non-members  of  the 
Church  came  again  and  again  to  see 
the  beautiful  things  displayed  and  to 
voice  their  appreciation.  Someone 
said  it  was  the  most  encouraging 
thing  she  had  witnessed  since  the 
depression  began. 

The  intimate  contact  with  the  Na- 
tional Council  of  Women  in  pre- 
paring for  the  Exhibition  at  the 
Century  of  Progress  Exposition  and 
the  presence  of  executive  officers 
at  the  International  Council  of 
Women's  sessions  from  July  l'6th  to 
22nd,  1933,  at  the  Palmer  House  in 
Chicago,  Illinois,  was  most  illum- 
inating and  broadening.  The  dis- 
play of  photographs  in  the  Council 
books  of  the  Relief  Society  activ- 
ities compared  very  favorably  with 
those  of  any  other  constituent  or- 
ganization. The  beautiful  music 
rendered  by  the  Singing  Mothers 
and    transmitted    from    the    Taber- 


174 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


nacle  in  Salt  Lake  City  to  the  Expo- 
sition in  Chicago  by  the  Columbia 
Broadcasting  Company,  was  thor- 
oughly enjoyed. 

The  dedication  of  the  Relief  So- 
ciety Monument  in  Nauvoo  was  a 
fitting  tribute  to  the  Prophet  Joseph, 
who  organized  the  Relief  Society  in 
1842  in  that  beauiful  City  on  the 
bend  of  the  Mississippi  River,  and 
to  the  first  officers  who  carried  on 
the  work.  It  was  a  great  pleasure 
to  the  Executive  Officers  to  meet  so 
many  descendants  of  the  Prophet 
and  his  wife,  Emma  Smith,  and  to 
enjoy  their  cordiality.  Friendships 
were  cemented  that  we  believe  will 
last  forever,  and  the  Monument  will 
stand  there  to  tell  all  passers-by  of 
Joseph  Smith's  foresight  and  appre- 
ciation for  the  work  of  women. 

The  convention  of  class  leaders 
during  our  October  conference  was 
helpful  and  stimulating  to  our  edu- 
cational work. 

During  the  year  the  welfare  de- 
partment was  moved  to  the  Young 
Building  where  most  commodious 
quarters  are  enjoyed.  This  has  re- 
lieved the  cramped  condition  in  the 
Bishop's  Building  and  has  made  it 
possible  to  set  aside  a  room  for  our 
Stake    Presidents   where   they  may 


meet  each  other  at  conference  time, 
telephone,  write  letters  and  rest 
during  their  visit  in  the  City. 

The  General  Board  Members  have 
found,'  in  their  annual  visits  to  the 
Stakes,  that  the  organizations  are  in 
an  unusually  strong  condition  They 
are  delighted  with  the  fine  work 
being  done  throughout  the  Church. 

We  are  pleased  to  note  the  inno- 
vation Liberty  and  Ensign  Stakes 
have  been  carrying  out  during  the 
past  year  on  their  work  and  business 
days.  They  have  increased  their  at- 
tendance very  materially  through  the 
programs  in  Vocabulary  Building 
and  Correct  Speech.  While  it  is 
expected  that  all  organizations  shall 
carry  out  in  general  the  work  as 
outlined  by  the  General  Board,  it  is 
praiseworthy  to  see  the  Stakes  exer- 
cise their  ingenuity  and  meet  the 
particular  needs  of  their  women. 
Very  often  some  of  the  fine  things 
tried  out  in  Stakes  later  get  Church- 
wide  adoption. 

We  congratulate  every  woman 
who  belongs  to  this  great  organiza- 
tion. We  urge  each  one  to  let  the 
spirit  of  love  and  good  will  actuate 
all  that  she  does  and  to  make  the 
most  of  the  opportunities  for  service 
and  education  offered  by  the  Relief 
Society. 


Leadership  Week  at  B.  Y.  U.3  Provo 


Leadership  Week  has  proved 
so  valuable  that  all  over  the 
Church  thousands  turn  their 
thoughts  to  the  B.  Y.  U.  and  wish 
they  could  avail  themselves  of  the 
wonderful  opportunities  the 
school  offers.    No  one  can  tell  how 


far-reaching  are  the  effects  of  this 
week  of  intensive  work.  New 
thoughts  are  planted,  new  vision 
is  enjoyed  by  those  who  attend 
and  they  give  uplift  to  others 
when  they  return  to  their  homes. 


Lesson  Department 

Theology  and  Testimony 

(First  Week  in  May) 
Zion,  The  New  Jerusalem 


1.  The    Term   Zion.     The   term 
"Zion"  as  it  appears  in  the  scriptures 
is  variously  applied,  chiefly  as  fol- 
lows : 

(a)  To  Mount  Zion,  a  hill  in  the 
city  of  Jerusalem,  and  in  a  less 
definite  way  to  the  city  of  Jerusalem 
itself. 

(b)  To  the  City  of  Enoch. 
(Moses  7:18-21.) 

(c)  To  the  people  of  God,  called 
the  "pure  in  heart."  (D.  &  C. 
97:21.) 

(d)  To  the  entire  North  Ameri- 
can continent.  (History  of  the 
Church,  Vol.  6,  pp.  318,  319.) 

(e)  To  the  location  mentioned  by 
Micah  from  which  the  law  shall  go 
forth  in  the  last  days.   (Micah  4:2.) 

The  Zion  with  which  this  lesson 
is  concerned  is  the  one  mentioned  by 
Micah. 

2.  Scriptural  Predictions.  The 
scriptures  are  replete  with  predic- 
tions concerning  the  establishment 
of  Zion  in  latter  times.  Micah  of 
old  said :  "In  the  last  days  it  shall 
come  to  pass,  that  the  mountain  of 
the  house  of  the  Lord  shall  be  estab- 
lished in  the  top  of  the  mountains, 
and  it  shall  be  exalted  above  the 
hills ;  and  people  shall  flow  unto  it. 
And  many  nations  shall  come  and 
say,  Come,  and  let  us  go  up  to  the 
mountain  of  the  Lord,  and  to  the 
house  of  the  God  of  Jacob ;  and  he 
will  teach  us  of  his  ways,  and  we  will 
walk  in  his  paths;  for  the  law  shall 
go  forth  of  Zion,  and  the  word  of 
the  Lord  from  Jerusalem."  (Micah 
4:1,    2.)      Micah's    statement   thus 


plainly  indicates  the  existence  of  two 
holy  cities  in  the  last  days,  namely, 
Jerusalem  in  the  land  of  Judea,  and 
Zion,  the  location  of  which  he  does 
not  mention. 

3.  Location  of  Zion.  The  Nephite 
prophets  were  much  more  definite 
concerning  the  location  of  Zion,  the 
New  Jerusalem.  Ether,  the  last  of 
the  Jareditic  prophets,  plainly  fore- 
told that  "a  New  Jerusalem  should 
be  built  upon  this  (the  American) 
land,  unto  the  remnant  of  the  seed 
of  Joseph,  for  which  things  there 
has  been  a  type."  (Ether  13  :6.)  On 
the  occasion  of  the,  Master's  visit  to 
his  people  on  the  American  conti- 
nent, he  spoke  concerning  Zion  as 
follows :  "I  will  establish  my  people, 
O  house  of  Israel.  And  behold,  this 
people  will  I  establish  in  this  land, 
unto  the  fulfilling  of  the  covenant 
which  I  made  with  your  father 
Jacob;  and  it  shall  be  a  New  Jeru- 
salem. And  the  powers  of  heaven 
shall  be  in  the  midst  of  this  people ; 
yea,  even  I  will  be  in  the  midst  of 
you."  (Ill  Nephi  20:21,  22.)  Speak- 
ing of  the  repentant  Gentiles,  the 
Master  said  further:  "They  shall 
assist  my  people,  the  remnant  of 
Jacob,  and  also  as  many  of  the  house 
of  Israel  as  shall  come,  that  they 
may  build  a  city,  which  shall  be 
called  the  New  Jerusalem.  And 
then  shall  they  assist  my  people  that 
they  may  be  gathered  in,  who  are 
scattered  upon  all  the  face  of  the 
land,  in  unto  the  New  Jerusalem. 
And  then  shall  the  power  of  heaven 
come  down  among  them  ;  and  I  also 


176 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


will  be  in  the  midst."  (Ill  Nephi  21 : 
23-25.) 

4.  Exact  Location  Revealed.  In 
March  of  1831,  a  few  weeks  after 
his  first  arrival  in  Kirtland,  the 
Prophet  received  a  revelation  that 
contained  the  following:  "Assemble 
ye  yourselves  together  ye  elders  of 
my  church ;  go  forth  into  the  western 
countries,  call  upon  the  inhabitants 
to  repent,  and  inasmuch  as  they  do 
repent,  build  up  churches  unto  me. 
And  with  one  heart  and  with  one 
mind,  gather  up  your  riches  that  ye 
may  purchase  an  inheritance  which 
shall  hereafter  be  appointed  unto 
you.  And  it  shall  be  called  the  new 
Jerusalem,  a  land  of  peace,  a  city  of 
refuge,  a  place  of  safety  for  the 
saints  of  the  Most  High  God;  and 
the  glory  of  the  Lord  shall  be  there, 
and  the  terror  of  the  Lord  also  shall 
be  there,  insomuch  that  the  wicked 
will  not  come  unto  it,  and  it  shall  be 
called  Zion."   (D.  &  C.  45:64-67.) 

5.  A  month  or  so  later  the  Proph- 
et himself  journeyed  from  Kirtland 
to  Independence,  the  last  three 
hundred  miles  of  the  distance  on 
foot.  When  he  reached  his  destina- 
tion, tired  and  footsore,  he  was  evi- 
dently not  favorably  impressed, 
particularly  with  the  people.  He 
said :  "Our  reflections  were  many, 
coming  as  we  had  from  a  highly  cul- 
tivated state  of  society  in  the  east, 
and  standing  now  upon  the  confines 
or  western  limits  of  the  United 
States,  and  looking  into  the  vast  wil- 
derness of  those  that  sat  in  darkness ; 
how  natural  it  was  to  observe  the 
degradation,  leanness  of  intellect, 
ferocity,  and  jealousy  of  a  people 
that  were  nearly  a  century  behind  the 
times,  and  to  feel  for  those  who 
roamed  about  without  the  benefit  of 
civilization,  refinement,  or  religion; 
yea,  and  exclaim  in  the  language  of 
the  Prophets  :  'When  will  the  wilder- 


ness blossom  as  the  rose  ?  When  will 
Zion  be  built  up  in  her  glory,  and 
where  will  Thy  temple  stand,  unto 
which  all  nations  shall  come  in  the 
last  days  ?'  "  (History  of  the  Church, 
Vol.  1,  p.  189.)  The  Prophet  re- 
cords that  the  Lord  did  not  keep 
them  waiting  long  for  an  answer. 
Here  it  is : 

"Hearken,  O  ye  elders  of  my 
church,  saith  the  Lord  your  God, 
who  have  assembled  yourselves  to- 
gether, according  to  my  command- 
ments, in  this  land,  which  is  the  land 
of  Missouri,  which  is  the  land  which 
I  have  appointed  and  consecrated 
for  the  gathering  of  the  saints. 
Wherefore,  this  is  the  land  of  prom- 
ise, and  the  place  for  the  city  of 
Zion.  And  thus  saith  the  Lord 
your  God,  if  you  will  receive  wis- 
dom here  is  wisdom.  Behold,  the 
place  which  is  now  called  Independ- 
ence is  the  center  place ;  and  a  spot 
for  the  temple  is  lying  westward, 
upon  a  lot  which  is  not  far  from 
the  courthouse."  (D.  &  C.  57:1-3.) 

6.  Immediate  Preparations.  With 
characteristic  energy  and  dispatch, 
the  Prophet  proceeded  immediately 
to  carry  out  the  instructions  of  the 
Lord.  He  wrote  a  long  letter  des- 
criptive of  the  country  now  called 
Zion,  for  distribution  among  the 
saints  everywhere;  (History  of  the 
Church,  Vol.  1,  pp.  197,  198.)  He 
encouraged  the  saints  to  purchase 
land  in  the  neighborhood ;  and  he 
appointed  brethren  to  have  charge  of 
the  proceedings.  The  Lord  caution- 
ed, however :  "Let  the  work  of  the 
gathering  be  not  in  haste,  nor  by 
flight;  but  let  it  be  done  as  it  shall 
be  counseled  by  the  elders  of  the 
church  at  the  conferences,  according 
to  the  knowledge  which  they  receive 
from  time  to  time."  (D.  &  C.  58: 
56.) 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


177 


7.  The  Lord  further  said.  "Mf 
law  shall  be  kept  on  this  land.  Let 
no  man  think  he  is  ruler;  but  let 
God  rule  him  that  judgeth,  accord- 
ing to  the  counsel  of  his  own  will, 
or,  in  other  words,  him  that  counsel- 
ed of  sitteth  upon  the  judgment 
§eai  Let  no  man  break  the  laws  of 
the  kfid,  for"  fog  that  keepeth  the  laws 
of  God  hath  no  need'  to  bfeafc  the 
laws  of  the  land."  (tt  &  C.  S8rl* 
21 . )  Doubtless  all  these  were  timely 
instructions. 

8.  Foundations  of  Zion  Laid. 
Within  a  few  days  after  the  exact 
location  of  Zion  was  revealed,  the 
Colesville  branch  of  the  Church, 
consisting*  of  about  sixty  souls,  ar- 
rived at  Independence.  On  the  sec- 
ond day  of  August,  1831,  the  Proph- 
et assisted  these  people  in  laying  the 
nVst  log  for  a  house,  as  a  "founda- 
tion of  Zion"  in  Kaw  township, 
within  the  present  limits  of  Kansas 
City.  The  log  was  carried  and  put 
in  place  by  twelve  men,  in  honor  of 
the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel.  The 
place  was  then  appropriately  dedi- 
cated as  the  land  of  Zion  by  Sidney 
Rigdon  and  accepted  as  such  by  the 
voice  of  the  people.  After  the  prayer 
had  been  offered  Sidney  Rigdon 
arose  and  said:  "I  now  pronounce 
this  land  consecrated  and  dedicated 
unto  the  Lord  for  a  possession  and 
inheritance  for  the  Saints,  and  for  all 
the  faithful  servants  of  the  Lord  to 
the  remotest  ages  of  time.  In  the 
name  of  Jesus  Christ,  having  author- 
ity from  him.  Amen."  (History  of 
the  Church,  Vol.  1,  p.  196.) 

9.  Forebodings  of  Sorrow.  Much 
-was  expected  of  the  saints  who 
-gathered  at  Zion.  They  were  re- 
garded -as  (the  chosen  people  of  the 
Lord.  Ajl^who^ere  strong  enough 
-were  expected  ftp  fpye  the  United 
rQrder  ana!  ^tfyerwise  [keep  all  the 
rcommandnients  ,0/f  (Gpd\      On    the 


other  hand,  they  had  been  in  the 
Church  but  a  short  time  and  there- 
fore did  not  possess  the  maturity 
that  many  of  the  saints  possess  at 
the  present  time.     Moreover  there 
were  a  few  among  them  who  were- 
not  truly  converted  to  the  faith.     Ini 
consequence  of  these  and  other  con- 
ditions, the  members  of  the  Churchi 
as  a  whole  did  not  fully  comply  withi 
all  that  was  expected  of  them.    The 
Ffophet  foresaw  this   condition   as» 
early  as  January,  1834,  and  in  a  let- 
ter to  Win.  W.  Phelps,  then  in  Mis- 
souri,   wrote    in   part,    as    follows : 
"The  Lord  will  have  a  place  whence 
his  word  will  go  forth,  in  these  last 
days,  in  purity;  for  if  Zion  will  not 
purify  herself,  so  as  to  be  approved 
of  in  all  things,  in  his  sight,  he  will 
seek     another     people;     for  *  *  * 
they  who  will  not  hear  his  voice, 
must  expect  to  feel  his  wrath.  Let 
me   say  unto   you,    seek   to   purify 
yourselves,  and  also  all  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Zion,  lest  the  Lord's  anger 
be   kindled   to   fierceness.      Repent, 
repent,  is  the  voice  of  God  to  Zion.. 
*  *  *  I    say    unto    you,    hear    the 
warning   voice    of    God,    lest    Zioni 
fall."  (History  of  the  Church,  Vol.. 
1,  p.  316.) 

10.  Expulsion  from  Jackson' 
County.  The  saints  were  expelled' 
by  mob  violence  from  Jackson 
county — in  which  Independence  "the 
center  place"  is  situated — in  the 
early  winter  of  1833,  scarcely  two 
and  one-half  years  after  its  settle- 
ment by  our  people.  The  details  of 
this  inhuman  affair  need  not  be  re- 
lated here.  When  word  of  this 
calamity  reached  the  Prophet  at 
Kirtland,  the  Lord  gave  him  a  reve- 
lation containing  the  following: 

"I,  the  Lord,  have  suffered  the 
affliction  to  come  upon  them,  where- 
with they  have  been  afflicted,  in 
consequence  of  their  transgressions ; 


178 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


yet  I  will  own  them,  and  they  shall 
be  mine  in  that  day  when  I  shall 
come  to  make  up  my  jewels.  *  *  * 
There  were  jar  rings,  and  conten- 
tions, and  envyings,  and  strifes,  and 
lustful  and  covetous  desires  among 
them;  therefore  by  these  things 
they  polluted  their  inheritances.  *  * 
*  In  the  day  of  their  peace  they  es- 
teemed lightly  my  counsel ;  but,  in 
the  day  of  their  trouble,  of  necessity 
they  feel  after  me."  (D.  &  C.  101 : 
2-8.)  Again:  "I  speak  not  con- 
cerning those  who  are  appointed  to 
lead  my  people,  who  are  the  first 
elders  of  my  church,  for  they  are 
not  all  under  this  condemnation." 
(D.  &C.  105:7.) 

11.  Redemption  of  Zion  Post- 
poned. While  enroute  to  Missouri 
with  Zion's  Camp,  in  June  of  1834, 
the  Prophet  received  a  revelation  in 
which  the  redemption  of  Zion  was 
postponed  "for  a  little  season."  Here 
are  the  Lord's  words:  "In  conse- 
quence of  the  transgressions  of  my 
people,  it  is  expedient  in  me  that 
mine  elders  should  wait  for  a  little 
season  for  the  redemption  of  Zion, 
that  they  themselves,  may  be  pre- 
pared, and  that  my  people  may  be 
taught  more  perfectly,  and  have  ex- 
perience, and  know  more  perfectly 
concerning  their  duty,  and  the  things 
which  I  require  at  their  hands." 
(D.&C.  105:9,  10.) 

12.  Project  Not  Abandoned.  The 
redemption  of  Zion  is  only  tempo- 
rarily abandoned,  and  in  course  of 
time  will  be  resumed.  Touching 
this  matter,  the  Lord  says :  "Zion 
shall  be  redeemed,  although  she  is 
chastened  for  a  little  season."  (D.  & 
C.  100:13.)  Again:  "Zion  shall 
not  be  moved  out  of  her  place,  not- 
withstanding her  children  are  scat- 
tered. They  that  remain,  and  are 
pure  in  heart,  shall  return,  and  come 
to  their  inheritances,  they  and  their 


children,  with  songs  of  everlasting 
joy,  to  build  up  the  waste  places  of 
Zion — and  all  these  things  that  the 
prophets  may  be  fulfilled.  And,  be- 
hold, there  is  none  other  place  ap- 
pointed than  that  which  I  have  ap- 
pointed neither  shall  there  be  any 
other  place  appointed  than  that  which 
I  have  appointed,  for  the  work  of 
the  gathering  of  my  saints — until 
the  day  cometh  when  there  is  found 
no  more  room  for  them ;  and  then  I 
have  other  places  which  I  will  ap- 
point unto  them,  and  they  shall  be 
called  stakes,  for  the  curtains  or  the 
strength  of  Zion."  (D.  &  C.  101 :17- 
21.) 

13.  The  Latter-day  Saints  are 
looking  hopefully  forward  to  the 
time  when  the  Lord  will  see  fit  to 
begin  again  the  work  of  Zion's  re- 
demption. Zion,  however,  will  not 
be  redeemed  by  individuals  who  dis- 
regard the  word  of  God,  for,  "Zion 
cannot  be  built  up  unless  it  is  by  the 
principles  of  the  law  of  the  celestial 
kingdom  ;  otherwise  I  cannot  receive 
her  unto  myself."  (D.  &  C.  105:5.) 

Suggestions  for  Discussion 
and  Review 

1.  Under  what  conditions  was  the 
exact  location  of  Zion  revealed? 
Give  in  as  much  detail  as  possible. 

2.  In  what  respects  is  Jackson 
County,  Missouri,  ideal  as  the  "cen- 
ter place"  of  Zion? 

3.  Why  was  it  necessary  that  the 
saints  at  Zion  he  unusually  strict  in 
their  attitude  toward  the  law  of  the 
Lord? 

4.  What  conditions  will  prevail  in 
Zion  that  do  not  prevail  among  us 
at  present?    Enumerate  them. 

5.  When  and  under  what  condi- 
tions will  Zion  be  built  ? 

6.  Describe  the  character  of  the 
individuals  who  will  assist  in  build- 
ing Zion. 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


179 


Teachers'  Topic 

BE  OF  GOOD  CHEER 


The  center  color  in  life's  bouquet 
is  cheerfulness.  With  a  bowed  head 
one  sees  only  the  ground,  and  we 
must  look  up. 

Rupert  Hughes  says:  "We  are 
actors  in  one  of  the  most  exciting 
dramas  of  all  history.  Each  one  has 
a  part  to  play  and  is  entitled  to  a 
thrill.  We  get  it  if  we  have  the  right 
attitude." 

History  will  record  many  heroic 
deeds  done  during  this  glorious  bat- 
tle. Cheerfulness  will  keep  the  sparks 
of  courage  glowing,  and  help  us  to 
look  up  and  ahead. 

Ella  Wheeler  Wilcox  well  said : 
"The  one  worth  while  is  the  one  who 
can  smile  when  everything  goes  dead 
wrong." 

Not  just  what  one  does  and  says, 
but  what  others  do  because  of  his 
influence  is  worth  while. 

What  happens  to  us  matters  less 


than  how  we  take  it.  Our  own  atti- 
tude conditions  the  weight  of  our 
load.  This  is  illustrated  by  the  boy 
who  was  overtaken  carrying  another 
child  up  a  steep  hill.  When  the 
passerby  said,  "Too  bad  you  must 
carry  such  a  heavy  load,"  the  boy 
retorted,  "Oh,  it  isn't  very  heavy, 
he's  my  brother." 

When  facts  or  circumstances  are 
met  squarely  and  cheerfully,  the 
battle  is  half  won.  Cheerfulness 
overcomes  fear  and  self-pity ;  it  fills 
the  humblest  home  with  peace  and 
sunshine. 

Consideration  of  other's  happiness 
helps  one  to  be  of  good  cheer.  "Tears 
dry  soonest  in  the  eyes  that  see  an- 
other's pain." 

The  President  of  the  United 
States  requests  that  a  "united  nation 
banish  all  fear  and  face  the  sunrise 
of  a  new  day."  We  shall  not  fail 
him. 


Literature 

(Third  Week  in  May) 

THE  MESSAGE  OF  A  GREAT  MASTER 

The  Tempest — Shakespeare 


"What  a  piece  of  work  is  man. 
How  noble  in  reason !  how  infinite  in 
faculties !  in  form  and  moving,  how 
express  and  admirable!  in  action 
how  like  an  angel !  in  apprehension, 
how  like  a  God !  the  beauty  of  the 
world !  the  paragon  of  animals !" 

— Hamlet. 

The  desire  and  struggle  for  Hap- 
piness has  brought  about  Man's 
highest  development.  Through  a 
succession  of  experiments,  mistakes, 


and  penalties  he  has  learned  to  know 
the  laws  of  his  own  being,  physical, 
intellectual,  and  spiritual,  also  the 
great  universal  laws. 

Above  the  ancient  world  soared 
the  mysterious  import  of  human  life. 
Philosophers  and  priests  strove  to 
find  an  answer  to  the  mystery.  The 
accumulated  wisdom  of  the  Greeks 
offered  to  Man  the  philosophy 
"Know  Thyself"  for  "Man  is  the 
measure  of  all  things."  The  pro- 
phetic wisdom  of  the  ancient  He- 


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brews  exhorted  mankind  to  "Know 
God" ;  later  Jesus  issued  the  injunc- 
tion "Be  Ye  Perfect,"  for  "You  are 
also  His  offspring." 

The  master  spirits  of  literature 
have  striven  to  understand  the  divin- 
ity of  man  and  to  find  the  meaning 
of  life. 

The  Great  Problem 

William  Shakespeare,  who  learned 
to  understand  human  nature  be- 
cause as  a  man  he  felt  and  thought, 
rejoiced  and  suffered,  brooded  and 
dreamed,  recorded  "perhaps  the 
richest  and  most  varied  creation 
from  the  genius  of  one  man 
in  the  history  of  the  world." 
This  "giant  of  P'arnessus'  hill, 
the  pride,  the  monarch  of  man- 
kind" who  has  molded  the  spiritual 
hues  of  thinkers,  writers,  and  poets 
since  his  day,  is  still  a  problem  to 
those  who  try  to  read  him  aright. 
Matthew  Arnold  in  his  sonnet  on 
Shakespeare  voices  the  problem : 

"Thou  are  free. 
We  ask  and  ask — Thou  smilest  and 

art  still, 
Out-topping  knowledge. 

And  thou,  who  didst  the  stars  and 
sunbeams  know, 

Self-school'd,  self-scann'd,  self- 
honor 'd,  self -secure, 

Didst  tread  on  earth  unguess'd  at." 

What  self-schooling  and  self-secur- 
ity made  Shakespeare  the  creator  of 
literature  that  has  influenced  the  in- 
tellectual life  of  the  whole  civilized 
world  ?    This  is  the  great  problem. 

The  reader  of  Shakespeare,  who 
is  anxious  to  understand  the  human 
spirit  concealed  there,  declares,  "I 
will  not  let  you  go  until  you  have 
confessed  to  me  the  secret  of  your 


being."  For  almost  three  centuries 
it  was  the  custom  to  say,  "We  know 
nothing  about  Shakespeare."  There 
are  today  many  literary  scholars  who 
have  sincerely  and  reverently  sought 
to  understand  their  great  master. 
Among  these  reverent  scholars  the 
outstanding  are  :  Sir  Arthur  Quiller- 
Couch,  Edward  Dowden,  and 
George  Brandes.  Their  method  was 
to  look  at  the  poet's  life  work  as  a 
whole  in  order  of  sequence  and  to 
discover,  if  possible,  the  life  experi- 
ence that  prompted  the  different 
creations. 

Mystery  surrounds  the  details  of 
the  life  of  William  Shakespeare. 
His  early  life  at  Stratford-on-Avon, 
England,  was  marked  by  adversity 
— his  father's  loss  of  property,  the 
suffering  of  a  debt  burdened  family, 
the  disgrace  of  his  own  public  whip- 
ping at  the  command  of  the  lord  of 
the  manor,  his  early  marriage  at  the 
age  of  eighteen  to  a  woman  eight 
years  his  senior.  So  the  young  man 
left  Stratford  for  London  to  make 
a  name  and  a  fortune.  Of  the  name 
we  shall  have  much  more  to  say; 
of  the  fortune,  in  little  over 
ten  years  the  debt-burdened  father 
was  made  a  landowner  and  a  gentle- 
man with  a  coat  of  arms,  while  the 
actor  himself  became  the  owner  of 
New  Place,  the  largest  manor  in 
Stratford. 

Shakespeare  arrived  in  London 
when  the  Elizabethan  glory  was  at 
its  brightest.  Religious  freedom, 
political  power,  cultural  aristocracy 
gave  a  zest  to  life.  It  was  the  spring- 
tide of  a  great  nation's  spirit.  Social 
activities  were  marked  by  a  splendor 
and  extravagance  hitherto  unthought 
of.  Wealthy  noblemen  became  pa- 
trons of  bands  of  entertainers  for 
private  and  public  revels.  It  was 
to  this  Bohemian  splendor  that  the 
young  Shakespeare  became  attached 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


181 


as  a  member  of  the  Earl  of  Leices- 
ter's company  of  players.  Shake- 
speare soon  attracted  attention 
through  his  ability  to  revise  old 
plays,  and  by  his  own  personal 
charm.  The  complex  life  of  the 
period  contributed  much  to  the 
poet's  growth.  In  the  first  period 
of  Shakespeare's  dramatic  growth, 
we  see  the  zest  for  life  and  love — the 
conceit  of  the  age  being  "a  man  is 
master  of  his  liberty" — reflecting 
the  life  of  youth,  life  without  any 
serious  purpose.  This  period  of 
literary  beginnings  over,  the  genius 
of  Shakespeare  began  to  assert  it- 
self. The  first  great  masterpiece  was 
"A  Midsummer  Night's  Dream,"  a 
festival  play  or  masque,  a  whimsi- 
cal play  of  faries  and  clowns,  a 
triumph  of  lyric  grace.  In  it  we 
see  Shakespeare  eager  for  recogni- 
tion as  a  poet,  a  higher  honor  than 
that  given  to  a  mere  playwright,  an 
honor  such  as  the  age  had  conferred 
on  the  great  poet  Edmund  Spencer. 
The  growth  of  the  national  spirit 
of  the  Elizabethan  period  reached 
its  climax  with  the  supremacy  of 
England  over  Spain  by  the  defeat  of 
the  Spanish  Armada  The  expres- 
sion of  patriotism  by  the  dramatists 
took  the  form  of  historical  plays, 
the  lives  of  the  great  kings  of  Eng- 
land. Shakespeare's  voice  soared 
above  his  contemporaries  in  patriotic 
enthusiasm : 

"This   royal   throne  of   kings,   this 

sceptr'd  isle, 

This  earth  of  majesty, 

*      •  *         *         *         * 

This   blessed   plot,   this   earth,   this 
realm,  this  England." 

The  historical  plays  of  Shakespeare 
were  not  merely  chronological  stud- 
ies, in  them  we  see  the  elements  of 
weakness  and  struggle  as  revealed  by 
the  behavior  of  men  given  power  and  * 


authority.  With  almost  sympathe- 
tic touch  Shakespeare  makes  Rich- 
ard III  one  of  Nature's  victims, 
deformed  of  body  and  chaotic  of 
soul.  Henry  V  is  a  presentation 
of  English  patriotism,  also  Henry  V 
represents  Shakespeare's  ideal  of 
manhood,  heroic  and  practical. 
Looking  at  the  material  world  of 
events  and  things  Shakespeare  is 
purely  objective,  evaluating  the  qual- 
ities of  leadership  in  men — sources 
of  power  and  weakness,  causes  of 
success  and  failure. 

The  events  of  Shakespeare's  life 
now  led  him  to  be  his  own  Romeo. 
He  abandoned  himself  to  love,  the 
love  of  a  dark  lady  of  the  Queen's 
court,  highborn,  beautiful,  and  ac- 
complished. This  love  first  brought 
a  joyous  quickening  to  his  life.  Then 
he  was  wronged  by  his  friend.  The 
drama  '  'Romeo  and  Juliet"  and  the 
sonnets  are  a  record  of  this  love, 
first  the  beauty  of  love,  and 
later  the  bitterness  of  the  reali- 
zation that  passion  is  not  love.  Dur- 
ing the  period  of  love's  happiness, 
Shakespeare's  brilliance  of  expres- 
sion reaches  great  heights.  It  seems 
as  if  his  whole  life  was  bathed  in 
sunshine;  then  it  seems  as  if  the  joy 
of  life  is  suddenly  blotted  from  his 
being.  The  laughter  of  comedy 
gives  way  to  the  gloom  of  tragedy — 
Romeo  becomes  Hamlet. 

From  the  period  of  storm  and 
stress  Shakespeare  emerged  as  Ham- 
let: 

"For  who  would  bear  the  whips  and 

scorns  of  time, 
The  oppressor's  wrong,  the  proud 

man's  contumely, 
The   pangs    of   despis'd   love,    the 

law's  delay, 
The   insolence   of   office,   and   the 

spurns 
That  patient  merit  of  the  unworthy 

takes." 


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RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


Penetrating  deeply  into  the  facts  of 
life,  he  saw  but  darkness — "wordy 
morality,  double-tongued  falsity, 
perpetual  hypocrisy."  The  problem 
of  the  relation  of  good  and  evil  in  the 
world  was  a  mystery,  and  Shake- 
speare's thought  no  less  than  Ham- 
let's "beats  at  the  locked  door  of  the 
mystery."  The  tragedies  followed, 
"Macbeth,"  "Othello,"  "King  Lear," 
"Anthony  and  Cleopatra,"  and  the 
others — dramatizing  ambition,  jeal- 
ousy, ingratitude,  sensuality  as  tragic 
elements  in  human  life.  "King  Lear" 
is  the  most  imposing  and  the  most 
extensive  tragedy.  It  has  been  called 
a  world  tragedy,  because  it  is  the 
tragedy  of  the  ruin  of  the  moral 
world :  "When  he  who  is  noble  and 
trustful  like  Lear  is  rewarded  with 
ingratitude  and  hate;  when  he  who 
is  honest  and  brave  like  Kent  is  pun- 
ished with  dishonor;  when  he  who 
is  merciful  like  Gloucester,  taking 
the  suffering  and  injured  under  his 
roof,  has  the  loss  of  his  eyes  for  his 
reward;  when  he  who  is  noble  and 
faithful  like  Edgar  must  wander 
about  in  the  semblance  of  a  maniac, 
with  a  rag  round  his  loins;  when, 
finally,  she  who  is  the  living  emblem 
of  womanly  dignity  and  filial  ten- 
derness towards  an  old  father  who 
has  become  as  it  were  her  child — 
when  she  meets  her  death  before  his 
eyes  at  the  hands  of  assassins !  This 
is  the  titanic  tragedy  of  human  life." 
Out  of  the  gloomy  sky  the  sun 
shone  again  for  Shakespeare.  The 
tragic  note  ends  in  the  last  frenzied 
shout  of  indignation  in  "Timon  of 
Athens,"  and  a  new  note  is  struck 
in  the  last  plays  "Pericles,"  "Cym- 
beline,"  "Winter's  Tale,"  and  "The 
Tempest.'  There  seems  to  be  no 
evidence  to  help  us  to  find  a  direct 
cause  for  this  change.  This  is  the 
last  period  of  Shakespeare's  drama- 
tic activity — autumn  with  its  clarity 


of  atmosphere  and  its  variety  of 
hues.  Shakespeare,  master  of  him- 
self, his  emotions  and  his  thoughts, 
accepts  the  fact  of  a  moral  order  in 
the  universe.  He  now  knows  of  a 
surety  that  the  divine  presence  is 
never  absent  in  the  world.  In  the 
last  dramas  we  see  the  new  world  of 
the  poet,  a  world  of  infinities.  He 
saw  life  with  increasing  clarity,  "the 
ethical  relation  of  the  individual  to 
society  and  to  his  environment,  the 
significance  of  character  as  a  pro- 
duct of  the  will,  and  the  gradation 
of  qualities  in  a  scale  of  spiritual 
values."  In  this  new  world  we  have 
altruism  and  reconciliation  instead 
of  selfishness  and  revenge,  love  is  a 
beautiful  thing,  and  the  true  freedom 
of  man  lies  in  service.  The  last 
plays  are  the  testimony  of  a  great 
philosophy  of  life.  In  the  last  dra- 
matic work  of  the  master,  "The 
Tempest,"  Shakespeare  became 
Prospero,  a  priest,  teaching  to  all  the 
harmony  of  life. 

What  then  is  the  reward  of  the 
reader  who  has  sought  to  solve  the 
problem  of  Shakespeare,  who  was  in 
turn  Romeo,  Hamlet,  and  Prospero  ? 
In  the  words  of  that  great  scholar 
of  Shakespeare,  Edward  Dowden: 
"Shakespeare  does  not  supply  us 
with  a  doctrine,  with  an  interpreta- 
tion, with  a  revelation.  What  he 
brings  to  us  is  this — To  each  one 
courage  and  energy  and  strength  to 
dedicate  himself  and  his  work  to 
that,  whatever  it  be,  which  life  has 
revealed  to  him  as  the  best  and  the 
highest  and  the  most  real." 

The  Tempest 

This  drama  has  been  called  Shake- 
speare's "Book  of  Revelation."  It 
is  in  reality  a  poem  cast  in  dramatic 
form  and  as  such  is  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  creations  in  English  poetry. 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


183 


As  one  reads  the  fairy-like  fable  of 
the  poem,  there  is  a  haunting  sense 
of  a  spiritual  significance.  The  play 
is  a  wedding  play,  similar  to  "The 
Midsummer  Night's  Dream,"  writ- 
ten for  the  celebration  in  honor  of 
the  betrothal  of  the  Prince  Palatine 
and  the  Princess  Elizabeth. 

There  is  very  little  knowledge  of 
any  source  from  which  "The  Tem- 
pest" might  have  been  drawn.  It  is 
possible  that  the  legend  of  the  ban- 
ished Duke  and  his  daughter  was 
derived  from  an  old  play  by  Jacob 
Ayres  of  Nurenburg,  an  adaptation 
of  a  Spanish  story  found  in  " Win- 
ter's Nights"  by  Antonion  Eslava. 
It  has  been  suggested  that  the  island 
setting  of  the  drama  was  suggested 
by  an  account  of  the  shipwreck  of 
Sir  George  Sommers  off  the  Bermu- 
das in  1610.  The  wrecked  sailors 
of  the  "Sea  Venture"  reported  the 
"Isle  of  Devils"  to  be  an  enchanted 
place  with  heathen  people  and 
mighty  tempests. 

Prospero,  the  Duke  of  Milan,  be- 
came so  absorbed  in  his  intellectual 
life  that  he  entrusted  the  care  of  his 
realm  to  his  brother  Antonio.  The 
brother  in  alliance  with  the  Duke's 
enemies,  Alonzo,  King  of  Naples 
and  his  brother  Sebastian,  succeeded 
in  deposing  Prospero.  The  Duke 
and  his  three-year-old  daughter, 
Miranda,  were  carried  out  to  sea  and 
placed  on  an  old  abandoned  ship. 
A  loyal  friend,  Gonzalo,  supplied  the 
outcasts*  with  provisions,  clothes, 
and  the  precious  books  of  Prospero. 
The  ship  was  driven  ashore  upon  an 
island  with  one  strange  inhabitant, 
a  primitive  man,  Caliban.  Caliban 
is  a  strange  creature,  the  son  of  a 
witch,  Sycorax.  He  is  a  primitive 
creature,  more  of  an  animal  than  a 
human  being,  the  essence  of  gross- 
ness.  He  yields  to  the  kindness  of 
Prospero,   but   serves   always   with 


rebellion.  Prospero,  soon  after  his 
arrival  upon  the  island,  releases 
Ariel,  a  creature  who  has  been  im- 
prisoned in  a  tree  by  the  witch.  This 
creature,  more  a  spirit  than  a  human 
being,  with  strange  ethereal  qualities, 
serves  Prospero  gladly  on  the  prom- 
ise of  complete  freedom  in  the 
future.  With  Ariel  and  Caliban  to 
do  his  bidding  Prospero  lives  happily 
on  the  island,  devoting  himself  to  the 
enjoyment  of  nature,  the  cultivation 
of  his  mind,  and  the  education  of 
his  daughter.  Twelve  years  pass 
happily  on  the  enchanted  island  be- 
fore the  drama  opens. 

A  storm  is  lashing  the  shore  of 
the  island.  Prospero  and  Miranda 
watching  the  course  of  the  storm  see 
a  noble  ship  wrecked.  Miranda 
pleads  with  her  father  to  use  his 
magic  powers  to  allay  the  waves  lest 
some  noble  creature  be  dashed  to 
pieces  in  the  wreck.  He  does  as  his 
daughter  requests.  With  the  advent 
of  strangers  to  their  island  world, 
it  is  necessary  that  Miranda  should 
know  the  story  of  their  banishment, 
because  the  storm  has  brought  their 
enemies  to  their  shores.  Ariel  now 
returns  to  report  that  he  has  done 
his  master's  bidding.  The  enemies 
are  wandering  about  the  island  un- 
harmed while  Ferdinand,  the  King's 
son,  has  been  left  alone  in  an  odd 
angle  of  the  isle.  Ariel  proud  of 
his  accomplishment,  requests  the 
long-promised  freedom.  Prospero, 
reminding  Ariel  of  his  age-long 
imprisonment,  promises  the  freedom 
after  two  more  days  of  service. 
Ariel  now  takes  the  shape  of  a  sea- 
nymph,  invisible  to  all  but  his  mas- 
ter. Caliban  enters  carrying  wood 
for  his  master.  He  also  is  rebellious 
in  his  bondage.  Prospero  reminds 
him  of  the  kind  treatment  he  re- 
ceived until  in  his  earthy  vileness  he 
sought  to  violate  the  honor  of  Mi- 


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randa.  Until  Caliban  conquers  his 
animal  nature  he  must  remain  a  slave 
driven  by  stripes. 

Ferdinand,  alone  and  brooding, 
hears  the  singing  of  the  invisible 
Ariel.  Following  the  injunction  of 
the  song  "Come  unto  these  yellow 
sands,"  he  follows  the  invisible 
singer.  The  singer-guide  tells  Fer- 
dinand that  "Full  fathom  five  thy 
father  lies."  Ariel  takes  him  after 
much  wandering  to  Prospero.  Mi- 
randa is  captivated  by  the  brave 
form  of  Ferdinand,  to  her  virgin 
innocence  he  appears  a  thing  divine. 
Ferdinand,  in  turn,  is  entranced  by 
the  virgin  beauty  of  Miranda. 
Prospero,  seeing  the  result  of  the 
meeting  of  Ferdinand  and  Miranda 
and  not  willing  that  love  be  too  free- 
ly given  or  too  lightly  taken,  treats 
Ferdinand  with  bruskness  and  orders 
him  to  the  menial  tasks  of  Caliban. 

Meanwhile,  Alonzo,  Sebastian, 
Antonio,  and  the  sailors  are  roam- 
ing about  the  island.  By  gentle  music 
Ariel  puts  all  to  sleep  except  Sebas- 
tian and  Antonio.  These  men  plan 
to  murder  their  king  so  as  to  obtain 
his  kingdom.  In  another  part  of 
the  island  two  others  of  the  ship- 
wrecked party  discover  Caliban  and 
learn  his  story.  Telling  the  men  that 
the  Duke  has  cheated  him  out  of  his 
island  home,  Caliban  plots  wth  the 
men  to  dispatch  Prospero,  burn  his 
books,  and  take  the  island  for  them- 
selves. Somehow  Caliban  feels  that 
Prospero's  superiority  is  due  to  his 
knowledge;  he  hates  him  for  this 
strange  power. 

Ferdinand,  meanwhile,  is  occupied 
with  the  menial  tasks  assigned  him 
by  Prospero.  Miranda  comes  upon 
him  carrying  logs,  and  sorrows  at 
the  task.  She  offers  to  bear  the  logs 
for  him  if  he  will  but  rest  awhile. 
Ferdinand  refuses  the  aid,  explain- 
ing his  willingness  to  be  a  slave  for 


her  sake.  Love  brings  a  new  beauty 
to  life  for  both.  Miranda  in  the 
marvel  of  the  revelation  gives  her- 
self to  Ferdinand  in  a  beautiful  love 
scene.  Prospero,  satisfied  with  the 
outcome  of  Ferdinand's  trial,  be- 
stows his  daughter's  hand  upon  him. 
The  lovers  are  entertained  at  a  be- 
trothal feast.  Prospero-  With  his 
magic  powers  produces  a  fairy  pa- 
geant in  which  Ceres  and  Iris  bring 
useful  gifts  to  the  lovers,  while  Juno 
sings  a  betrothal  song  nymphs  and 
fairies  dance  around  the  couple : 

"Honor,  riches,  marriage-blessing, 
Long  continuance,  and  increasing, 
Hourly  joys  be  still  upon  you ! 
Juno  sings  her  blessings  on  you." 

The  entertainment  is  interrupted  by 
the  news  of  Caliban's  conspiracy 
and  the  plot  to  murder  the  king. 
Ariel  is  dispatched  to  frustrate  the 
plans.  The  conspirators  are  assem- 
bled before  Prospero,  they  have  suf- 
fered much  through  hunger  and  dis- 
comfort. Prospero  has  decided  to 
be  merciful  to  his  enemies — "the 
rarer  action  is  in  virtue  than  in  ven- 
geance." Prospero,  clad  in  his  magic 
robes,  assumes  his  greatest  role : 

"Now  does  my  project  gather  to  a 

head 
My  charms  crack  not;  my  spirits 

obey;  and  time 
Goes  upright  with  his  carriage." 

All  his  wisdom  is  to  be  displayed  as 
he  handles  his  enemies.  Prospero 
reveals  his  identity  to  them  forgiv- 
ing them  fully.  Ariel  attires  Pros- 
pero in  the  emblems  of  his  lost  glory, 
ducal  hat  and  rapier,  as  he  sings 
the  song,  "Where  the  bee  sucks  there 
suck  I."  Miranda  and  Ferdinand,  the 
betrothed,  are  presented  to  the  King. 
By  common  consent  Prospero  is  to 
be  restored  to  his  dukedom. 

Life  on  the  enchanted  island  is 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


185 


closed.  Prospero  takes  leave  of  the 
magic  elves  that  have  done  his  bid- 
ding: 

"But  this  rough  service 
I  here  abjure,  and,  when  I  have  re- 
quested 
Some   heavenly  music,  which   even 

now  I  do. 
*         *         *         I'll  break  my  staff, 
And  deeper  than  did  ever  plummet 

sound 
I'll  drop  my  book." 

The  parting  of  the  master  spirit  with 
his  servant  Ariel  is  touching: 

"My  dainty  Ariel !  I  shall  miss  thee, 
Be  free,  and  fare  thee  well." 

Prospero  has  attained  the  highest 
level  of  attainment,  the  moral  level. 
He  is  master  of  his  own  being.  He 
will  always  maintain  his  dream 
rights,  however: 

"We  are  such  stuff 
As  dreams  are  made  on,  and   our 

little  life 
Is  rounded  with  a  sleep." 

As  a  man  now  he  goes  to  accomplish 
his  duty,  to  promote  the  welfare  of 
his  kingdom. 

Many  interesting  and  curious  in- 
terpretations have  been  given  to  this 
last  play  of  Shakespeare.  By  many, 
Prospero  is  Shakespeare  himself,  the 
neglected  dukedom  is  his  home  at 
Stratford,  the  enchanted  island  is 
the  world  of  the  theatre,  and  the 
magic  art  the  dramatic  power  of 
Shakespeare.  Like  Prospero,  Shake- 
speare "had  sacrificed  his  position  to 
his  art,  and  like  him  he  had  dwelt 
upon  an  enchanted  island  in  the 
ocean  of  life.  He  had  been  its  lord 
and  master,  with  dominion  over 
spirits,  with  the  spirit  of  the  air  as 
his  servant  and  the  spirit  of  the  earth 


as  his  slave.  By  his  magic  art  graves 
had  opened,  and  the  spirits  of  the 
past  had  lived  again."  Just  as  Ariel 
had  longed  for  freedom,  the  genius 
of  Shakespeare  longed  for  rest.  With 
such  an  interpretation,  "The  Tem- 
pest" is  Shakespeare's  farewell  to 
his  art. 

Another  interpretation  of  "The 
Tempest"  is  most  worthy  of  our  at- 
tention. In  the  drama  Shakespeare 
has  represented  mankind  as  he  has 
come  to  understand  it.  Prospero 
represents  the  highest  development 
of  mankind,  he  is  the  product  of  a 
harmony  of  body,  mind,  and  spirit. 
In  Caliban  we  see  an  undeveloped 
man,  a  creature  of  the  senses,  almost 
an  animal  as  he  lives  to  satisfy  his 
appetites  and  his  passions.  Ariel  is  a 
simple  spirit,  a  body  without  a  sense, 
subject  to  the  bidding  of  a  greater 
spirit.  He  longs  always  for  freedom 
to  become  an  individual  and  work 
out  his  own  destiny.  The  events  of 
the  drama  represent  the  conflicts  of 
life  in  which  man  attains  his  highest 
development :  man  with  his  own  be- 
ing— physical,  mental,  and  spiritual, 
man  with  society — the  use  of  his 
powers  for  constructive  ends. 

Whether  "The  Tempest"  be  the 
message  of  a  poet  or  a  priest,  Shake- 
speare or  Prospero,  its  message 
brings  a  beautiful  interpretation  of 
the  meaning  of  life,  The  Quest  for 
Happiness. 

Suggestions  for  Study 

A.  Materials. 

1.  The  Story  of  the  World's  Lit- 
erature. Macy  Chapters  25-27. 

2.  Tales     from     Shakespeare. 

Lamb 

3.  The  Tempest.         Shakespeare 

4.  Shakespeare,    His    Mind    and 
Art.  Dowden 


186 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


5.  The  Life  of  Shakespeare.    Lee 
B.  Program. 
Music : 

Songs  from  "The  Tempest." 
Discussion : 

a.  Shakespeare's   Experience 
with  Life. 

b.  Shakespeare's     View     of 
Life. 


Story : 

The  story  of  the  drama,  "The 
Tempest." 
C.  Method. 

The  purpose  of  the  lesson  is  to 
bring  an  understanding  of  a 
beautiful  philosophy  of  life  as 
revealed  by  a  master  spirit  of 
literature  in  his  work. 


Social  Service 

(Fourth  Week  in  May) 
Constructive  Use  of  Out  of  School  Time 


LESSON  XVII 

Of  schools  in  1845— Caldwell  & 
Courtis  say: 

"Schools  were  in  session  all  the 
year  round,  but  apparently  there 
were  many  and  frequent  vacations, 
varying  in  length.  Every  Wednesday 
and  Saturday  afternoon  throughout 
the  year  and  all  fast  days  were  holi- 
days. National  holidays,  like  Christ- 
mas, Thanksgiving,  Fourth  of  July, 
Election  Day,  etc.,  were  also  ob- 
served, and  there  were  many  short 
special  vacations.  Specifically  men- 
tioned as  vacations  are  the  week  be- 
ginning on  the  first  Monday  in  June 
and  the  remainder  of  the  week  after 
the  exhibit  in  August  and  the  two 
succeeding  weeks."  (Then  and  Now 
in  Education,  p.  13.) 

With  such  a  program  the  use  of 
out  of  school  time  is  not  so  impor- 
tant. At  the  present  time  in  most 
American  rural  areas  the  school  sea- 
son is  from  twenty-eight  to  thirty- 
six  weeks  in  length.  This  leaves 
from  sixteen  to  twenty-four  weeks 
out  of  school.  In  cities  the  school 
term  is  generally  longer  and  the  va- 
cation period  correspondingly 
shorter.    In  most  rural  localities  the 


vacation  period  is  scheduled  at  the 
time  when  the  children  can  labor 
most  profitably  in  raising  or  har- 
vesting the  crops.  The  city  vacation 
time  is  almost  universally  the  mid- 
summer. 

The  aim  of  this  lesson  is  to  point 
the  way  to  parents  for  planning  the 
non-vocational  part  of  the  activities 
of  the  summer.  The  lesson  will  set 
forth  some  aims  and  ideals.  The 
class  members  will  have  the  respon- 
sibilities of  planning  the  concrete 
detailed  expression  of  these. 

The  theme  of  the  lesson  is  found 
in  the  following  paragraph  from  the 
report  of  the  White  House  Confer- 
ence— p.  170. 

"A  progressive  educational  policy 
which  provides  an  educationally  and 
healthfully  sound  and  complete  pro- 
gram throughout  the  entire  year,  in- 
cluding the  long  summer  vacation, 
which  has  become  a  major  problem 
in  child  education.  Rightly  directed 
the  vacation  becomes  an  asset ;  but 
wrongly  managed  or  neglected,  a 
serious  detriment  to  child  health  and 
development.  Every  school  should 
assume  leadership  in  securing  for 
the  child  during  the  summer  vaca- 
tion, opportunities  for  healthful  and 
creative  activities." 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


187 


In  a  recent  article  is  found  the 
following  statement  of  the  aim  of  the 
lesson : 

"The  objects  to  be  sought  are 
fourfold,  relating  to  health,  pleasure, 
the  background  of  experience  and 
the  broadening  of  the  child's  hori- 
zon." (H.  G.  Bull:  Vacations  for 
Children — Hygeia,  June  1932,  pp. 
534-536) 

Suggestions  for  Procedure : 

1.  By  discussion  have  the  class 
members  decide  clearly  whether 
their  vacation  problem  is  essentially 
one  of  providing  relaxation  from  a 
term  of  formal,  straining,  uninterest- 
ing school  life,  or  whether  the  school 
is  modern,  providing  a  variety  of 
healthful  activities  so  that  the  vaca- 
tion problem  is  essentially  one  of 
carrying  on  in  a  constructive  way. 
This  analysis  of  the  life  of  a  child 
in  the  local  school  will  point  the  way 
to  the  selection  of  proper  vacation 
programs. 

2.  The  material  outlined  for  read- 
ing is  interesting  and  complete.  Take 
all  of  the  time  that  is  necessary  to 
discuss  the  topics  and  questions 
given  in  the  reading  guide. 

3.  Use  the  supplementary  material 
as  helps  in  discussing  these  points. 

Reading  guides  for  the  class  mem- 
bers :  Personality,  pp.  31-39. 

School  seems  to  be  taken  for 
granted  for  part  of  the  year. 

Three  problems  are  implied  in  the 
opening  paragraphs.  These  should 
be  carefully  noted. 

1.  The  value  of  the  alternating 
program  of  school  and  vacation. 

2.  The  temporary  management 
troubles  of  the  parents  during  vaca- 
tion time. 

3.  The  permanent  educative  value 
of  the.  use  of  out  of  school  time 

Pages  32-33  give  a  detailed  argu- 


ment in  support  of  this  third  point. 
The  educational  objectives  of  va- 
cation activity  are  listed  as  follows : 

1.  Physical  welfare  or  health. 

2.  Teaching  children  to  face  the 
realities  of  life. 

3.  Teaching  the  value  of  coopera- 
tion. 

4.  Making  life  richer. 

5.  Developing  wider  interests. 

6.  Recapturing  eagerness  or  "the 
thirst  for  life." 

7.  Integrating  the  personality. 

A  paragraph  is  written  on  each  of 
these.  After  reading  you  may  want 
further  information  about  some  of 
them. 

The  practical  suggestions  weave 
themselves  around  the  idea  that 
parental  memories  do  not  interpret 
the  present  child  world  but  that 
social  conditions  of  today  call  for  a 
program  of  utilizing  the  facilities 
now  available  for  vacation  activities. 
The  following  questions  are  an- 
swered somewhat  definitely : 

Wjhat  is  a  desirable  program  for 
summer  play  schools  ? 

What  educational  activities  are 
desirable  for  regular  summer  school 
classes  ? 

What  are  the  possibilities  of  sum- 
mer camps  ? 

What  are  the  limitations  of  sum- 
mer camps? 

What  is  necessary  to  build  a  satis- 
factory neighborhood  play  organi- 
zation ? 

Describe  a  "proper  variety"  of 
activities  for  a  neighborhood  or 
home  program. 

What  are  the  special  problems  of 
the  rural  child  ? 

Supplementary  Material : 

1.  What  is  meant  by  "Integrating 
the  Personality?" 

"A  man's  personality  is  revealed 


188 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


in  the  way  he  thinks,  feels,  acts  with 
regard  to  his  daily  life  situations. 
In  truth,  the  way  one  meets  life  situ- 
ations is  a  true  index  of  personality 
for  after  all,  one's  personality  is  sim- 
ply character  in  action. 

"The  way  a  child  learns  to  re- 
spond to  his  many  daily  life  situa- 
tions thus  determines  his  character 
or  personality.  Left  unaided  and 
unguided,  he  will  often  respond  in 
ways  that  are  socially  desirable,  ex- 
hibiting such  traits  as  cooperation, 
sympathy,  and  service.  In  far  too 
many  instances,  the  clash  between 
impulsive  desires  and  duty  is  disas- 
trous, developing  such  traits  as  loss 
of  self-control,  attitudes  of  failure, 
inferiorities,  selfishness,  and  sullen- 
ness.  Such  maladjustments  tend  to 
make  the  child  a  misfit  in  group  liv- 
ing. He  is  said  to  be  abnormal,  to 
possess  a  distorted  or  warped  per- 
sonality. He  is  doomed  to  failure 
and  unhappiness.  Guidance,  then, 
at  all  those  points  in  his  experience 
where  wrong  choices  are  likely  to  be 
made  is  the  child's  birthright.  He 
was  not  born  for  failure  and  misery. 

"The  crucial  factor,  then,  in  the 
building  of  the  stable  character,  the 
integrated  personality,  is  child  guid- 
ance in  all  those  experiences  which 
cause  him  to  respond  in  ways  un- 
wholesome either  for  himself  or  for 
society.  These  life  situations  may 
be  classified  into  three  groups  :  ( 1 ) 
work  situations,  (2)  civic-social 
situations,  and  (3)  leisure  situa- 
tions." (Germane  :  Integration  of  the 
Personality.  Dept.  of  Superintend- 
ence of  the  N.  E.  A.  1931). 
2.  Releasing  the  creative  activities. 

Quotations  from  Cobb :  The  New 
Leaven. 

1 .  "One  evening,  as  I  read  scenes 
from  a  narrative  poem  that  I  had 
been  writing,  the  scene  of  which  was 
laid  in  ancient  India,  she  sat  on  the 


floor  in  the  midst  of  the  family  draw- 
ing illustrative  pictures  as  I  read. 
Some  eight  illustrations  were  made 
within  an  hour  and  a  half,  wonder- 
fully catching  the  spirit  of  the  poem 
and  its  Oriental  atmosphere,  sur- 
prisingly correct  in  accessories  of 
Oriental  costume  and  physiognomy. 
How  she  got  that  Orientalism  into 
the  pictures,  and  the  expression  of 
rhapsody  in  some  of  them  describ- 
ing an  Oriental  saint,  it  is  difficult 
to  say ;  because  one  never  knows 
how  much  of  our  creational  expres- 
sion in  life  comes  from  the  sub- 
conscious memory  and  how  much 
from  inspirational  sources  beyond 
that."  (pp.  132-3). 

2.  The  following  is  quoted  from 
a  letter  to  a  so-called  progressive 
school  which  really  states  the  pur- 
pose of  well  planned  vacations. 

"We  keenly  appreciate  what  the 
school  has  done  during  the  past  year 
for  our  three  boys.  The  happy  combi- 
nation of  freedom  and  skillful  stimu- 
lus in  an  environment  of  well-chosen 
materials  has  aroused  their  eager 
interest  and  has  developed  their  abil- 
ity for  independent  and  creative  ac- 
tivity. We  have  been  particularly 
delighted  at  the  emphasis  you  have 
placed  on  esthetic  expression  for 
each  child,  regardless  of  age  or 
special  aptitude.  The  orchestra,  the 
weaving,  the  modeling,  the  fresco 
painting,  the  gardening,  the  building, 
the  play-acting,  the  singing,  the 
dancing  have  done  so  much  to  en- 
rich the  children's  outlook  and  capa- 
city for  enjoying  life.  We  have  been 
glad  too  that  they  have  been  getting 
the  significance  of  everyday  things 
in  their  walks  and  trips.  Perhaps, 
above  all,  we  have  appreciated  the 
love  and  understanding  you  have 
all  given  the  individual  development 
of  these  three  quite  different  person- 
alities.   We  have  actually  seen  each 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


189 


boy  grow  under  it —  Ben  in  interest 
and  character,  Jack  in  the  assertion 
of  his  own  personality,  and  Peter  in 
observation  and  coordination."  (pp. 
138-9) 

3.  "Creative  desire  on  the  part  of 
the  young  child  naturally  expresses 
itself  in  handwork  and  crafts,  in  the 
arts  of  modeling,  painting,  music, 
poetry,  drama,  and  rhythmics."  (p. 
139) 

4.  "Also  in  other  forms  of  art- 
expression  using  different  mediums, 
such  as  paper  cutting,  clay  modeling, 
ivory-soap  carving,  woodwork, 
handicrafts  of  various  kinds,  chil- 
dren show  marvelous  courage,  skill 
and  creative  power."  (p.  149) 

5.  "Of  the  value  of  music  in  the 
life  of  the  child,  Mr.  Surette  has  this 
to  say:  'Music,  it  may  be  pointed 
out,  is  the  one  form  of  activity  in 
which  a  whole  school  can  take  part 
while  at  the  same  time  creating 
something  beautiful.  It  is  like  play 
minus  the  exuberant  physical  activ- 
ity but  plus  an  exuberance  of  the 
spirit.  It  requires  the  most  accurate 
teamwork,  it  is  unselfish,  it  awakens 
sympathy,  creates  joy,  frees  the  soul 
and  subtly  harmonizes  the  physical 
being.  What  school  can  afford  to 
neglect  it?  What  school  can  afford 
to  offer  its  children  anything  less 
than  the  whole  of  it."  (p.  144-5) 

'6.  "Dramatic  expression  in  the 
acting  of  plays  is  a  very  important 
factor  in  the  emotional  and  esthetic 
development  of  children.  In  many 
of  the  progressive  schools  such  ex- 
pression differs  radically  from  the 
ordinary  form  of  school  dramatics ; 
first,  in  that  here  every  child  in  the 
group  takes  part ;  and  secondly,  that 
the  acting  flows  naturally  and  genu- 
inely from  the  child's  own  conscious- 
ness instead  of  expressing  an  artifi- 
cial mode  set  for  it  by  someone  else." 
(P-  151) 


7.  "Even  in  play —  or  one  might 
say — especially  in  play,  the  child  is 
creative.  Here  are  no  hampering 
forms,  no  technique  or  modes  al- 
ready established  to  which  the  child 
soul  must  adapt  itself  in  order  to 
express.  In  play  the  child  finds  ut- 
most freedom  to  be  itself.  In  play  the 
child,  furthermore,  is  satisfying  only 
its  own  vivid  desire.  In  play,  there- 
fore, more  than  anywhere  else,  the 
child  shows  those  qualities  of  the 
true  creator, — imagination,  initia- 
tive, inventiveness,  resourcefulness, 
persistence  in  the  face  of  difficulties, 
and  a  marvelous  power  of  adapting 
material  at  hand  to  an  inner  purpose. 
As  I  write,  children  outside  are  im- 
provising a  military  camp.  One  boy 
had  a  vivid  idea  which  came  to  domi- 
nate the  group.  First  it  was  drill 
with  wands ;  then  mimic  warfare 
from  behind  every  vantage  point; 
next  a  Red  Cross  unit  sprang  into 
existence  and  a  stretcher  was  im- 
provised out  of  two  wands  and  a 
raincoat.  There  came  up  a  rain. 
This,  instead  of  putting  a  damper  on 
the  project,  only  heightened  creative- 
ness  by  suggesting  the  need  of  shel- 
ter. Raincoats  spread  over  chairs 
furnished  temporary  shelter,  but  a 
more  permanent  form  being  desired 
the  next  move  was  to  build  a  frame 
and  stretch  over  it  pieces  of  canvas, 
oilcloth,  gunnysack — anything 
which  came  to  hand.  The  next  day 
a  boy  brought  a  pup  tent.  This  has 
been  set  up  in  the  back  yard.  Where 
and  how  will  it  all  end?  Such  play 
of  the  imagination  is  bound  by  no 
external  goals.  In  this  fact  inheres 
its  charm ;  and  this  is  the  nature  of 
true  creation,  that  the  end  is  not 
foreseen  from  the  beginning."  (pp. 
153-5) 

3.  A  combination  of  work  and  play 
suggestions  is  found  in  the  following 
plan   suggested  by   Pulliam   in  his 


190 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


"Extra    Instructional   Activities    of 
the  Teacher,  (pp.  286-287.) 

A  Boy's  Vacation  Program 

I.  Work  Activities. 

1 .  A  vacant  lot  and  home  garden- 
ing contest  for  which  ten  prizes  are 
offered  by  the  Rotary  Club. 

Division  I  for  boys  under  12. 

Division  II  for  boys  between  12 
and  17. 

Last  year  141  gardens  were  regis- 
tered. Each  one  of  these  gardens 
was  assigned  to  a  member  of  the  Ro- 
tary Club  who  was  its  sponsor.  This 
sponsor  made  regular  visits  to  the 
garden  and  gave  the  boy  in  charge 
advice  and  encouragement.  Each 
boy  was,  of  course,  permitted  to  sell 
all  he  raised  in  his  garden.  The  boy 
who  won  first  prize  in  Division  II. 
A  fifteen-year-old  living  in  the  heart 
of  town,  made  over  $75  clear  on  the 
garden  that  covered  less  than  two 
city  lots. 

2.  A  bureau  of  employment  where 
farmers  and  citizens  may  get  in 
touch  with  boys  to  do  odd  jobs,  pick 
berries,  and  similar  work. 

3.  The  organization  of  block 
clean-up  squads  of  boys,  to  clean  up 
the  various  blocks  of  the  city. 

4.  Construction  and  maintenance 
of  tennis  courts  and  play  equipment, 
and  improvement  work  on  the  boy's 
camp. 

No  charge  is  made  to  any  boy  to 
go  to  camp  in  his  turn  but  he  is 
obliged  to  do  two  hours'  work  each 
morning  for  the  good  of  the  camp 
This  summer  a  dam  to  make  a  swim- 
ming pool  at  the  camp  was  con- 
structed entirely  by  the  boys. 
II.  Play  Activities. 

1.  Camping. 

It  is  possible  for  every  boy  in  town 
to  spend  several  weeks  at  camp  if 
his  parents  are  willing  for  him  to  go. 


He  needs  only  to  pay  the  actual  cost 
of  his  food  while  there. 

2.  Baseball  leagues. 

Junior  league,  for  boys  under  15. 

Senior  league,  for  boys  between 
15  and  18. 

The  schedule  of  games  and  gen- 
eral oversight  of  the  league  are  in 
the  hands  of  the  director,  but  each 
team  is  organized  and  managed  by 
the  boys  themselves  around  their 
own  natural  play-groups.  Last  year 
over  two  hundred  boys  participated 
in  the  baseball  games.  An  all-star 
team  is  picked  to  play  in  the  National 
Junior  Championship  elimination 
contests. 

3.  Swimming,  tennis,  and  other 
individual  contests. 

III.  Development  Activities. 

1 .  System  of  recognition. 
Medal    for    achievement    of    the 

Playground  and  Recreation  Associa- 
tion of  America  for  general  athletic 
prowess. 

2.  The  Boy  Scout  Program. 

Already  organized  troops  are  en- 
couraged to  do  as  much  work  as 
possible  in  camp,  and  efforts  are 
made  to  start  new  troops  and  to 
interest  all  boys.  However,  a  boy 
does  not  have  to  belong  to  the  Scouts 
to  participate  in  the  summer  pro- 
gram, or  even  to  go  to  camp. 

3.  Pictures  and  Lectures. 

Educational  pictures  and  inspi- 
rational short  lectures  by  local  men 
each  Saturday  afternoon  at  the  City 
Hall  auditorium  free  to  all  boys  who 
want  to  come. 

It  is  hoped  that  in  the  future  some 
short  courses  in  motor  mechanics, 
airplane  building,  carpentry,  and 
agriculture  (in  connection  with  gar- 
dens) may  be  offered  to  boys  who 
will  attend  them  voluntarily  an  hour 
or  two  a  day,  several  days  each 
week." 

Supt.  Willis  A.  Sutton  of  Atlanta, 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


191 


Georgia,  outlines  the  problem  and  a 
variety  of  programmed  activities  in 
the  following  quotations  from  a  re- 
cent article  (Sutton:  The  Wise  Use 
of  Summer  Vacations — Child  Wel- 
fare, April  1932,  p.  478)  A  record  of 
the  summer  activities  is  kept  in 
points  and  is  given  a  place  beside  the 
school  record. 

"The  old  idea  of  vacation  is  a 
relic  of  the  past  ages.  It  was  all 
very  well  when  children  were  needed 
to  work  during  the  summer,  assist- 
ing their  parents  with  the  harvest 
and  having  other  things  to  engage 
their  time. 

"I  do  not  underestimate  the  value 
of  the  home  training  nor  the  home 
supervision,  but  I  do  say  most  em- 
phatically that  in  the  average  Amer- 
ican home  today  the  period  of  vaca- 
tion is  a  taxing,  trying  period  for 
the  mothers  and  fathers  of  our  land ; 
and  for  the  majority  of  children  it 
is  a  waste  and  an  extravagance  of 
time  and  a  type  of  relaxation  that 
often  destroys  the  mental  discipline 
and  organization  which  has  gone 
on  in  the  regular  school  during  the 
preceding  months.  The  children  of 
virtually  every  city  in  this  nation 
return  to  school  in  September  ex- 
hausted in  body,  lowered  in  vitality, 
and  sometimes  thoroughly  disorgan- 
ized socially  and  even  morally. 

"We  have  carefully  thought  out 
the  plan  and  realize  that  if  400  points 
are  really  made,  practically  all  of  the 
time  of  the  child  will  be  occupied. 
We  have  made  every  effort  to  give 


the  greatest  possible  variety  to  these 
activities  so  that  every  line  of  work 
may  be  encouraged.  The  children 
may  do  such  simple  things  as  cutting 
out  pictures  and  making  a  scrap- 
book.  They  may  take  care  of  the 
baby,  set  the  table,  wash  the  dishes, 
care  for  the  lawn  or  automobile; 
they  may  look  after  the  sick  of  their 
community,  write  letters,  read  books, 
and  teach  others  to  play  games  ;  they 
may  learn  to  swim,  study  works  of 
art  or  places  of  historical  interest, 
and  do  a  hundred  other  things  for 
which  credit  will  be  given." 

School  exhibits,  etc.,  in  the  fall 
check  up  the  summer  work. 

4.  Social  training  in  manners, 
courtesy,  and  entertaining  is  possible 
only  in  vacation  when  visiting  and 
entertaining  should  be  encouraged. 
This  is  possible  on  simple  scales  in 
the  neighborhood  and  other  small 
groups  as  well  as  in  distant  visiting. 
This  point  is  especially  stressed  in 
H.  G.  Bull's  article  "Vacations  for 
Children"— Hygeia,  June,  1932. 

5.  Vacation  is  a  great  opportunity 
period  for  applying  the  learning  of 
school.  Planning  purchases  and 
figuring  costs  is  a  good  child  occu- 
pation. Provisions  for  general  read- 
ing should  be  made  so  that  the  chil- 
dren may  continue  their  quest  for 
experience  in  the  field  of  books. 
Picnics  and  trips  furnish  occasion 
for  observing  and  identifying  ob- 
jects of  nature.  Telling  to  others 
offers  occasion  for  natural  language 
expression. 


Divine  Relief 


By  Wenonah  M.  Shirley 


God   spoke  the  word,   His  servant 
heard 
And  turned  the  mighty  key 
And   opened  wide  the   door  which 
gave 
To  women  liberty. 

Oh,  migfity  seer,  oh  favored  one, 
The  spokesman  of  our  Lord 

Thy  name  and  calling  we  revere, 
And  gladly  heed  thy  word, 

That  set  us  free  from  tyranny, 
Ah,  now  we  conquer  all ! 


Descend  we  unto  cots  of  woe 
Or  rise  to  congress  hall. 

To  homes  of  grief,  we  often  go 
To  carry  hope  and  cheer 

And  smooth  the  weary  fevered  brow 
When    death's  dark  form    draws 
near. 

Our  God,  we  thank  Thee,  for  thy 
love, 

That  guides  men's  destiny. 
We'll  prove  our  faith  and  gratitude 

By  always  serving  Thee. 


Home 

By  Alveretha  S.  Engar 


Home  may  not  be  on  lofty  height, 
Nor  a  mansion  by  the  sea, 
Itself  not  all  of  my  delight, 
Yet  a  charming  place  to  me. 

1  Tome  may  not  be  a  fortress  tall 

To  defend  when   foes  assail, 

Yet  'twill  safeguard  me  with  loving 

wall 
That  the  best  in  me  prevail. 


Home   may    not    ring     with     lofty 

strains 
Of  music  that's  all  divine, 
But  harmony  and  love  shall  reign 
And  the  joy  of  peace  be  mine. 

Home  may  be  just  a  humble  place, 
But  a  spot  of  beauty  still — 
A  scene  that  Time  cannot  erase 
Nor  with  new  scenes  my  vision  fill. 


Great  Maker  of  the  Perfect  Home, 
Send  me  of  it  just  a  gleam, 
That  I  may  from  this  earthly  loam 
Build  the  castle  of  my  dream. 


Holy  Night 


Elsie  C.  Carroll 


No  Mary  ;  no  manger  ; 
No  star  in  the  East 
Guiding  shepherd's  glad  way 
To  a  shrine. 

No  sages  awaiting; 
No  songs  from  the  skies 
To  herald  the  coming 
Of  Ruler  divine. 


Just  a  form  wracked  with  pain 
A  face  that's  a  prayer  ; 
A  fear-stricken  mate 
Who  waits  for  the  morn  ; 
The  shadow  of  Death 
Sent  fleeing  by  Life. 

No  night  but  is  holy 
When  a  baby  is  born. 


K= 


SERVING  THE 
MISSIONARY 

MISSIONARY  PROGRAMS 

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printed  missionary  programs.  Courtesy,  promptness,  and 
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-tN 


leMicm- 


i 


i  SAFETY 

V  The  Beneficial  Life  has  at  all  times  paid  to  policyholders 
100  cents  on  the  dollar  in  cash  on  request. 

STRENGTH 

/I Each  and  every  year  the  Beneficial  Life  has  marched  for- 
ward with  a  healthy  increase — today  its  financial  strength 
is  unquestioned. 

/  LOW  COST 

V  Beneficial  premiums  are  figured  on  low  cost  non-partici- 
pating rates. 

/  HIGHEST  VALUES 

V  All  Beneficial  policies  participate  in  the  net  earnings  of 
the  company. 

ANNUAL  DIVIDENDS 

y    In  addition  to  high  guaranteed  values — special  dividends 
are  apportioned  annually. 

BENEFITS 

a/  Premiums  paid  to  the  Beneficial  are  invested  to  help  build 
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/CONVENIENCE 

V  No  long  delays— an  institution  right  at  your  door  for 
service — created  for  the  benefit  of  policyholders. 


HNBHKMLIV 


E.  T.  RALPHS 


General  Manager 


9^e 

Relief  Society 

Skagazine, 


Volume  XXI 


APRIL,   1934 


No.  4 


Sugar  in  Paper  Bags 

Some  grocers  are  buying  outside  sugars 
— rebagging  in  paper  containers — inferring 
in  many  instances  that  it  is  UTAH  sugair. 

Don't  be  misled. 

Insist  on  UTAH  SUGAR  in  original 
containers. 

LOOK  FOR  THE  LABEL 

At  All  Reliable  Grocers 


When  Buying  Mention  Relief  Society  Magazine 


Sugar  House  Lumber 
and  Hardware  Co. 

"If  it  goes  in   the  building  we  sell  it" 

Hy.  555  M.  O.  Ashton,  Mgr. 


For  INTERIOR 

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in  Modern  Colors 

BENNETTS 

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Finish 

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Finish 

See  the   Color  Cards 

BENNETT  GLASS 
&  PAINT  CO. 

61-65  W.  First  South 
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Dealers  throughout  Utah   and 
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for   yourself 


UTAH  GAS 
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WASATCH    GAS    CO. 


When  Buying  Mention  Relief  Society  Magazine 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Organ  of  the  Relief  Society  of  the  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints 


Vol  XXI 


APRIL,  1934 


No.  4 


CONTENTS 

Easter    Lilies    Frontispiece 

Easter  •  •  Elsie  E.  Barrett  193 

The  Eternal  Bridge   Judge   Nephi  Jensen  195 

Companionship Linda   S.  Fletcher  199 

Many  a  Milestone  is  Marked  with  a  Cross   Caroline  Eyring  Miner  200 

Anne  Brent,  Helpmate - Elsie  Chamberlin  Carroll  201 

The  Prodigal  Son's  Mother  Speaks   M.  Bell  204 

Life Blanche  Robbing!  205 

"Gold  is  Where  You  Find  It"  Elizabeth  Cannon  Porter  206 

Shadows Vesta   P.   Crawford  209 

Silver Mabel  Spande  Harmer  209 

Your  Home  Beautiful Mabel  Margaret  Luke  210 

With  the  Rain  Harrison  R.  Merrill  214 

We  Need  a  Garden   Afton   Free   Baird  215 

"Believest  Thou  This  ?" Helen  Hinckley  216 

My  Pick-pocket   Virginia  B.  Jacobson  218 

My  Picture  of  Life   Thomas  Cottam  Romney  219 

How  to  Choose" a  Birthplace H.  E.  Kleinschmidt,  M.D.  220 

Beloved    Weston    N.    Nordgren  221 

Rickets— A   Deficiency   Disease    Lucy   Rose    Middleton  222 

Dumb    i Annie    Pike    Greenwood  223 

Looking  Back  Over  the  Years Sarah  McLelland  224 

Happenings    Annie  Wells   Cannon  226 

Young  Mothers)  Holly  Baxter  Keddington  227 

Notes  from  the  Field   , 229 

Editorial— Let  Us  Have  Peace 231 

Congratulations 232 

A    Worthy    Project    : 233 

Lesson    Department 235 

My  Song  of  Songs   Henry  F.  Kirkham  250 

PUBLISHED  MONTHLY  BY  THE  GENERAL  BOARD  OF 

RELIEF  SOCIETY 
Editorial  and  Business  Offices :  20  Bishop's  Building,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 

Telephone  Wasatch  3540 
Subscription  Price:  $1.00  a  year;  foreign,  $1.25  a  year;  payable  in  advance. 

Single  copy,  10c. 
The  Magazine  is1  not  sent  after  subscription  expires.     Renew  promptly  so  that  no 
copies  will  be  missed.     Report  change  of  address  at  once,  giving  both  old  and  new 
address. 

Entered  as  second-class  matter  February  18,  1914,  at  the  Post  Office,  Salt  Lake  City, 
Utah,  under  the  Act  of  March  3,  1879.  Acceptance  for  mailing  at  special  rate  of 
postage  provided  for  in  section  1103,  Act  of  October  8,  1917,  authorized  June  29,  1918. 
Stamps  should  accompany  manuscripts'  for  their  return. 


When  Buying  Mention  Relief  Society  Magazine 


Temple  Brand  GARMENTS 

Of  superior  quality  and  workmanship 
manufactured  for  the 

SALT  LAKE  KNITTING  STORE 

And  sold  at  prices  defying  competition.     When  ordering  from  us 

remember  We  Pay  Postage  Anywhere  in  the  U.  S.  A. 


FOR  LADIES 

No. 

70S  Flat  Weave  Spring  Needle $  .98 

719  Ribbed   Light   Weight   1.10 

792  Fine  Quality  Cotton  Lisle  1.25 

713  Light  Weight  Silk  and  Lisle 1.00 

711  Silk  Stripe  Light  Wt 1.25 

736  Fine  Quality  Cotton  Lt.  Wt 75 

762  Non-Run    Rayon    1.25 

716  Extra  Fine  Quality  Run  Proof 1.49 

735  Light  Weight   Cotton   Ribbed 89 

720  Fine   Quality  Non-Run   Rayon 1.75 


FOR  MEN 

No. 

662  Men's  Non-Run   Rayon  $1.25 

610  Ribbed  Light  Wt.  Spring  Needle...  1.10 

602  Extra  Fine  Quality  Lisle  1.25 

614  Med.  Wt.  Ex.  Quality  1.25 

636  Light   Weight    Cotton    75 

636  Fine  Quality  Light  Weight  75 

664  Med.  Heavy  Wt.  Cotton  1.95 

601  Med.   Weight  New  Style  Only 1.25 

635  New  Style  Light  Wt.  Cotton 89 


Garments  Marked  Upon  Request.  10c  for  Cotton — Silk  15c 

Prices  Subject  to  Change  Without  Notice.    20%  Extra  Charge  for  Sizes  Over  46 

Do  not  fail  to  specify  New  or  Old  Style  and  if  for  Man  or  Woman,  also  state  if  long 

or    short    sleeve,    short    or    long    legs    are    wanted.      Give    accurate    Bust    Measurement, 

Height  and  Weight.     Samples  Sent  Upon  Request. 

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New  Style  $  .65  Styles     .85 

No.  89.  Med.  Wt.  Men's  and  Ladies'  __      0.    ,,   ,      T,      _..      _.     ,  . 

New  Style  _    _  1  10  No-  84*  Med-     Lt-     Wt'     Men  8    and 

No.  80.  Heavy    Wt.     Men's    Double  Ladies'  New  Style  ..._ _     .85 

Back     — 1.86        No.  85.  Very  Special  Non-Run  Gar- 
No.  81.  Heavy       Wt.       Old       Style  ments — Guaranteed — Not  To 

Double  Back  1.50  Run  Rayon.  Special 1.15 

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if  men'u  or  ladies'.     We  Pay  Postage  Anywhere  in  the  United  States. 

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A  NEW 

pjREKA 

WITH 

MOTOR-DRIVEN  BRUSH 

LIGHT— EASY   TO   HANDLE 

AGREEABLY  QUIET 

This  sensational  new  Eureka  with  motor- 
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quirements of  those  who  desire  a  motor- 
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of  "High  Vacuum"  (pow- 
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thorough  removal  of  em- 
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Unnecessary  weight  and 
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The  demonstration  !  It  is 
spectacular  —  sensational 
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soda  fairly  "boils"  from 
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Phone   for   Demonstration 

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177  East  Broadway         Phone  Wasatch  4764 


Complete  Suits  for  Men  and 

Women — Children's  Clothing 

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A  Vital,  Dynamic— 

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CONFERENCE 


J.  GOLDEN  KIMBALL 

HIS  LIFE  EXPERIENCES,  JOKES,  STORIES,  SERMONS 
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Humor  —  Tragedy  —  Pathos  —  Seriousness 
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complete  details. 

Your  Name  

Address  

When  Buying  Mention  Relief  Society  Magazine 


(baster- 


By  Elsie  E.  Barrett 


Easter  voices  the, cry — "There  is  no  death," 
Busy  Nature  proclaims  it  in  rhythmic  breath 

And  marvelous  displays, 
In  renewal  of  life  after  winter's  lament, 
Bringing*  summer  more  charm  for  the  season  thus  spent 

In  preparation  days. 
Every  flower  and  tree  in  the  valley's  broad  sweep 
Softly  whispers  with  smiles  "'All  will  waken  who  sleep." 


WHEN  LILLIES  BLOOM 


Joseph  A.  F.  Everett 


TK. 


^Relief  Society  eMa&azine 


Vol.  XXI 


APRIL,  1934 


No.  4 


The  Eternal  Bridge 

By  Nephi  Jensen 


THE  study  of  the  visible  world 
may  be  said  to  start  with  a 
determination  to  use  one's 
eyes.  At  the  very  beginning  there  is 
something  which  may  be  described 
as  an  act  of  faith — a  belief  that  what 
our  eyes  have  to  show  us  is  signifi- 
cant." This  quotation  is  not  from  a 
sermon.  It  is  not  the  statement  of  a 
dogmatic  theologian.  It  is  the  con- 
culsion  of  a  world  famous  scientist. 
Arthur  Stanley  Eddington,  the  in- 
ternationally known  physicist  makes 
faith  the  initial  incentive  in  all  seek- 
ing for  fact  or  truth.  The  student 
in  the  laboratory  follows  the  given 
formula,  not  because  he  knows  it  is 
correct  but  because  he  believes  it  is 
true.  If  he  knew  that  the  formula 
would  produce  the  desired  result 
there  would  be  no  need  of  experi- 
menting. The  student  who  uses  a 
certain  method  in  solving  a  problem 
is  impelled  by  his  faith  in  the  cor- 
rectness of  the  method.  He  would 
gain  no  knowledge  by  solving  the 
problem  after  demonstrating  the  ac- 
curacy of  the  method. 

The  Botanist  looks  into  the  heart 
of  the  flower  not  to  see  what  he 
knows  is  there,  but  to  see  what  he 
confidently  surmises  is  there.  The 
Astronomer  turns  his  telescope  into 
the  depths  of  space  not  to  find  what 
he  has  already  found,  but  to  find 


what  he  confidently  believes  he  will 
find.  We  not  only  "walk  by  faith", 
but  actually  learn  by  faith. 

Doctor  Benjamin  Moore,  an  out- 
standing Bio-Chemist  states  the  same 
truth  in  other  words.  In  his  "Origin 
of  Life"  he  says,  "It  is  by  the  im- 
agination that  science  is  led  on  from 
discovery  to  discovery."  This  is  a 
most  significant  explanation  of  scien- 
tific advancement.  And  it  is  pro- 
foundly true. 

Every  advance  in  science  is  made 
by  stepping  from  the  known  to  the 
unknown.  This  step  cannot  be  taken 
by  the  aid  of  absolute  knowledge 
alone,  for  knowledge  has  not  yet 
crossed  the  chasm.  Nor  can  ordin- 
ary reason  bridge  the  gulf.  Reason 
only,  takes  us  to  the  outer  edge  of 
what  is  known.  If  we  go  beyond 
the  outskirts  of  what  we  know,  we 
must  be  led  by  a  faculty  that  out- 
strips knowledge  and  reason.  What 
is  the  faculty  that  ventures  into  the 
unexplored  realm  ?  It  is  the  faculty 
that  quickly  infers  the  unknown 
from  what  is  known  without  under- 
standing the  relationship  between  the 
two.  Or  in  other  words,  it  is  the 
power  to  get  a  definite  mental  image 
of  what  has  not  yet  been  seen  that 
guides  to  the  unseen. 

But  it  is  not  enough  to  merely 
imagine  or  surmise  the  existence  of 


196 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


T 


the  unknown.  Unless  the  inference 
of  the  existence,  of  what  has  not  yet 
come  within  the  range  of  our  know- 
ledge awakens  within  us  the  belief 
that  we  can,  by  investigation  or  ex- 
perimentation actually  come  to  know 
what  we  imagine  is  a  fact,  we  shall 
not  be  "led  on  from  discovery  to 
discovery".  Imagination  gives  us 
the  first  glimpse  of  the  unknown; 
but  it  is  bold  venturing  faith  that 
carries  us  across  the  chasm  to  new 
facts  and  new  truths. 

This  power  to  get  an  inference 
or  intimation  of  the  unknown  by  a 
sort  of  quick  intuition  is  the  secret 
of  all  discovery.  This  sort  of  intui- 
tion is  the  lamp  of  faith  that  sheds 
its  rays  far  beyond  the  frontiers  of 
what  has  been  discovered ;  and  leads 
the  way  to  new  discoveries. 

*HE  marvelous  discoveries  of  M. 
Pasteur  in  the  field  of  bacteri- 
ology furnish  a  striking  illustration 
of  how  an  inference  of  unknown 
truth  intensified  by  an  abiding  con- 
viction, urges  the  scientist  onward 
in  his  ceaseless  experimentations. 

In  1859  there  was  a  great  agitation 
among  scientists  on  the  question  of 
life.  Most  of  the  scholars  of  the 
time  accepted  the  theory  that  life 
came  into  existence  spontaneously 
from  inorganic  matter.  Philosophers, 
poets  and  naturalists  assented  to  this 
conclusion.  Pasteur  did  not  agree 
with  them.  He  conceived  that  the 
discovery  of  the  secret  of  fermenta- 
tion would  throw  light  on  the  subject. 
He  surmised  that  fermentation  was 
caused  by  the  contact  of  living  or- 
ganisms with  unliving  substance.  To 
start  with,  it  was  only  a  surmise. 
But  back  of  that  surmise  was  an  in- 
tense conviction  that  the  inference 
was  true.  That  faith  spurred  him  on 
irresistibly  in  his  painstaking  experi- 
ments. Learned  associates  tried  to 
dissuade  him.   M.  Biot  told  him  that 


he  would  never  find  the  secret.  But 
in  spite  of  discouragement,  and  not- 
withstanding the  illusiveness  of  the 
secret,  he  plodded  on  through  the 
years.  His  faith  triumphed  glori- 
ously. He  verified  his  first  intima- 
tion. He  also  discovered  that  putre- 
faction is  caused  by  living  organisms 
coming  into  contact  with  fleshy  and 
other  substances.  Out  of  these 
simple  discoveries  came  the  whole 
splendid  modern  theory  of  the  cause 
of  disease.  And  the  man  whose 
faith  and  industry  blazed  the  way 
from  gross  ignorance  to  enlighten- 
ment in  the  field  of  medicine,  has 
come  to  be  called  the  "most  perfect 
man  that  has  ever  entered  the  king- 
dom of  science/' 

While  Pasteur  was  ardently  ex- 
perimenting with  tartaric  acids  in  the 
hope  of  producing  recemic  acid,  he 
wrote,  "There  is  an  abyss  to  cross." 
There  is  an  abyss  to  cross  in  all 
scientific  research.  It  is  the  abyss 
that  separates  the  known  from  the 
unknown.  It  cannot  be  crossed  by 
mere  half-hearted,  aimless  experi- 
mentation. The  abyss  is  often  so 
wide  that  years  of  industry  are  neces- 
sary to  cross  it.  Only  faith's  fore- 
sight can  give  the  courage  necessary 
to  accomplish  the  tremendous  task. 

TN  the  field  of  invention  it  is  the 
same  quick  intuitive  inference  of 
the  unknown,  quickened  into  action 
by  faith,  that  carries  the  inventor 
onward  in  his  discoveries.  In  1826 
there  were  hundreds  of  men  who 
knew  that  a  current  of  electricity 
would  instantly  pass  from  one  end  of 
a  piece  of  wire  to  the  other.  Knowl- 
edge of  this  simple  fact,  however, 
did  not  lead  them  to  conclude  that 
both  ends  of  the  wire  at  long  dis- 
tances apart  might  be  made  to  record 
simultaneously  the  same  characters 
or  figures ;  and  thereby  become  a 
means   of    instantaneous   communi- 


THE  ETERNAL  BRIDGE 


197 


cation.  They  could  not  cross  the 
chasm  between  what  was  known 
about  electricity  and  the  unknown 
fact  of  telegraphy.  Why?  Simply 
because  they  did  not  have  the  lamp 
of  faith.  But  there  was  one  man  who 
had  faith's  marvelous  intuition.  His 
name  is  Samuel  F.  B.  Morse.  He 
quickly  inferred  from  the  known  fact 
that  electrical  energy  would  make  a 
piece  of  wire  behave  the  same  way  at 
both  ends  at  the  same  time;  that  it 
would  be  possible  to  make  the  two 
ends  of  the  wire  at  long  distances 
apart  record  the  same  ideas.  He  not 
only  caught  this  inference,  but  with 
it  came  the  confident  belief  that  the 
inference  was  true.  This  faith  im- 
pelled him  to  make  innumerable  ex- 
periments until  in  1835  electrical 
telegraphy  became  an  established 
fact. 

'"THE  light  of  faith  has  been  the 
torch  of  progress  in  the  realm 
of  geographical  discovery.  In  1492, 
there  were  many  book  geographers 
who  accepted  the  fact  of  the  rotun- 
dity of  the  earth.  But  these  clois- 
tered students  of  the  earth's  form 
and  size  did  not  dare  venture  out  on 
the  trackless  ocean.  They  were  with- 
out the  faith  that  boldly  strikes  out 
into  the  realm  of  the  unseen  and 
unknown.  They  could  only  reason 
about  the  significance  of  the  known 
geographical  facts.  And  timid  rea- 
son always  hugs  close  to  the  shore ; 
it  dare  not  set  out  upon  the  vast 
undiscovered  ocean. 

But  at  that  time  there  was  one 
most  remarkable  mariner.  His  name 
was  Christopher  Columbus.  He  was 
no  more  certain  than  the  cloistered 
geographers  that  the  earth  is  round. 
But  he  had  something  they  did  not 
have.  He  had  something  akin  to 
vision.  He  had  faith.  By  this  faith 
his  mind  boldly  leaped  from  the  idea, 


of  the  earth's  rotundity  to  the  con- 
clusion that  he  could  sail  westward 
and  reach  the  east  coast  of  India. 
This  was  a  most  daring  conception. 
It  outstripped  all  that  the  geo- 
graphers had  ever  dreamed  of.  This 
simple  mariner  was  able  to  outreach 
all  that  these  book  students  had  con- 
ceived, because  he  was  inspired  and 
sustained  by  an  all-seeing  and  all- 
comprehending  faith.  By  this  sub- 
lime faith  he  ventured  out  into  the 
trackless  and  specter-invested  ocean. 
By  faith  he  was  nerved  with  courage 
to  sail  on,  even  when  his  crew  mu- 
tinied and  insisted  upon  returning. 
By  this  faith  a  new  world  was  given 
to  the  old. 

"Oh !  world,  thou  choosest  not  the 

better  part, 
It  is  not  wisdom  to  be  only  wise, 
And  on  the  inward  vision  close  the 

eyes; 
But   it   is   wisdom   to   believe   the 

heart. 
Columbus  found  a  world  and  had 

no  chart 
Save  one  that  Faith  deciphered  in 

the  skies ; 
To  trust  the  soul's  invincible  sur- 
mise 
Was  all  his  science  and  his  only  art. 
Our  knowledge  is  a  torch  of  smoky 

pine 
That  lights  the  pathway  but  one 

step  ahead 
Across   the   void  of  mystery  and 

dread. 
Bid  then  the  tender  light  of  Faith 

to  shine 
By  which  alone  the  mortal  heart  is 

led 
Into  the  thinking  of  the  thought 

Divine." 

TN  the  realm  of  the  spiritual  faith 
is  preeminently  the  key  that  un- 
locks the  door  to  the  vast  unknown. 
Between  the  finite  and  the  infinite 


198 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


there  is  limitless  space.  Who  can 
cross  this  vast  unexplored  domain? 
The  scientist  cannot  look  across  with 
his  powerful  telescope.  One  astron- 
omer tried,  and  ended  by  saying;  "I 
have  swept  the  heavens  and  have  not 
found  God."  The  philosopher  with 
his  profound  thoughts  about  the  ul- 
timate reality  has  not  been  able  by 
reason  to  find  God.  Herbert  Spencer 
tried,  and  ended  his  profound  and 
exhaustive  studies  with  the  sad  con- 
fession "God  is  unknowable."  This 
is  a  pathetic  acknowledgment  of  the 
futile  search  for  the  Maker  of  all,  by 
one  who  failed  to  follow  his  own 
formula  or  the  ascertainment  of 
truth.  In  his  "First  Principles" 
Spencer  says,  "We  only  know  things 
through  phenomena."  Translated 
into  simpler  terms,  this  great  basic 
rule,  governing  the  acquisition  of 
knowledge  might  be  made  to  read, 
"We  only  know  things  by  the  way 
they  act,  or  by  what  they  manifest." 
In  his  quest  of  knowledge  of  nature, 
Spencer  followed  this  simple  guide. 
He  went  direct  to  nature  to  see  what 
nature  manifests  or  reveals.  But  he 
never  went  direct  to  God,  by  faith, 
to  see  what  God  reveals  to  those  who 
seek  him. 

/^\NE  greater  than  Herbert  Spen- 
cer, by  simple  faith  bridged  the 
gulf  between  man  and  God.  In  1820, 
Joseph  Smith,  then  a  lad  fourteen 
years  of  age  became  deeply  con- 
cerned about  the  salvation  of  his 
soul.  Revival  meetings  in  which  ex- 
cited appeals  to  the  emotions  were 
made,  accentuated  his  anxiety.  The 
divided  and  distracted  cbndition  of 
Christianity,  the  fierce  conflict  of  re- 
ligious opinion,  and  clashing  of 
creeds,  added  to  the  perplexity  of  his 
youthful  mind.  The  din  of  disagree- 
ing and  clamoring  priests,  moved  the 
boy  to  ask,  "Which  of  all  the 
churches  is  right?"    This  is  a  most 


profound  question  for  a  boy  of  four- 
teen. While  this  puzzling  question 
distressed  his  earnest  soul,  he  took 
to  reading  the  scriptures.  One  day 
he  opened  the  Bible  at  the  first  chap- 
ter of  James'  Letter.  His  eyes  fell 
upon  the  faith-stimulating  text,  "If 
any  of  you  lack  wisdom  let  him  ask 
of  God  that  giveth  to  all  men  liberal- 
ly and  upbraideth  not."  The  words 
of  this  simple  promise  went  home  to 
the  heart  of  that  boy  as  the  very 
words  of  the  God  of  all  wisdom.  He 
believed  God  had  actually  made  the 
promise;  and  that  He  would  make 
it  good. 

Impelled  by  this  simple  abiding 
faith,  he  went  into  the  woods  near 
his  father's  home  and  there  bowed 
his  head  and  lifted  his  troubled  heart 
in  pleading  to  God.  As  he  hero- 
ically prayed  there  appeared  above 
him  a  beautiful  pillar  of  light  tran- 
scending in  brilliancy  the  light  of  the 
noon  day  sun.  Encircled  with  this 
glorious  light  stood  two  purified, 
glorified,  immortalized  beings  in  ex- 
press and  majestic  human  form.  One 
of  them  pointed  to  the  other  and  said, 
"This  is  my  beloved  son,  hear  him." 

That  day  that  boy  saw  the  glori- 
fied form  of  the  Omnipotent  One, 
and  heard  the  voice  that  spoke  in 
the  morning  of  time  when  quivering 
matter  was  organized  to  make  a 
beautiful  world 

He  is  the  greatest  discoverer  of 
modern  times.  He  discovered  for 
modern  man  the  only  key  to  the 
knowledge  of  God.  He  found  that 
deepest  and  purest  joy,  of  actual  con- 
tact and  fellowship  with  the  Father 
of  all,  of  which  Emerson  sang  so 
beautifully. 

"O,  when  I  am  safe  in  my  sylvan 
home, 
And  I  mock  at  the  pride  of  Greece 
and  Rome ; 


THE  ETERNAL  BRIDGE 


199 


And  when  I  am  stretched  beneath 

the  pines, 
Where   the   evening   star   so   holy 

shines, 
I  laugh  at  the  lore  and  the  pride 

of  man, 
At    the    sophist    schools,    and    the 

learned  clan : 
For  what  are  they  all  in  their  high 

conceit, 
When  man  in  the  bush  with  God 

may  meet." 

^PHE  spot  on  which  that  boy  pray- 
ed is  a  sacred  shrine.  It  is  the 
cradle  of  modern  faith.  Within  that 
sylvan  temple  on  that  hallowed  day, 
that  boy  discovered  the  lost  key  to 
the  knowledge  of  God.  The  hope- 
giving  story  of  his  triumphant  quest 
of  certainty  concerning  the  Most 
High  has  awakened  in  the  hearts  of 
tens  of  thousands  of  men  and  women 
the  undaunted  faith  that  actually 
seeks  and  finds;  and  asks  and  re- 
ceives. The  glowing  light  of  this 
living  faith  has  sent  afar  its  rays 
in  an  age  of  doubt,  and  skepticism, 
and  turned  uncertainty  to  assurance 
and  despair  into  hope.  This  faith- 
stimulating  power  has  done  more  to 
increase  the  spiritual  riches  of  our 
modern  age,  than  thousands  of  vol- 
umes of  speculations  about  God  and 
His  economy. 


TN  every  field  of  scientific  research 
there  is  the  constant  barrier  of 
the  unknown  to  surmount.  All 
scientific  progress  is  made  by  sur- 
mounting this  enduring  barrier.  In 
the  world  of  invention  it  is  the  same. 
The  inventor  makes  his  inventions 
by  boldly  venturing  across  the  fron- 
tiers of  the  unknown.  The  dis- 
coverer sails  upon  unchartered  seas, 
and  travels  over  trackless  wastes  to 
give  mankind  a  more  extended 
knowledge  of  the  world.  In  the 
spiritual  realm,  poets,  philosophers 
and  prophets  have  struggled,  through 
the  ages,  for  intimate  knowledge  of 
the  unseen  God.  In  all  of  these 
centuries  of  ceaseless  research,  end- 
less inventions,  startling  discoveries, 
and  eager  quests  of  God,  the  torch 
of  faith  has  led  the  way.  It  has 
lighted  the  path  over  the  barriers 
of  science ;  it  has  awakened  the  con- 
fidence that  has  guided  the  inventor 
in  his  painstaking  experiments ;  it 
has  kindled  the  ardor  of  the  dis- 
coverer and  sent  him  to  the  unseen 
corners  of  the  world,  and  it  has  fired 
the  prophets  with  the  deathless  zeal 
to  reach  out  with  undoubted  assur- 
ance for  intimate,  conscious,  loving 
fellowship  with  Him  who  is  invisible. 


I  thought  how  lonely  God  must  be 

Remote  amid  Eternity, 

Where  on  the  shining,  top-most 
throne, 

In  grandeur  dwelt  He  all  alone. 

I  felt  His  loving  heart  must  yearn 

For  Someone  to  whom  He  might 
turn, 

When,  e'en  amid  the  stars  He 
grieved 

With  pain  which  could  not  be  re- 
lieved. 


Companionship 

By  Lindfct  S.  Fletcher 

And    then,  my  dear  one,  I    met 

you — 
I  gazed  into  your  eyes  and  knew 
That  I  could  lonely  never  be 
With  one  like  you  to  dwell  with 

me. 
Then  knew  I  God  dwelt  not  alone 
On    the    white    marble    of    His 

throne — 
That  solace  is  not  Him  denied, 
For  His  Beloved  is  at  His  side! 


Many  a  Milestone  is  Marked  With  a  Cross 


By  Caroline  Eyring  Miner 


DID  you  ever  contemplate  the 
total  aggregate  of  troubles 
in  the  world?  Think  of  the 
numberless  victims  of  flood,  fire, 
earthquake,  the  toll  of  the  stark 
visitor  death,  the  countless  un- 
fortunates in  our  reform  and  pe- 
nal institutions,  the  great  army  of 
the  handicapped,  the  deaf,  the 
blind,  the  lame.  And  now  against 
this  mountain  of  trouble  place 
your  own  particular  little  trouble 
and  rejoice  in  the  mercy  of  God 
to  you. 

In  one  of  our  gayest  summer  re- 
sorts, selemingly  sheltered  with 
the  umbrella  of  splendor  and 
glamorousness  from  the  rains  of 
trouble  and  disaster,  I  chanced  to 
spend  several  vacation  seasons. 

There  were  eight  of  us  girls  at 
the  resort  who  "chummed,  togeth- 
er." We  laughed  and  danced  and 
sang  in  the  artificial  hilarious  way 
that  was  expected  of  us  and  no 
one  would  have  guessed  that  each 
girl  guarded  within  her  heart  un- 
derneath her  butterfly  wings  one 
of  the  world's  troubles. 

It  is  unusual  the  way  in  which 
these  little  trouble  bugs  that  Pan- 
dora set  free  in  the  world  have 
rested  their  wings  and  made  their 
homes.  They  have  not  concen- 
trated in  any  particular  spot  but 
have  nested  at  random  throughout 
the  world. 

On  one  particular  evening  after 
our   work   and   entertaining   was 


over,  we  eight  girl  chums,  as  us- 
ual, gathered  together  in  one  of 
the  dormitory  rooms  for  a  little 
light  chatter.  And  many  times  af- 
ter the  cocktail  of  light  talk  was 
over,  the  main  course  was  served 
and  we  chatted  in  a  more  serious 
vein.  This  night  in  question  our 
main  talk  turned  at  last  to  what 
we  called  our  "secret  sorrows" 
and  strange  to  say  there  was  not  a 
single  one  of  the  eight  girls  who 
did  not  bare  her  heart  and  produce 
a  family  skeleton.  One  girl  had  a 
brother  who  was  born  an  invalid, 
one, girl  had  been  told  by  a  physi- 
cian that  she  could  never  be  a 
mother,  one  had  a  sister  who  had 
been  born  deaf,  one  an  aged  father 
who  was  blind,  one  had  no  par- 
ents, one  a  family  hereditary  ten- 
dency to  insanity,  and  another  a 
brother  who  was  in  the  Federal 
prison. 

After  the  talk  was  over  and  we 
had  all  wept,  we  felt  united  in 
the  common  burden  of  the  cross. 
Nature,  or  God,  or  whatever  we 
wish  to  name  the  distributor  of 
crosses  on  humanity  is  no  re- 
specter of  persons  and  we  who  feel 
over-burdened  and  are  harboring 
within  our  bosoms  the  venomous 
serpent,  self-pity,  need  only  to 
look  about  us  to  see  our  neighbors 
one  and  all  laboring  and  straining 
under  the  load  of  even  heavier  bur- 
dens. And  not  a  few  "but  many 
a  milestone  is  marked  with  a 
cross." 


Anne  Brent,  Helpmate 

By  Elsie  Chamberlain  Carroll 


TO  Anne  it  wasn't  clear  from 
what  the  children  said  nor 
from  Peter's  telegram  just 
who  the  men  were  who  were  coming- 
home  with  him.  When  he  had  left 
home  nearly  a  month  before,  Peter 
had  intended  to  complete  the  busi- 
ness arrangements  of  a  merger  of  a 
number  of  general  merchandise 
stores  in  the  western  part  of  the 
state  which  plan  was  supposed  to 
work  out  to  the  marked  advantage 
of  each  store.  It  was  a  scheme  he 
had  been  interested  in  for  years.  The 
telegram,  however,  was  from  Draton 
in  the  northern  part  of  the  state. 
Peter  had  vaguely  hinted  in  his  last 
letter  that  if  the  merger  went  over 
as  he  was  sure  it  was  going  to  this 
time,  he  had  another  business  idea 
which  was  even  better. 

Anne  used  to  become  discouraged 
over  these  numerous  schemes  Peter 
was  always  trying  out  with  so  few 
successes.  She  had  thought  many 
times  that  if  he  could  settle  down  to 
making  the  most  of  the  business  his 
father  had  left  him  they  would  be 
much  farther  ahead  than  with  all  his 
efforts  at  bigger  things  which  fre- 
quently cost  them  dearly.  But  she 
had  learned  that  Peter  couldn't  be 
happy  unless  he  was  planning  some- 
thing new,  something  he  thought 
would  benefit  not  only  himself  but 
others,  so  she  had  tried  to  cease 
worrying  about  it.  The  store,  man- 
aged by  Jim  Harker,  with  one  or  the 
other  of  the  children  to  help,  gave 
them  a  fair  living,  with  her  careful 
management. 

There  was  no  time,  she  told  her- 
self as  she  busied  herself  with  the 
job  of  bringing  order  out  of  the 


chaos  she  found  the  home  in,  to 
speculate  as  to  what  Peter's  new 
venture  might  be. 

"Wfhatever  made  you  start  a 
wholesale  house-cleaning  at  a  time 
like  this?"  she  asked  Gloria. 

"That's  what  I  tried  to  find  out," 
Quint  volunteered.  "She  got  Jim  to 
let  both  of  us  off  from  the  store  and 
then  went  at  it  tearing  everything 
up-side-down.  It's  been  bad  enough 
finding  enough  to  eat  around  here 
since  you  left  without  the  house  all 
tore  up." 

Gloria  was  looking  at  her  mother 
in  surprise  and  her  answer  to  Anne's 
question  was  a  startling  revelation. 

"Why,  Mother,  ever  since  I  can 
remember  whenever  we've  known 
important  company  was  coming, 
you've  cleaned  the  house — no  matter 
if  we've  just  got  through  cleaning 
the  week  before.  I  can  remember 
once  Suzanne  said — It  was  the  time 
the  Tomilsons  were  coming  from 
California — that  it  seemed  funny 
how  you  always  thought  the  house 
looked  so  terrible  if  anybody  was 
coming — as  if  the  family  wasn't 
as  good  as  company.  I  knew  you'd 
clean  if  you  were  here,  so  I  thought 
we  had  to.  Of  course  we  didn't 
count  on  old  Cherry  getting  that 
potato  in  her  throat  yesterday  just 
after  Quint  got  started  on  the  cal- 
somining  and  taking  his  whole  even- 
ing. Nor  we  didn't  know  the  twins 
were  going  to  try  their  pet  trick  of 
hiding  and  making  us  think  they 
were  drowned  or  something  and 
having  us  hunt  them  for  hours.  It 
has  been  awful. 

"I  thought  a  little  while  ago  I'd 
have  to  have  Quint  stand  out  by  the 
road  and  hail  Dad  before  he  got 
home  and  tell  him  to  take  the  com- 


202 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


pany  to  the  hotel.  I've  decided  that 
if  I  ever  get  married,  I'm  never 
going  to  clean  house." 

Anne  smiled  at  the  way  her  own 
weakness  was  catching  up  with  her. 
She  believed  she  had  learned  a  les- 
son. It  had  never  occurred  to  her 
that  she  really  did  have  an  obsession 
for  cleaning  whenever  she  was  going 
to  have  company.  And  to  make  the 
children  feel  that  things  must  be 
better  for  strangers  than  for  them- 
selves, well,  she  hadn't  thought  of 
that  either. 

"Well,  we'll  soon  have  things  in 
order.  It  looks  a  lot  worse  at  this 
stage  than  it  really  is,"  she  said 
cheerfully:  "Quint,  you  run  over 
and  see  if  Lon  Avery  won't  come 
and  finish  the  calsomining.  He  can 
do  it  so  much  more  quickly  than  you 
can,  and  we  will  soon  have  to  be 
getting  some  parts  of  the  dinner  go- 
ing. Run  on  around  by  Lannings 
and  get  a  quart  of  ice-cream.  You 
children  can  stop  and  have  a  little 
lunch,  then  you'll  both  feel  more  like 
working."  She  sent  Gloria  to  do  the 
work  upstairs  and  she  herself  set 
about  to  bring  order  out  of  chaos. 

By  five  o'clock  the  house  began  to 
assume  a  natural  appearance  and 
Anne  could  talk  to  Me  children  with- 
out breaking  off  to  give  directions 
concerning  the  work. 

"Have  Morris  or  Phyllis  been 
over?"  she  asked  as  she  rolled  pie 
crusts  while  Quint  was  peeling  pota- 
toes and  Gloria  was  setting  the  table. 
She  couldn't  help  wondering  how 
her  advice  to  Phyllis  was  working 
out. 

"Morris  was  here  yesterday," 
Gloria  told  her.  He  was  surprised 
about  you  being  gone,  and  he  acted 
awful  nervous  or  something.  He 
kept  walking  around  ana  snapping 
his  fingers  and  asking  if  we  didn't 
know  when  you'd  be  back.  He  said 
Phyllis  and  Junior  were  in  Castle 
Junction  with  her  Aunt." 


"Is  there  any  other  news?"  Anne 
asked. 

"Have  you  told  her  how  many 
letters  you've  had  from  Hal  Gill- 
more?"  asked  Quint. 

"Who  is  Hal  Gillmore?"  asked 
Anne  wondering  if  he  might  be  an- 
other traveling  salesman  to  worry 
over. 

"You  remember  Ethel  Gillmore 
who  came  home  with  Suzanne  last 
Christmas.  He  is  Ethel's  brother. 
They  stopped  on  their  way  to  the 
Grand  Canyon.  Ethel  thought  may- 
be Suzanne  was  home.  We  were 
just  having  lunch  so  we  invited  them 
to  stay  and — " 

"That  was  about  the  only  decent 
lunch  we  had  while  you  were  gone," 
Quint  complained,  "and  of  course  I 
had  to  say  I  didn't  care  for  about 
everything  there  was  on  the  table 
so  there'd  be  enough  for  that  pretty 
Gillmore  boy.  Gloria'd  kick  me 
under  the  table  every  time  anything 
was  passed  to  me." 

"Well  you  know  how  he  eats  if 
there  isn't  much  of  anything,"  de- 
fended Gloria. 

"Well,  after  lunch  they  invited  us 
to  go  to  a  show.  It  was  Sunday 
afternoon  and  we  weren't  working." 

"And  Glory  shook  her  head  at  me 
so  I'd  say  I  didn't  want  to  go,"  put 
in  Quint. 

"Hal  asked  if  he  could  write,  and 
I  told  him  if  he  wanted  to  so — " 

"She  comes  home  twice  every  day 
to  see  if  there's  a  letter." 

"I  do  not,"  Gloria  protested.  "But 
Quint  isn't  telling  the  news  about 
some  of  his  pals,  I  notice." 

Anne  looked  at  the  boy,  but  a  grim 
look  had  come  into  his  eyes  and  he 
didn't  say  anything.  "They  were 
pretending  to  help  Judge  Thomas 
guard  old  Lady  Doak's  place  from 
grape  and  melon  thieves.  While 
they  were  doing  that  they  stole  one 
of  her  calves  and  sold  it  and  now 
they're  going  to  send  them  to  jail." 


ANNE  BRENT,  HELPMATE 


203 


"I'm  sorry,"  Anne  said,  "Which 
of  the  boys  was  it?"  She  must  be 
very  careful,  she  realized,  not  to  lose 
the  ground  she  had  gained  towards 
Quint's  confidence.  He  still  was 
silent,  but  Gloria  said, 

"Well,  they  don't  know  who  all 
was  mixed  in  it,  but  they've  got  Tad 
Lawler  and  Bing  Houseman  and 
they're  trying  to  make  them  tell 
which  others  were  in  on  it.  The 
Judge  had  a  whole  bunch  of  the 
wildest  kids  in  town,  they  say,  taking 
turns  guarding.  He  thought  he  was 
reforming  them,  and  that's  the  way 
it  worked  out.  So  far,  Tad  and 
Bing  haven't  told  on  the  others,  but 
I  guess  they'll  make  them  tell." 

"Make  tattle-tales  out  of  them," 
said  Quint,  red-faced  and  with  a 
touch  of  bitterness.  Anne  tried  to 
quell  the  old  torturing  question  that 
sprang  to  her  mind,  "Could  Quint  be 
one  of  the  boys?" 

What  a  terrible  thing  it  is,  she 
mused,  to  have  confidence  in  a  loved 
one  broken.  Once  shattered,  trust 
is  hard  to  be  rebuilt. 

Tl^HEN  Quint  called  from  the 
front  porch  a  little  after  six 
that  Daddy  and  the  men  were  com- 
ing, Anne  was  ready  for  them.  She 
was  still  wondering  what  the  coming 
of  this  delegation  might  mean.  She 
hoped  it  wasn't  an  enterprise  that 
would  involve  money.  Already  she 
was  going  to  have  difficulty  making 
up  for  Phyllis'  music  lessons  and  her 
trip  to  Boston  before  the  end  of  the 
year. 

She  wished  she  could  feel  more 
enthusiasm  about  Peter's  ventures. 
Once  her  own  wise  mother  had  told 
her  that  it  wasn't  her  business  to  try 
to  make  Peter  over,  but  to  help  him 
to  make  the  most  of  himself  as  he 
was.  "Most  wives,"  the  old  lady, 
had  said,  "forget  that  they  are  help- 
mates.    That  means  helping  their 


mates,  first  by  doing  their  own  jobs 
well,  and  next  by  helping.their  mates 
to  do  theirs." 

Anne  had  thought  a  great  deal 
about  that  little  sermon.  She  had 
set  up  for  herself  certain  definite 
standards  which  she  thought  would 
help  her  to  be  a  real  helpmate  to 
Peter. 

When  he  came  in  with  his  guests 
and  had  introduced  them  to  Anne,  he 
said  casually,  "These  men  have  come 
to  look  over  a  new  real  estate  propo- 
sition I  have  in  mind."  Anne's  out- 
ward response  gave  no  indication  of 
the  misgiving  she  felt.  With  two 
new  schemes  in  hand  at  the  same 
time,  she  wondered  how  far  Peter 
might  be  carried  into  the  realm  of 
the  impracticable — the  impossible. 

During  the  dinner,  although  one 
or  two  of  the  men  made  an  effort  to 
keep  the  conversation  general 
enough  that  Anne  might  be  included, 
most  of  the  time  was  spent  discus- 
sing the  proposed  new  real  estate 
venture.  She  could  not,  however, 
obtain  a  clear  enough  idea  to  justify 
a  judgment  on  its  merits. 

When  they  were  through  eating, 
Peter  said, 

"I'll  have  to  take  these  gentlemen 
out  to  look  over  the  situation  before 
their  train  leaves.  I  thought  you 
might  bring  Suzanne  home.  Our 
daughter,"  he  explained  to  his  guests, 
"is  studying  art  in  Boston  and  really 
making  quite  a  name  for  herself. 
The  Missus  has  just  been  out  to  see 
her." 

Anne  was  thankful  she  did  not 
have  to  break  the  tragic  news  she 
had  feared. 

TT  was  nearly  dark  betore  Peter 
returned.  Anne  was  sitting  on 
the  east  porch  with  a  basket  of  darn- 
ing she  had  been  working  at.  As  he 
came  up  the  walk  she  thought  how 
handsome  he  was  growing  in  his 
middle  years.     His   form  had  lost 


204 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


the  lankiness  of  youth  and  the  grey- 
ing hair  at -his  temples,  and  his  short 
mustache  gave  him  a  look  of  distinc- 
tion. He  looked  like  a  man  to  do  big 
things.  Anne  felt  ashamed  at  the 
way  she  had  always  doubted  his 
ability.  Perhaps  he  had  felt  her 
half-hearted  support.  Perhaps  if  she 
had  been  a  hundred  percent  help- 
mate he  might  have  succeeded  some- 
times when  he  had  failed. 

"I'm  sorry,  Mother,  that  I 
couldn't  talk  this  plan  over  with  you 
before  taking  definite  action  with 
these  men,  but  I  had  to  work  at  it 
while  I  had  a  chance  to  see  them. 
Really  Anne  this  is  a  wonderful 
proposition.  At  last  it  'looks  as 
though  I'll  be  able  to  do  some  of  the 
things  for  you  I've  always  wanted 
to  do.  If  this  goes  over  as  it  should, 
you  won't  have  to  work  like  a  slave, 
nor  worry  over  every  cent  you  spend. 
W)e  can  do  things  for  the  children — 
big  things  that  will  help  them  to  be 
somebody  without  the  grind  we've 
always  had." 

Anne  watched  Peter  as  he  went  on 
with  the  details  of  the  new  scheme, 
and  thought  how  magnificent  he  was 


when  under  the  spell  of  these  great 
enthusiasms.  , 

She  wished  she  could  keep  from 
wondering  if  this  new  scheme  was 
dependent  upon  the  yet  untried  mer- 
ger, and  if  there  were  any  mortgages 
on  the  home  or  the  store  involved. 
Peter  knew  how  she  felt  about  mort- 
gaging the  property  that  gave  them 
their  living.  Surely  he  would  not 
take  a  chance  on  losing  their  home 
or  the  store.  And  yet  the  talk  at 
the  table  had  seemed  to  imply  an 
outlay  of  capital. 

Finallly  Peter  said,       , 

"I  had  to  put  a  mortgage  on  the 
house  and  the  store — just  for  a  few 
months.  You  won't  mind  that  will 
you  ?  In  less  than  six  months  it  can 
all  be  cleared  and  we  can  be  doing 
the  things  we've  always  wanted  to 
do.    You  don't  mind  do  you?" 

Anne  felt  tears  in  her  eyes  burn- 
ing to  be  shed.  But  she  forced  them 
back  and  put  her  arms  around 
Peter's  neck. 

"I  love  you,  Peter/'  was  all  she 
said. 

(   To  be  continued) 


The  Prodigal  Son's  Mother  Speaks 

By  M.  Bell 

O  !  son,  my  son !  didst  thou  come  home  again 
Be  glad  dear  heart,  'twas  not  in  vain. 
Thy  mother's  eyes  no  longer  run 
In  tears  for  thee,  O  son,  my  son ! 
Let's  celebrate  and  make  amends. 
Rejoice,  rejoice,  call  all  thy  friends, 
Delicious  things  of  earth  we'll  bring. 
He  that  was  lost 'returned — let's  sing! 

And  you,  my  firstborn  faithful  lad 

Woulds't  make  thy  mother's  spirit  sad  ? 

O!  jealousy  depart,  depart — 

For  all  we  have,  we  ever  owned 

Is  yours  forever,  yours  alone. 

My  son !  thou  art  the  pure  in  heart. 


f~\    i     x  Awarded  First  Honorable  Mention  in  the 

m       *+  m4m/^\  Eliza  Roxy  Snow  Poetry  Contest 

°^IP     /  By  Blanche  Robbins 

If  this  be  Life  'tis  less  I  ask ;  not  more ; 

Not  more  of  all  that  crowds  and  stifles  me ; 

Not  more  of  all  that  thinks  and  feels 

And  almost  lives  my  life  for  me ; 

Not  more  of  this.     I  would  that  I 

Could  lift  my  hands  and  push  it  all  away 

And  clear  a  space  to  pause  and  feel  and  live. 

I  smile  and  nod;  you  nod  and  smile; 

We  meet  each  other  on  our  way; 

We  shop ;  We  call  on  friends ;  We  talk  of  clothes ; 

We  dress  in  style ;  We  comb  our  hair  a  certain  way ; 

There's  dinner  here  ;  a  luncheon  there  ; 

A  dollar  to  some  charity; 

"O,  yes,  we  have  our  work  to  do 

But  soon  are  through." 

We  buy  and  sell ;  go  here  and  there 
See  this  and  that; 
We  laugh  and  chat;  are  most  correct 
And  settle  all  the  problems  of  the  world 
With  our  small  talk. 

And  all  the  days  are  filled  with  countless,  nameless  tasks 
That  never  fill  a  need  or  win  a  race 
Or  mean  a  battle  won. 
'Tis  not  enough ! 

And  through  it  all  I  go  my  untouched  way 
And  Life  is  passing  on. 

No  more  than  this !    'Tis  true 

This  surface  brightly  shines  to  those 

Whose  hearts  are  there 

Or  those  who  envyingly  look  on. 

But  underneath  are  tears  and  sighs  and  heartaches 

And  souls  who  need  the  kindly  touch  of  someone  caring ; 

The  warmth  of  home ;  the  cheer  of  friendship  true. 

Gray  heads  who  need 

The  forceful  hand  of  dauntless  youth ; 

Young  hearts,  who  need 

The  steadying  hand  of  mellowed  age ; 

Dimpled  babes,  who  need 

A  loving  mother's  watchful  care ; 

Empty  mother-arms  that  fain  would  hear 

The  faltering  voice  of  childhood's  prayer. 

And  all  the  days  are  filled  with  countless  tasks 
That 'fill  a  need  or*  win  a  race 
Or  mean  a  battle  won. 

'Tis  true,  my  skirts  were  softly  lifted,  Life 

As  you  were*  passing  by — 

But  now, -I  hold  you  gently,  Life 

And  draw  you  nigh. 


"Gold  is  Where  You  Find  it 

By  Elizabeth  Cannon  Porter 


PEOPLE  in  California  are  go- 
ing to  the  hills  to  pan  gold. 
Out  of  work  many  of  them 
can  find  enough  of  the  precious 
metal  to  buy  their  food  and  bar- 
est necessities.  They  take  with 
them  their  blankets,  canned  goods, 
— possibly  a  cook-stove  that  burns 
wood, — sometimes  a  tent.  Only 
their  utensils  are  conveyed  to 
these  modern  gold  fields  via  a 
flivver  rather  than  on  the  backs 
of  burros  as  in  the  days  of  forty- 
nine. 

Unemployment  and  the  present 
high  price  of  gold  is  causing  some 
of  the  old  fields  to  be  re-scratched. 
Mint  canyon  which  lies  between 
Los  Angeles  and  Palmdale  is  a 
favored  locality.  Rumor  has  it 
that  the  first  gold  recorded  in  the 
"land  of  bright  colors"  was  found 
here.  An  Indian,  herding  cattle 
for  the  Padres  at  the  San  Fer- 
nando Mission,,  dug  up  a  wild  on- 
ion root  with  his  knife.  With  it 
he  unearthed  several  good  sized 
gold  nuggets.  But  it  wasn't  till 
white  men,  some  of  them  mem- 
bers of  the  Mormon  Battalion, 
saw  it  gleaming  in  the  water  at 
Sutter's  Mill,  that  it  became  gen- 
erally known. 

Small  placer  mines  are  scat- 
tered in  the  brown  sand  on  the 
hills  of  the  California  side  near 
Yuma,  Arizona.  These  have  been 
worked  at  a  small  profit  for  years. 
Miners  are  confronted  with  the 
dilemma  of  carrying  their  ore 
down  to  the  Colorado  river  to  be 
washed,  or  getting  the  water  up 
to  the  higher  workings. 

Another  prospective  field  is  the 
desert  beyond  Barstow.  Death 
Valley,  despite  its  intriguing  rep- 


utation, has  never  produced  rich 
mines.  Death  Valley  Scotty  re- 
cently invited  the  members  of  the 
fashionable  Los  Angeles  Breakfast 
Club  to  hitch  their  horses  at  the 
posts  of  his  million  dollar  castle. 
Some  say  that  the  money  that 
built  this  picturesque  domicile  on 
the  desert  was  put  up  by  Scotty 's 
Chicago  partner,  a  Mr.  Johnson. 
But  it  was  a  western  myth  that 
the  spectacular  host  had  a  secret 
mine  from  which  he  drew  vast 
wealth  for  his  forays  into  civiliza- 
tion when  he  chartered  special 
trains  and  threw  gold  coins  to  the 
people  on  Spring  street.  Certain 
it  is,  though  Scotty  has  been  shad- 
owed and  nearly  murdered  the 
source  of  his  wealth  is  still  undis- 
closed. 

There  is  still  gold  in  the  hills, 
though  California  has  produced 
more  gold  than  any  other  place  in 
the  world.  In  1843  five  million 
was  taken  out  of  the  soil.  By  1863 
production  had  jumped  to  sixty- 
rive  million.  Subsequently  it 
reached  the  staggering  sum  of  one 
billion,  twenty-nirte  million. 

Midas-like  stories  of  those  fron- 
tier days  outstrip  the  Arabian 
Nights.  A  widow,  in  1850,  bought 
a  horse  at  Marysvale  and  went  to 
Downeyville  to  open  a  boarding 
house.  She  put  up  a  tent.  While 
sweeping  it  out  with  an  impro- 
vised broom  of  pine  needles  she 
unearthed  a  gold  nugget  which 
assayed  at  $35.  This  spurred  her 
on  to  digging  and  she  acquired 
$32,000,  in  four  days.  A  man, 
armed  with  a  knife,  cut  three  and 
a  half  pounds  of  solid  gold  out  of 
a  hollow  as  big  as  a  wash  basin. 
Another  man  hired  five   Indians, 


"GOLD  IS  WHERE  YOU  FIND  IT" 


207 


and  took  out  $80,000  from  a  won- 
drously  rich  ledge.  A  lone  sailor 
got  $1,500  in  two  weeks.  An  early- 
day  funeral  offered  a  unique  expe- 
rience. An  out-of-town  minister 
had  been  imported  to  officiate.  As 
the  coffin  was  about  to  be  lowered 
into  the  ground  one  of  the  mour- 
ners espied  a  good-sized  gold 
nugget.  The  pall  bearers  and 
other  spectators  immediately  be- 
gan to  spread  out  and  lay  off  25 
foot  claims.  Only  the  minister 
continued  with  the  services. 

One  industrious  miner  became 
ill.  On  leaving  to  hunt  a  doctor 
he  carefully  buried  his  cache.  He 
located  the  place  by  figuring  that 
the  shadows  of  two  pine  trees 
would  cross  there  in  twenty-eight 
days.  He  was  delayed  with  illness 
and  convalescence  for  several 
months  at  Sacramento.  Imagine 
his  consternation  on  his  return  to 
find  that  a  sawmill  had  been  built 
there  and  all  of  the  trees  of  the 
vicinity  cut  down ! 

^JORTH  SAN  JUAN  is  credit- 
ed with  producing  from  five  to 
six  hundred  million  dollars.  All 
of  the  ground  around  Downey- 
ville  has  been  worked.  Only  un- 
der the  Court  House,  built  in 
1854,  was  virgin  soil.  An  official 
heard  a  tapping  noise  under  the 
floor.  A  miner  had  tunneled  200 
feet,  camouflaging  his  work,  to 
reach  the  rich  ground  under  the 
structure.  A  pair  of  gold  scales 
still  preserved  in  northern  Cali- 
fornia has  weighed  out  55  million 
in  dust  and  nuggets. 

The  Empire  Star,  world's  deep- 
est mine  which  measures  3,500 
feet  in  a  vertical  line,  has  pro- 
duced for  seventy  years. 

Primitive  mining  was  done  by 
means  of  sluice  boxes,  tunnels, 
windlass  and  panning.  As  the  ore 
got  scarcer  hydraulic  mining  came 


into  use.  Great  streams  of  water, 
under  terrific  pressure  was  turned 
on  the  cliffs.  This  caused  silt  to 
fill  up  the  Sacramento  river,  and 
was  deposited  in  San  Francisco 
Bay.  It  interfered  with  naviga- 
tion and  covered  up  orchards  and 
roused  spirited  opposition  from 
agricultural  California. 

Justice  then  was  promptly  ad- 
ministered, a  criminal  often  being 
tried  and  executed  the  same  day. 
In  the  cruel  frontier  where  the 
loss  of  horse  or  food  frequently 
spelt  death,  robbery  as  well  as 
murder  was  punishable  by  hang- 
ing. 

The  gambler  was  often  a  cold- 
blooded individual,  not  of  the  he- 
roic type  depicted  by  Bret  Harte. 
At  one  joint  twenty  dollar  gold 
pieces  kept  getting  lost.  One  of 
the  spectators  was  a  German  with 
a  long  beard  which  he  wore  tucked 
inside  his  collar.  One  of  the  men 
suddenly  grabbed  it  and  yanked  it 
out.  Several  gold  pieces  fell  to  the 
floor.  The  gentleman,  like  the 
Outcasts  of  Poker  Flat,  was  given 
three  hours  to  leave  town.  At 
Aurora  was  a  young  man  who  was 
a  failure  at  everything  he  tried. 
Samuel  Clemens  was  offered  a  job 
as  reporter  on  a  paper  at  Vir- 
ginia City.  He  walked  120  miles 
and  subsequently  blossomed  out 
as  Mark  Twain ! 

pANTASTIC  prices  prevailed. 
On  news  of  a  strike  a  burro 
might  sell  for  $500.  Lacking  that 
two  miners  would  carry  their 
grub-stake  on  a  pole  suspended 
from  their  shoulders.  A  pound  of 
flour  sold  for  $1.50.  Delivery  of  a 
letter  cost  a  dollar.  Two  barrels 
of  whiskey  dispensed  in  two  days 
brought  $7,000.  Gold  hunters  trav- 
eled from  Utah  by  ox  team.  They 
came  up  the  coast  by  boat,  but  ar- 
rived in  California,  wheelbarrows 


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RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


and  pushcarts  were  requisitioned 
to  get  to  the  gold  fields. 

/'"I HOST  cities  are  the  ruins  of 
worked  out  mining  claims. 
Their  erstwhile  inhabitants  have 
departed  with  the  bullion.  Rhy- 
olite  is  an  example  of  these  with 
its  buildings  falling  into  decay, — 
the  haunt  of  the  coyote  and  the 
jackrabbit.  Even  the  railroad  de- 
serted it  and  the  steel  rails  were 
pulled  up  and  shipped  to  Russia 
during  the  war.  The  empty,  hand- 
some station  house  still  stands. 
Here  is  the  famous  house  built  of 
bottles  many  of  them  colored 
lovely  lilac  with  the  desert  sun. 

Another  form  of  monument  to 
the  gold  seekers  are  a  group  of 
crosses  erected  in  Sonora,  over 
the  line,  in  Mexico.  A  party  from 
Arizona  suffered  terribly  from  the 
heat  in  crossing  the  bone-strewn 
El  Camino  Diablo  (Road  of  the 
Devil).  At  Atlas  Springs  forty- 
five  emigrants  perished  and  were 
interred  there  in  '49. 

A  party  of  bandits  who  held  up 


stage  coaches  for  a  living  hid  out 
in  the  hills  for  two  years.  While 
there  they  discovered  a  rich  silver 
vein.  They  sold  it  to  Senator 
Stewart  of  Nevada.  Afterwards 
they  hung  thriftily  around  to  lift 
the  silver  after  he  had  mined  it. 
He  outwitted  them  by  having  the 
white  metal  smelted  into  600 
pound  cannon  balls  (instead  of  the 
usual  bars),  which  he  shipped  by 
freight. 

The  Bull  Frog  mine,  so  called 
because  of  its  green  speckled  ap- 
pearance, was  discovered  by 
Shorty  Harris,  dean  of  the  old 
prospectors.  Some  of  these  an- 
cient wanderers  have  found  and 
lost  several  fortunes.  Some  still 
follow  the  elusive  trail  of  for- 
tune. They  are  often  grub-staked 
by  more  prosperous  copatriots 
who  share  in  any  find  that  they 
may  make.  These  men  travel  with 
their  pack  mules  from  water-hole 
to  water-hole.  They  are  fast  dis- 
appearing. Some  only  find  the 
gold  of  the  setting  sun ! 


ERASTUS  AND  ANNTS  POTTER  CHRISTENSEN  AND  THETR  7  SONS 

AND  6  DAUGHTERS. 


Shad 


ows 


Awarded  Second  Honorable  Mention  in  the  Eliza  Roxey  Snow  Poetry  Contest 

By   Vesta  P.  Crawford 

I  love  the  time  when  shadows  slant 

Across  the  valley's  waiting  breast 
And  drape  the  world  in  loveliness 

When  night  comes  down  to  rest. 

Though  eyes  of  mine  can  never  see 
The  places  where  the  darkness  goes, 

The  heart  of  earth  is  rifted  wide 
And  the  dusk-dimmed  valley  knows. 

I  hope  to  wear  my  shadows  well, 

With  dignity  and  quiet  power 
For  so  the  valley  robes  herself 

In  the  evening's  sentient  hour. 


Sil- 


ver 

Awarded  Third  Honorable  Mention  in  the  Eliza  Roxey  Snow  Poetry  Contest 

By  Mabel  Spande  Harmer 

You  thought  I  envied  you 

Because  I  stood  aside  to  let  you  pass 
On  to  the  walk  that  led 

Through  frosted  shrubs  up  to  the  lighted  house. 

A  servant  drove  your  car. 

Your  gathered  folds  of  velvet  and  rich  fur 
Close  to  your  jeweled  throat, 

To  keep  away  the  chill  of  winter  air. 

You  wore  a  rare  perfume. 

Upon  your  feet  there  gleamed  two  silver  shoes, 
Gleamed  in  the  starry  night, 

But  then — your  hair  was  silver  too ! 

While  I  on  love's  young  arm 

With  zest  of  youth  tripped  gaily  on  my  way 
Over  a  myriad  jewel's 

Left  by  the  mad  caprice  of  winter  day. 

My  home  was  very  small 

Beside  the  mansion  which  your  footsteps  drew, 
But  in  it  slept  a  babe — 

Ah  no — you  erred — I  didn't  envy  yon. 


Your  Home  Beautiful 


By  Mabel  Margaret  Luke 
The    Principles   Applied — Conclusion 


DURING  the  past  year  we 
have  considered  the  differ- 
ent phases  of  interior  deco- 
ration and  studied  the  funda- 
mental laws  on  which  they  are 
based.  In  concluding  this  series 
it  might  be  well  to  go  over  again 
some  of  these  laws  in  their  prac- 
tical application,  and  to  summar- 
ize other  points  in  connection  with 
this  subject. 

There  is  in  every  normal  wom- 
an a  desire  to  make  her  home  at- 
tractive, inviting  and  homelike. 
Without  a  knowledge  and  strict 
adherence  to  the  underlying  prin- 
ciples that  govern  house  decora- 
tion it  is  only  by  a  miracle  that  we 
will  achieve  a  satisfactory  result. 
Therefore,  it  is  not  so  much  a 
question  of  doing  as  of  knowing 
how  to  proceed — that  is  the  im- 
portant thing  if  we  want  to  at- 
tain distinction  and  lasting  beauty 
in  our  homes. 

The  basis  of  all  good  decoration 
is  plan,  well-selected  and  adhered 
to.  An  unsatisfactory  result  is 
usually  so  because  the  decorator 
lacked  any  real  idea  of  precisely 
what  the  finished  result  was  to  be, 
and  so  it  was  assembled  in  a  hap- 
hazard manner.  A  definitely 
planned  interior  may  gain  distinc- 
tion and  charm  at  even  a  small 
cost.  By  being  able  to  visualize 
the  finished  room ;  by  knowing 
just  what  sort  of  furnishings,  col- 
ors, etc.,  will  contribute  the  right 
note  in  the  chosen  scheme,  a 
charming  interior  will  develop 
eventually  from  the  humblest  be- 
ginning. Even  though  one  is 
forced  by  circumstances  to  stretch 


the  home  furnishing  and  decora- 
tion budget  over  a  period  of 
years,  if  one  abides  by  a  plan  a 
home  can  be  harmonious.  On  the 
other  hand,  if  one  buys  a  couch 
this  year,  a  dining  set  next  year, 
drapes,  a  lamp,  chair  or  table  later 
on,  and  has  no  well-fixed  concep- 
tion of  the  type  of  room  or  home 
it  will  finally  be  one  is  very  likely 
to  accumulate  a  number  of  ar- 
ticles, perhaps  each  one  beautiful 
in  itself,  but  not  in  harmony  with 
each  other  nor  with  the  rooms  in 
which  they  are  used. 

By  planning,  and  adhering  to 
that  plan  one  may  spread  the  joy 
of  furnishing  over  many  happy 
years,  for  homes  that  grow  are 
best.  One  might  even  say  that  to 
furnish  in  haste  is  to  repent  at 
leisure.  To  feel  the  need  for  a 
certain  article,  to  long  for  it,  wish 
for  it,  and  then  to  finally  secure 
it  gives  one  a  joy  of  possession 
that  would  not  be  possible  in  a 
hurriedly  acquired  houseful  of 
furnishings. 

If  one  furnishes  a  piece  at  a  time 
then  it  stands  to  reason  that  one 
cannot  follow  "fads"  in  home 
decorating.  Anything  that  is  not 
artistically  correct,  yet  the  mode 
usually  has  one  certain  quality, 
and  that  is  impermanence.  Fash- 
ions of  today  are  usually  passe  to- 
morrow. "Crazes  are  fostered  by 
manufacturers  and  dealers  for 
trade  purposes.  Art  is  a  matter 
of  sanity  and  equilibrium  and 
worthy  interior  decoration  recog- 
nizes no  such  thing  as  a  fad." 
Decoration  is  both  an  art  and  a 
science  and  is  founded  on  the  best 


YO  UR  HOME  BE  A  UTIFUL  21 1 

work  and  thoughts  of  centuries  of  wall    covering    and    drapes    both 

art   and   craftsmanship,   and   real  have  pattern. 

art  never  goes  out  of  style.  6.  DON'T  use  great  spaces  of 

A  final  point  in  favor  of  deco-  bright  color.  Too  much  tires  the 
rating  a  little  at  a  time  is  that  one  eye  ancj  creates  confusion. 
is  then  able  to  pay  as  he  goes  and  Jm  DON'T  overcrowd.  Plain 
is  not  forced  to  mortgage  his  fu-  Spaces  add  dignity  and  make  for 
ture  by  buying  on  time.  But  let  restfulness  and  relaxation. 
me  repeat— before  adding  any-  g  DON'T  clutter  up  your 
thing  to  your  home  be  sure  of  its  r00ms  with  ornaments,  pictures 
appropriate  fitness  to  the  whole  and  other  "sentimental  foolish- 
scheme,  ness." 

It  is  a  good  idea  to  make  a  model  9.  DON'T   mix   unrelated   and 
of  your  room.     Take  the  dimen-  inharmonious  articles, 
sions,  scale  them  down  to  one  inch  10.  DON'T    group     all    heavy 
or  one-half  inch  to  a  foot.    Cut  out  furniture  on  one  side  of  room,  or 
of  cardboard,  first  the  floor,  then  an  pieces  of  one  pattern  and  color, 
the  wall  surfaces  with  projections  p]ace  them  in  natural,  usable  but 
(doors,  windows,  fireplace,  etc.),  balanced  groups, 
always  keeping  the  dimensions  of  H.  DON'T  over-decorate.    Mod- 
each  in  proportion  to  the  whole,  eration,  temperance  and  restraint 
Fasten  the  corners  together  with  are  the' watchwords, 
gummed  tape.     With  this  model  12.  DON'T     live    in    a    house 
you  can  experiment  all  you  want.  which  depresses  you.     Change  it. 
Try  out  color  schemes,  make  small  Your  home  is  vour  castle 
models  of  furniture  (to  scale)  and 

try   arranging  them   in   different  TT7R  have  a  lot  of  rules,  but  like 

ways.     In  this  way  you  can  see  VV     the     ieces  of  a  »        w 

your  scheme  in  miniature  before  zle  th      do  not  make  a    icture  un_ 

beginning  work.  n  th       are  fitted  intQ  the  rf  ht 

To  summarize  briefly  some  of  laces     To  hd    -n  the  a  plication 

points  given  in  previous    essons  of  these      ind £       kt  J  consider 

the^  following    dozen    don  ts    are  an  ordin^ry  H£ng  room  . 

&  v      '  The  dimensions  are  15  x  22  feet 

1.  DON'T  forget  that  the  fixed  by  8l/2  feet  high.  The  exposure  is 
background  is  the  point  from  northeast.  The  architectural  feat- 
which  to  begin  your  decoration.  ures  of  the  room  consist  of  a  fire- 
Make  tKc  right  first.  place  on  tne  east  wall  between  two 

2.  DON'T  try  to  make  your  windows.  On  the  north  is  a  bay 
walls  both  decoration  and  back-  window.  On  the  south  wall  near 
ground.  Decide  which,  then  never  the  west  corner  is  an  arched  open- 
waver  from  this  decision.  ing  to  the  hall.    On  the  west  wall, 

3.  DON'T  put  large  articles  in  balancing  the  windows  on  either 
,mall  roms,  nor  have  large  pat-  side  of  the  fireplace  are  two  built- 
:erns  on  the  wallpaper,  rugs  or  in  arched  bookcases.  The  style 
'raperies  used  in  small  rooms.  of  the  house  is  late  Tudor  English, 

4.  DON'T    place    furniture    or  and  therefore  we  will  finish  the 
ugs  diagonally  in  a  room.  room  in  the  English  style  of  the 

5.  DON'T  have  too  much  pat-  late  Tudor  and  Jacobean  type, 
tern  in  a  room.    Never  should  the  Because  of  the  lovely  outlines 


212 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


of  the  furniture,  because  we  want 
to  hang  a  very  lovely  painting, 
and  to  lend  a  quiet  dignified  at- 
mosphere we  will  decide  on  back- 
ground walls-sand-finished  plas- 
ter, painted  deep  cream.  The 
woodwork  will  be  painted  the  same. 
The  floor  is  natural-finish  oak.  The 
exposure  demands  warm  coloring, 
which  is  supplied  in  the  cream  and 
oak,  as  well  as  in  the  red  tones 
which  we  will  use  for  contrast. 
An  analogous  scheme  will  be  fol- 
lowed out,  with  a  complimentary, 
blue-green,  for  accent.  At  the  win- 
dows are  hung  drapes  of  crewel 
embroidery,  reds,  yellow,  orange, 
a  touch  of  green  and  black  on  nat- 
ural tan  ground.  They  are  hung 
from  wooden  poles,  and  hang  to 
the  floor.  The  glass  curtains  are 
of  cream-colored,  heavy  square- 
mesh  net.  Portiers  at  the  arched 
opening  to  the  hall  are  of  deep 
russet-red  velour.  On  the  floor  is 
an  Oriental  rug  with  a  deep  russet 
color  predominating.  Because  of 
the  plain  walls  we  can  use  pattern 
more  freely  elsewdiere.  The  couch 
is  covered  in  tapestry  in  tones  of 
red,  orange  and  rust  on  brown 
background.  One  chair  is  cov- 
ered in  brown  upholsterer's  satin, 
another  in  blocked  linen,  red,  blue, 
brown  and  green  on  tan  back- 
ground. Two  side  chairs  of  Ja- 
cobean style  have  seats  uphol- 
stered in  red  velet.  Two  lamp 
shades  are  of  parchment  and  are 
used  with  wrought  iron  and  pot- 
tery bases.  Another  lamp  shade 
of  apricot-color  pleated  silk  is  used 
with  a  base  of  pale  yellow  luster 
ware.  Copper  accessories  and  fix- 
tures, brass  candlesticks  and 
books  provide  interesting  notes. 
The  complimentary  accents  are  in 
a  blue  cushion  on  the  linen  cov- 
ered chair,  a  blue-green  vase  on 
the  table  and  blue  in  the  oil  paint- 
ing above  the  mantel,  also  some 


blue-green  in  the  wall  hanging. 

To  balance  the  fireplace,  on  the 
Avest  wall  we  will  place  an  oak 
chest,  over  which  we  will  hang  a 
piece  of  brocatelle  in  reds,  aquar- 
mine  blue  and  gold.  On  the  west 
side  of  the  bay  window  we  will 
place  a  desk,  chair  and  lamp.  On 
the  east  side  an  oak  radio  cabinet, 
and  in  front  of  this  an  easy  chair. 
At  right  angles  to  the  fireplace,  at 
one  side  is  the  couch  behind  which 
we  will  set  a  small  refectory-style 
table.  Opposite  the  couch  is  an 
easy  chair,  and  a  table  holding  a 
lamp  and  books.  East  of  the  arch, 
on  the  south  wall  is  the  piano, 
bench  and  lamp.  On  the  mantel 
(the  fireplace  opening  is  lined  with 
dark  brown  brick)  we  might  place 
a  low  clock  and  at  either  side  brass 
candlesticks  with  shields  to  throw 
light  on  the  picture.  Nasturtiums 
in  the  blue  vase  on  the  table  would 
complete  the  room. 

In  this  illustration  we  have  com- 
plied with  all  the  rules,  but  we 
may  remember  that  some  rules 
may  be  broken  on  occasion  in  the 
interests  of  common  sense,  com- 
fort and  convenience.  Mix  prac- 
ticalism,  with  idealism.  Use  com- 
mon sense.  I  once  heard  a  lec- 
turer say  that  the  practice  of  in- 
terior decoration  was  the  exercise 
of  common  sense  in  relationship 
to  applied  art.  This  common 
sense,  however,  must  be  acquired 
by  experience  and  study. 

We  want  our  homes  to  be  lovely 
and  correct,  but  we  do  want  to 
avoid  that  stiff  "done"  or  decorat- 
ed effect,  as  if  one  had  made  chalk 
marks  where  each  piece  of  furni- 
ture was  to  stand.  You  want  to 
have  your  home  liveable,  and 
there  are  three  contributing  fac- 
tors to  this  result :  comfort,  con- 
venience and  beauty.  To  get  a 
lived-in  look  it  must  be  simple. 
Avoid    ornateness    and    ostenta- 


YOUR  HOME  BEAUTIFUL 


213 


tiousness,  remembering  that  sim- 
plicity is  the  keynote  of  good  art. 
Have  everything  placed  as  it 
would  be  when  in  use.  For  ex- 
ample, if  there  is  a  desk,  to  make 
it  usable  there  must  be  a  chair  and 
preferably  a  light  nearby.  Books 
demand  a  comfortable  chair  and  a 
good  lamp.  Do  not  make  it  neces- 
sary for  members  of  the  household 
to  move  things  about  before  they 
can  be  comfortable.  Have  them 
ready  to  be  used  always.  Your 
home  should  beckon  people  to 
come  in  and  impel  them  to  linger. 
Our  aim  is  to  secure  an  environ- 
ment that  contributes  to  physical 
health,  to  mental  and  spiritual 
growth,  to  artistic  happiness — an 
air  of  harmony  and  an  atmosphere 
of  charm  that  will  satisfy  our  finer 
senses.  A  happy  combination  of 
beauty  and  comfort  should  be  the 
goal,  that  it  will  be  a  constant 
source  of  pride  and  satisfaction  to 
those  who  call  it  "Home." 

Before  closing  this  series  I 
should  like  to  mention  again  for 
the  sake  of  emphasis  the  import- 
ance of  personality  in  a  home.  One 
of  the  greatest  charms  of  living  is 
the  privilege  of  expressing  our  in- 
dividual tastes  in  the  way  that 
suits  us  best. 

Houses  without  personality  are 
merely  a  number  of  rooms  with 
furniture  in  them.  Everyone  who 
has  gone  through  model  homes 
will  recognize  this.  While  perfect 
and  exquisite  in  detail  we  feel  they 
lack  something,  there  is  an  empti- 
ness about  them.  They  lack  that 
personal  touch,  that  homey  atmos- 
phere. A  homelike  quality  is  an 
intangible  thing  and  yet  the  most 
vital  of  all  the  essentials  of  a 
good  home.  "A  room  has  person- 
ality when  it  is  so  lived  in  that  it 
appears  to  belong  to  one  person  or 
family."    No  two  homes  should  be 


just  alike  any  more  than  there  are 
two  persons  alike.  There  are  cer- 
tain essentials  of  balance,  propor- 
tion, scale,  harmony,  etc.,  that  all 
must  obey,  but  infuse  in  the  work- 
ing out  of  each  a  part  of  yourself. 

Perhaps  you  think  your  old 
home  is  too  far  behind  the  times 
to  bother  with,  but  still  hate  to 
sell  it  or  cannot  afford  to  build. 
It  is  not  necessary.  Old  homes 
are  the  loveliest.  You  can  preserve 
all  the  priceless  associations,  the 
fine  traditions  of  the  home  you 
love  and  still  bring  into  it  har- 
mony and  beauty  by  redecorating, 
rearranging,  maybe  remodeling, 
for  fortunately  home  charm  does 
not  depend  on  newness  nor  on 
wealth  but  on  the  following  of 
sound  principles  easy  to  learn  and 
practice. 

It  is  said  that  "A  man  may  build 
a  house,  but  only  a  woman  can 
build  a.home."  It  is  to  us  then 
this  happy  task  is  given.  Let  us 
make  the  most  of  this  opportu- 
nity. Home  is  the  world's  great- 
est institution  and  home-making 
the  greatest  business  a  man  and 
woman  can  undertake,  and  any- 
thing that  lends  to  its  success  is 
very  important.  The  beauty  and 
sincerity  of  a  childhood  environ- 
ment has  a  real  and  very  certain 
effect  on  a  man  or  woman. 

It  has  been  my  privilege  and 
pleasure  to  bring  this  message  of 
home  beautification  to  you  with 
the  sincere  hope  that  I  have  con- 
tributed something  to  the  ad- 
vancement of  better  home  build- 
ing. 

Mistakes  are  expensive  in  en- 
ergy, money  and  time.  Build  your 
scheme,  slowly  if  need  be,  but 
build  well  on  a  solid  foundation  of 
right  principles  and  you  Avill  find 
you  have  achieved  "Your  Home 
Beautiful." 


With  the  Rain 

*By  Harrison  R.  Merrill 

Dear  Love,  when  April  comes  again  this  spring 

And  lilac  blossoms  droop  in  weeping  showers 
Where  lonely  robins  flit  about  and  bring 

Back  memories  of  dear,  lost  hours 
When  our  young  loves  were  stirred — awakening — 

Twin  blossoms  sweeter  far  than  perfumed  flozvers- 
Sweet  songs  far  lovlier  than  birds  can  sing — 

A  melody  made  deep  by  all  our  powers — 

I'll  seek  you  where  the  old  fence  meets  the  stile 
Beneath  the  catkined  alders  by  the  stream 

Where  in  other  days  I've  thrilled  at  your  sweet  smile 
And  in  the  dusk  have  seen  your  dear  face  gleam. 

I'll  tremble  then  at  all  the  old  sweet  pain— 
My  pent  up  tears  will  mingle  with  the  rain, 


We  Need  a  Garden 


By  Aft  on  Free  Bawd 


TIMES  like  these  we  need  a 
garden.  I  don't  entirely 
mean  a  practical  need,  al- 
though a  neat  little  vegetable  gar- 
den might  be  a  splendid  help  dur- 
ing a  time  of  forced  holidays  and 
cut  budgets ;  but  there  is  a  human 
need,  also.  Did  you  ever  realize 
that?  Of  course  all  garden  fans 
soon  learn  what  a  garden  can  do  to 
strengthen  them,  not  only  physic- 
ally but  spiritually  as  well.  Gar- 
dens are  real  soul  builders. 

It  is  said  that  the  Japanese  peo- 
ple have  realized  this  fact  and 
made  better  use  of  this  knowledge, 
than  any  other  race.  Most  every 
traveler  will  agree  that  the  out- 
standing impression  of  Japan  is 
"Gardens".  There,  they  consider 
a  garden  a  natural  necessity,  and, 
it  is  said,  they  respect  them  and 
make  daily  use  of  them  much  as 
they  do  their  temples.  One  Japan- 
ese, speaking  of  his  flower  garden, 
said  this:  "I  come  here  daily  for 
a  quiet  hour.  I  look  into  my  gar- 
den and  become  one  with,  Nature, 
as  it  were;  for  long  ago  my 
garden  and  I  became  bosom 
friends.  There  is  something  in 
its  quiet  beauty,  its  simple  and 
natural  purity,  its  fulfilling  of  a 
plan  and  purpose,  in  its  perfect 
growth,  in  its  tranquility.  All  the 
virtues  I  cannot  find  elsewhere  or 
in  human  companionship,  my  gar- 
den gives  me.  I  come  here  to  solve 
all  my  problems." 

A  simple  little  garden — a  few 
flowering  shrubs,  a  pool,  plants 
covered  with  colorful  bloom,  a 
smooth  green  lawn — can  do  these 
things  for  you  and  me. 

Gardens  can  do  other  wonder- 


ful things  for  us,  also.  They  bring 
us  friends.  Many  people  who 
otherwise  would  feel  they  had  not 
time  to  visit  us  so  often  will  come 
to  see  our  garden,  and  soon  be- 
come fast  friends.  Strange  as  it 
may  seem,  after  moving  into  a 
new  neighborhood,  I  lived  for 
many  months  without  even  know- 
ing the  names  of  my  immediate 
neighbors.  Of  course,  when  we 
happened  to  meet  entering  or 
leaving  our  homes  we  greeted 
each  other  with  a  nod,  but  it  was 
not  until  spring,  when  I  went  out 
into  my  garden  to  see  what  havoc 
the  late  frosts  had  done,  that  I 
looked  up  to  see  several  smiling 
faces  on  the  other  side  of  the 
fence.  Within  half  an  hour  we 
were  digging  and  chatting  side  by 
side.  A  few  little  frost-bitten 
plants  had  done  what  months  of 
courteous  greetings  could  not  do. 

There  is  one  little  woman  who 
comes  to  the  spring  in  my  garden 
for  water.  She  usually  sits  down 
on  one  of  the  large  rocks  and 
quietly  rests  for  awhile.  One  day 
1  walked  down  to  speak  to  her. 
She  looked  up  and  smiled.  "I  hope 
you  don't  mind  my  sitting  here," 
she  said.  "When  the  cares  and 
anxieties  of  my  home  and  family 
become  almost  too  much  for  me, 
I  use  the  spring-water  as  an  ex- 
cuse and  walk  over  here.  There 
is  something  about  a  natural  little 
garden  like  this,  that  has  a  restful, 
soothing  influence  over  me." 

If  these  things  are  true,  during 
these  times  of  hurry  and  scurry, 
of  anxiety  and  care,  we  all  need 
a  garden,  that  tranquility  may  not 
be  a  stranger  within  our  hearts, 


"Believest  Thou  This?" 


By  Helen  Hinckley 


READING  out  loud  when  one 
was  trying  to  do  something 
else,  or  think  One's  own 
thoughts,  was  an  annoying  habit  of 
Father's  In  his  prosperous  days  he 
had  read  the  newspaper  in  a  heavy 
boisterous  voice.  "This  is  funny — 
well — well — "  and  then  he  would 
launch  into  an  article  which  every 
member  of  the  family  had  previously 
read.  His  dark  head  would  nod  vig- 
orously in  punctuation,  and  at  times 
he  would  laugh  heartily  at  something 
which  seemed  very  dull  to  the  chil- 
dren. 

Since  Mother's  death  and  the 
boy's  marriages  Father  had  lost  his 
grip  on  life.  His  business  had  drift- 
ed away  to  younger  men.  Fie  some- 
times imagined  that  the  boy's  babies 
were  his  own  and  that  he  had  gone 
back  fifty  years.  Elizabeth,  his  only 
daughter,  now  veil  past  thirty, 
seemed  as  she  moved  about  the 
house,  to  be  the  "Lizzie"  of  his 
young  life. 

In  this  world  of  dreams  the  news- 
paper had  no  place.  He  still  read 
aloud,  but  every  day  literature  was 
replaced  by  the  Bible.  Hour  after 
hour  he  droned  on  in  his  querulous 
voice.  "Ever  think  of  this,  Lizzie?" 
and  he  would  read  whole  pages  from 
the  Psalms,  or  the  New  Testament 
or  the  Epistles.  His  gray  head 
would  nod  over  the  pages  and  when 
the  muscles  of  his  wizened  hand  bad 
relaxed  she  would  take  the  book 
from  him,  and  place  it  on  the  table 
near  his  chair. 

She  often  felt  then  as  if  she  would 
like  to  hide  it.  When  one  lost  one's 
job  through  no  fault,  and  was  forced 
to  putter  about  the  house  all  day,  the 


Bible  did  not  seem  like  suitable  read- 
ing. One  has  time,  under  such  con- 
ditions, to  worry  about  diminishing 
fuel,  leaking  roofs,  and  closed  banks. 
Father  was  Elizabeth's  child,  and  the 
responsibility  weighed  heavily  upon 
her  shoulders.  His  Bible  reading 
seemed  to  her  to  symbolize  his  slip- 
ping grip  on  realities,  and  the  dole- 
ful passages  which  prophesied  the 
end  of  the  world  came  to  be  a  refrain 
she  could  not  banish  from  her  mind. 
The  constant  flow  almost  maddened 
her,  yet  she  discovered  that  she  was 
beginning  to  agree  with  the  old  man, 
in  expecting  the  "last  days." 

At  such  times  she  would  shake 
herself  vigorously  and  go  for  a 
stroll  in  the  silent  streets.  She 
would  return,  with  mind  quiet,  to 
the  fussy  demands  of  Father,  to  the 
worry  about  bread,  butter  and  fuel, 
and  the  incessant  flow  of  the  quaver- 
ing old  voice,  mouthing  the  phrases 
of  the  Holy  Book. 

A  PRIL  came  with  none  of  its 
promise.  The  birds  refused  to 
sing  in  t'a^  chilly  mornings.  Even 
on  sunshiny  days  the  garden  was  wet 
under  foot  and  Father  could  not  be 
allowed  out.  Snow  and  drizzling 
rain  necessitated  a  fire  in  the  kitchen 
range  and  one  in  the  base  burner. 
To  Elizabeth,  who  had  been  uncon- 
sciously looking  forward  to  the 
change  .of  season,  the  weather  seem- 
ed an  added  leaden  burden. 

She  came  in  one  evening  after  a 
walk  in  the  rain.  "Who  needs  an 
Easter  bonnet,  anyway  ?"  she  called 
gaily  as  she  shook  the  drops  from 
her  crocheted  tarn.  But  Father  did 
not  hear  her — he  was  reading.    She 


"BELIEVE  THOU  THIS? 


217 


dropped  her  tone  of  gayety  as  she 
dropped  her  frayed  sweater.  What 
was  the  use?  What  was  the  use  of 
anything?  And  now  came  the  old 
voice  wheezing  through  the  house — 

"That  you,  Lizzie?"  And  then, 
"How's  this?  'Jesus  said  unto  her. 
I  am  the  resurrection  and  the  life : 
he  that  believeth  on  me,  though  he 
were  dead,  yet  shall  he  live : 

"And  whosoever  liveth  and  be- 
HeA^eth  in  me  shall  never  die/  And 
then  He  asked  Marv,  'Believest  thou 
this  ?'  ,J 

"You  believe  it,  don't  you  Fa- 
ther?" Elizabeth  enquired  half  heart- 
edly. 

"I  do,"  Father  answered,  closing 
his  eyes  with  a  look  of  content. 

Elizabeth  went  into  the  hall  to 
hang  her  wraps.  Father's  voice  was 
quiet.  He  was  lost  in  thought,  or 
dozing  in  the  warmth  of  the  stove, 
yet  strangely  the  words  continued  in 
her  ears,  "And  whosoever  ln^eth  and 
believeth  in  me  shall  never  die."  It 
was  Easter  tomorrow,  and  of  course 
the  Bible  was  talking  about  the 
bringing  forth  of  Lazarus,  and  yet 
wasn't  there  something  else  in  that 
promise  ?  Did  Christ  mean  that  her 
mind  should  die  in  this  treadmill  of 
anxiety,  that  her  body  should  be 
brought  to  death  by  hunger  and 
Want,  that  her  soul  should  perish 
in  the  shame  of  the  begging  and  the 
receiving  of  alms  ? 

"And  whosoever  liveth  and  be- 
lieveth on  me — " 

Hurriedly  she  seized  her  sweater 


and  cap  and  crossing  the  side  lot 
confronted  a  surprised  neighbor. 

"You  know  those  bird  nest  cakes 
with  the  candy  eggs  I  made  for  my 
brother's  children?  You  admired 
them  and  said  that  you  wished  you 
had  time  to  make  some  for  Nada's 
birthday  party  Monday.  *  *  *  *  T 
could  make  some  for  you  tonight." 

"You  could !"  The  neighbor  was 
genuinely  delighted.  "Of  course  I'd 
expect  to  pay  you  for  them." 

"Well,  I  kind  o'  hate  to  take 
money  for  a  neighborly  act — "  Eliza- 
beth faltered  for  a  moment,  "But 
you  see — "  and  her  lips  straightened, 
"since  I'm  not  at  the  office  any  more 
I  figured  I'd  go  into  the  pastry  busi- 
ness." 

"That's  fine!  I'll—,"  but  Eliza- 
beth was  already  hurrying  toward 
the  store  to  lay  in  a  meager  supply 
of  pastry  necessities. 

In  a  few  minutes  she  entered  the 
kitchen,  the  brown  packages  tucked 
under  her  arm.  The  slam  of  the 
door  seemed  to  awaken  Father.  In 
a  moment  he  began  reading. 

"  'Jesus  said  unto  her :  I  am  the 
resurrection  and  the  life  :  he  that  be- 
lieveth on  me,  though  he  were  dead, 
yet  shall  he  live : 

"And  whosoever  liveth  and  be- 
lieveth on  me  shall  never  die."  Sort 
of  gives  you  courage,  doesn't  it 
Lizzie?" 

Elizabeth,  laying  her  supplies  out 
on  the  kitchen  table,  pulled  her  sag- 
ging lips  into  a  determined  line.  "It 
surelv  does,  Father!" 


My  Pick-pocket 

(A  Household  Hint) 
By  Virginia  B.  Jacobs  en 


WHERE'S  my  pencil?"  wail- 
ed Nancy  as  she  made  a 
frantic  search  the  last  min- 
ute before  leaving  for  school. 

"I  can't  find  my  history  book," 
called  Bob  from  the  library. 

"Mother!"  demanded  father 
from  the  top  of  the  stairs,  "Have 
you  seen  my  keys  to  the  car?" 

"No!  Take  mine,  they  are  in 
my  purse  in  my  top  drawer." 

"Mother,  I  can't  find  my  shoe," 
wailed  six  year  old  Jean. 

"Wear  your  new  shoes.  It  is 
too  late  to  hunt  for  the  old  ones 
now." 

After  the  door  had  closed  be- 
hind the  last  departing  member 
of  my  adorable  but  thoughtless 
family,  I  sank  down  for  a  short 
respite  before  attacking  the 
morning  pick-up.  I  could  not  help 
smiling  as  I  looked  about  my  at- 
tractive but  untidy  living-room. 
There  was  Jean's  shoe  surreptiti- 
ously peeking  out  from  beneath 
the  davenport.  It  almost  seemed 
to  grin  at  me  as  I  spied  it  in  its 
hiding  place.  And  there  were 
Tom's  keys  in  plain  sight  on  the 
mantle  with  his  reading  glasses. 
Here  was  Bob's  history  book 
tucked  down  in  the  side  of  the 
very  chair  in  which  I  sat.  Delv- 
ing deeper  I  retrieved  my  thimble 
and  a  spool  of  thread,  and  from 
still  deeper  down  I  brought  to 
light  Jean's  long  lost  ring  and  a 
shiny  dime. 

Gathering  the  booty  from  my 
treasure  hunt,  I  placed  it  on  the 
stairs  to  await  my  next  ascent. 
No  use  in  making  any  more  trips 
upstairs  than  necessary.  Then 
the  telephone  called  me  away  fgr 


ten  minutes.  But  while  I  was 
gone,  Tim — age  two — discovered 
my  cache  and  had  ample  time  to 
scatter  it  from  front  door  to  back. 

That  settled  the  question  of 
going  up  stairs.  I  gathered  every- 
thing up  again  and  made  the 
rounds  of  the  bedrooms,  deposit- 
ing each  article  in  its  proper  place. 

As  I  cleaned  each  room  a  sim- 
ilar array  of  misplaced  belong- 
ings grinned  at  me  from  chairs, 
tables  and  floor.  Four  times  that 
morning  I  chased  upstairs  put- 
ting things  away.  I  decided  that 
something  must  be  done  about  it. 
Here,  on  this  very  busy  morning 
I  had  spent  no  less  than  forty 
minutes  of  my  precious  time  pick- 
ing-up  and  putting-away.  That 
was  too  much  time  wasted  for  my 
well  regulated  home. 

T  decided  to  stage  a  quiet  rebel- 
lion. 
That  afternoon,  I  took  a  pretty 
piece  of  creton  and  cut  out  a  tie- 
on  apron  with  a  huge  pocket 
across  the  front  of  the  entire 
apron.  That  evening  at  dinner  I 
announced  that  I  had  a  surprise 
for  them  all.  Excitement  ran  high 
as  I  left  the  dining-room  and  re- 
turned wearing  my  unusual  apron. 

"Mother,  what  is  it?  What  is  it 
for?"  demanded  my  surprised  fam- 
ily. 

"This  is  my  Pick-pocket,"  I  an- 
nounced. "Everything  I  find 
around  the  house  out  of  its  proper 
place  will  go  in  here.  When  I  am 
through  cleaning,  each  day,  I  will 
make  the  rounds  of  the  house  and 
put  things  where  they  belong — 
EXCEPT—"  I  paused  for  effect, 


MY  PICK-POCKET  219 

and  all  eyes  and  ears  were  atten-  piece  which  we  need.  Is  there  any 
tion.  ''Articles  which  I  feel  have  question  on  the  matter?"  I  fin- 
been  left  in  carelessness  and  neg-  ished  smiling. 

lect  will  remain  in  the  pocket  un-  The  next  morning  I  could  not 

til  the  owner  has  paid  a  fine.   The  help  chuckling  at  the  scarcity  of 

fine  will  depend  upon  the  negli-  personal  belongings  out  of  place, 

gence  in  the  case  and  the  size  of  Not  one  penny  in  fines  could  I  im- 

the  allowance  of  the  offender.     If  pose.  Of  course,  after  a  week  their 

the  owner  of  the  imprisoned  ar-  vigilance  lessened,  but  a  small  fine 

tide  chooses  he  may  pay  the  fine  justly  asked  and  cheerfully  paid 

by  doing  some  task  which  is  not  was  all  the  reminder  that  was  usu- 

already  his  assigned  duty.     The  ally  necessary  for  another  week, 

money     accumulating    from     the  And  so,  the  Pick-pocket  has  come 

fines    shall    be    used  to    replace  to   be   a   regular   member   of  our 

broken  dishes  or  to  buy  some  new  family. 


My  Picture  of  Life 

By  Thomas  Cottam  Romney 

T  LIKE  to  think  of  life  as  continu-  to  the  regions  of  an  unknown  sea. 

ous  like  a  stream  of  water,  deep-  The    dashing,     rolicking     stream 

ening  and   broadening   as   it   goes,  might  furnish  sport  for  the  adven- 

Youth  is  represented  by  the  stream  turous  angler  but  the  great  quarries 

at  its  source  where  the  water  ex-  of  delicious  trout  are  to  be  found  in 

presses  itself  in  its  varying  moods,  the   deeper   depths    of   the    stream. 

Now  it  gurgles,  now  it  moans  and  Similarly,  the  prospector  dredging 

then  it  bursts  forth  into  a  boisterous  f°r  gold  might  enhance  his  values 

roar  as  it  dashes  and  splashes  against  slightly  from  the  rocky  bottom  of 

the  boulders  and  rockribbed  banks  the# swift  on-rushing  torrent  but  the 

that  seek  to  keep  it  confined  within  ™aJor  df?°fs  *™  *>  ^  found  in 

legitimate  bounds.    Then  come  mo-  the   sands   deeply  laid   beneath  the 

,       r      t         i        -,      „  r :  surface  of  the  water. 

ments  of  calm  when  its  surface  is  ^«        -  .       ..,_,,  rr       ,-r, 

m  A        ,  ,i  ,  .     i  Thus  it  is  with  human  lite,     lne 

unru rrled  and  the  only  noise  to  be  -     ,,        z  .  ,. 

,        ,  .         ,.         ■     r  i  greater   depths   of   human   emotion 

heard  is  a  tiny  rippling  sound  re-  &    ,  ,.t  ,      •  ,  .  ..    .     r 

.  ,.  r  xi  i.1  i-  .  and  life  s  richer  meanings  are  to  be 
minding  one  of  the  gentle  but  pro-  f ^  aftern00n  ^d  evening 
longed  laugnter  of  a  college  girl.  of  Efc  when  ^  hustle  and  bustk 
Maturity  is  symbolized  m  the  ever  of  h  haye  iyen  kce  tQ  a  irk 
deepening  channel  where  the  water  of  ^  Jt  ^  then  when  the  mdo_ 
has  relatively  ceased  its  boisterous  dieg  and  harmonies  of  life  are  ex- 
moods  and  moves  forward  m  grace-  pressed  in  their  deepest  and  richest 
ful  sweeps  with  now  and  then  a  tones  and  when  the  materials  of  life's 
splash,  and  an  eddy,  as  some  ob-  experiences  are  woven  into  a  beauti- 
struction  obtrudes  itself  to  prevent  ful  pattern  wn0se  colors  are  deep 
its  forward  progress.  Old  age  is  and  whose  texture  has  become  firm 
reached  almost  unobserved  except  through  the  passing  of  time.  Youth, 
for  the  growing  depth  of  the  water  maturity  and  age  are  thus  blended 
Which  now  has  slackened  its  speed  into  one  grand  symphony  of  color, 
and  a  deeper  silence  broods  over  its  sound  and  pattern  with  a  peaceful 
surface,  thus  heralcjing  its  approach  benediction  over  all. 


How  to^Choose  a  Birthplace 

By  H.  E.  Klein schmidt,  M.D.y  Director,  Health  Education,  National 

Tuberculosis  Association 


1AM  a  baby  about  to  be  born. 
My  shipping  tag  reads, 
'Somewhere  in  U.  S.  A./ 
which  pleases  me,  for  there  the 
fields  are  green,  the  people  alert, 
and  progress  marches  on.  But 
in  what  city,  town  or  hamlet  shall 
I  be  born?  It  makes  a  difference. 
Life  is  safer  in  some  places  than 
in  others. 

"If  I  die  as  a  baby,  I  shall  not 
taste  life.  Adolescenceisfreshwith 
promise ;  shall  the  tingle  of  youth 
be  made  bitter  by  sickness  or 
death  ?  When  I  am  an  adult,  en- 
joying the  sense  of  mastery  and 
with  children  of  my  own — surely, 
to  be  interrupted  then  would  be 
cruel.  When  middle  age  drops  the 
fruits  of  toil  into  my  lap,  that  is 
not  the  time  to  be  snatched  away 
by  some  needless  disease,  is  it? 
Not  until  the  mellow  years  fade 
into  a  restful  twilight  shall  I  have 
tasted  life  to  the  full." 

So  siDoke  the  unborn  babv.  He 
wrinkled  his  funny  little  brow  and 
went  on:  "I  am  told,  too,  that 
length  of  years  alone  does  not 
bring  out  the  satisfying  flavor  of 
life.  I  don't  want  to  be  handi- 
capped, held  down,  or  intimidated 
by  disease.  My  wings  of  ambition 
must  not  be  clipped  by  some  vig- 
or-sapping defect  that  might  have 
been  avoided  or  corrected  in 
youth.  Give  me  life  abundantly; 
the  kind  that  is  measured  in  length 
by  a  full  calendar  and  in  breadth 
by  a  glorious  vigor." 

The  Baby  Sizes  Us  Up 

"I  am  told  that  the  hazards  of 
entering  some  parts  of  the  United 
States  as  a  new  baby  are  consider- 


able. For  instance,  last  year  in 
one  city  12  out  of  each  1,000  babies 
died,  while  in  another  only  3  out 
of  1,000  died.  You  see  how  import- 
ant it  is  to  select  my  birth  place. 
Who  is  going  to  see  to  it  that  my 
mother  is  capable  of  bearing  a 
healthy  baby?  Who  is  going  to 
advise  my  mother  how  to  nourish 
me  while  I  develop  into  a  baby  so 
that  my  teeth,  bones,  muscles  and 
nerves  will  not  be  starved  of  some 
essential  element  when  I  am  born  ? 
Whose  watchful  care  will  assure 
me  that  I  shall  not  suffer  a  brain 
injury  when  I  am  born  and  be- 
come a  blithering  idiot  the  rest  of 
my  life  ?" 

The  unborn  baby  might  ask 
many  more  pertinent  questions 
about  what  is  being  done  to  lessen 
the  health  risks  of  infancy,  such 
as  summer  diarrhea,  which  claims 
about  7  out  of  every  1,000  births 
annually,  the  contagious  diseases, 
such  as  diphtheria,  measles,  scar- 
let fever,  and  the  deforming  ef- 
fects of  unwise  nutrition.  Look- 
ing ahead  to  adolescence  and  early 
adult  life,  he  might  inquire  as  to 
the  safeguards  the  community 
provides  against  tuberculosis, 
syphilis  and  other  infections.  He 
would  investigate  to  learn  if  all 
that  is  possible  is  being  done  to 
prevent  heart  disease,  kidney  de- 
generation, malaria,  typhoid,  and 
other  disorders  common  in  middle 
age,  to  say  nothing  of  scores  of 
physical  handicaps  which  can  be 
decreased  by  intelligent  and 
prompt  action. 

A  Storehouse  of  Health 

Medical  science  has  made  s^reat- 


HOW  TO  CHOOSE  A  BIRTHPLACE 


221 


er  strides  in  the  past  25  years  than 
ever  before  in  the  world's  history. 
The  storehouse  of  health-conserv- 
ing knowledge  is  vast.  But  it  is 
useless  unless  it  is  put  within 
reach  of  all.  The  business  of 
public  health  is  to  bring  this 
knowledge  to  the  people.  It  has 
grown  to  be  a  specialty.  The  time 
has  passed  when  an  enlightened 
community  may  safely  leave 
health  protection  to  the  mercy  of 
politics. 

To  obtain  the  benefits  offered 
by  science  today,  and  to  prevent 
disease,  it  is  necessary  to  act  as 
an  organized  group.  Typhoid  fe- 
ver, for  example,  is  spread  chiefly 
by  polluted  waiter  and  unclean 
milk  supplies.  Organized  as  we 
are,  one  family  alone  could  hardly 
protect  itself  from  this  disease, 
but  the  entire  community,  plan- 
ning together,  does  this  very  ef- 
fectively. Moreover,  disease  germs 
recognize  no  boundary  lines  en- 
closing towns  and  villages ;  the 
area  of  disease  control  must  be  a 
Avide  one — state  and  nation-wide. 

To  carry  out  up-to-date  meas- 
ures requires  a  few  specialists  who 
know  what  is  in  the  storehouse  of 
knowledge,  such  as  a  trained 
health  officer,  public  health  nurs- 
es, a  laboratory  technician,  some- 


one trained  in  educational  meth- 
ods, and  various  others  versed  in 
the  particular  branches  of  public 
health  science. 

The  days  of  the  one-horse  bug- 
gy have  passed.  No  longer  are 
roads  maintained  by  villages, 
towns  and  individual  farmers.  All 
of  our  social  interests  are  broad- 
ening. The  obsolete  system  of 
public  health,  which  consisted 
chiefly  of  emergency  control  of 
epidemics  by  well-meaning  but  in- 
adequately equipped  local  officers, 
must  give  way  to  the  modern,  cen- 
tralized supervision  of  health  pro- 
motion and  disease  prevention. 

Health  is  Purchasable 

What  will  it  cost  ?  With  the  old 
system,  the  cost  of  health  pro- 
tection averages,  in  most  commu- 
nities, less  than  a  cent  per  week, 
per  person.  A  modern  health  de- 
partment can  be  maintained  for 
about  $2.00  per  capita,  per  year. 
Schools  cost  about  eight  times  as 
much  and  public  roads  even  more. 

"Yes,"  said  the  canny  little 
rascal  still  in  the  Nowhere — "I'd 
like  to  alight  in  a  county  or  city  in 
which  there  is  a  sound  health  de- 
partment." Would  he  choose  your 
town  ? 


Beloved 

By  Weston  N.  Nordgren 

Your  dark  eyes  draw  me,  dearest      Oh  glorious  bud  of  womanhood, 

Just  bursting  into  flower — 
I  love  to  feel  your'  every  mood — 
To  see  you  every  hour ! 


girl- 


Your  lips  invite  me  near ! 
Your  even  teeth  of  whitest;  pearl 
Are  dazzling  and  clear ! 

Your    flashing    smile    enraptures 
me ! 

You're  full  of  joy  and  fun! 
I  thrill  whene'er  I  think  oi"  the 

Proud  beauty  I  have  won ! 


To  see  your  dark  eyelashes  close — 
To  watch  your  dimpling  chin — 

No  slimmer  hands  are  there  than 
those 
You  cup  your  young  face  in ! 


Rickets — a  Deficiency  Disease 

£3/  Lucy  Rose  Middleton 


RICKETS  is  a  disease  of  infants 
characterized  by  impaired  nu- 
trition of  the  entire  body  and 
alteration  in  the  growing  bones.  It 
is  a  disease  of  the  first  and  second 
years  of  life,  rarely  beginning  before 
the  sixth  month.  It  comes  on  insid- 
iously about  the  time  the  child  is 
cutting  teeth  and  before  it  begins 
to  walk.  The  condition  exists  before 
it  can  be  recognized  and  if  the  dis- 
ease is  mild  the  symptoms  are  often 
overlooked.  There  are,  however, 
several  very  striking  manifestations 
in  most  instances. 

The  normal  process  of  dentition 
is  much  disturbed  and  late  teething 
is  a  marked  feature.  The  teeth  may 
be  small  and  badly  formed.  The 
bones  of  the  arms  and  legs  show 
signs  of  under-development.  Often 
they  are  bowed  from  the  weight  of 
the  child  in  creeping  and  walking. 
The  fontanelles,  or,  in  other  words, 
the  soft  spots,  are  slow  in  closing. 
There  are  changes  in  the  ribs.  At 
the  end  of  each  rib  a  lumpy  enlarge- 
ment may  be  distinctly  seen,  and 
easily  made  out  by  touch. 

These  changes  proceed  slowly  and 
the  general  symptoms  are  in  propor- 
tion to  their  extent.  The  child  may 
become  emaciated  or,  if  fat,  will 
look  pasty  and  flabby.  Often  ner- 
vousness, irritability,  and  sleepless- 
ness are  conspicuous.  There  is  fre- 
quently a  very  bad  posture,  large, 
protruding  abdomen,  rounded  shoul- 
ders, and  evidence  of  a  misshapen 
spine. 

Children  who  sutler  from  rickets 
are  more  prone  to  develop  respira- 
tory diseases,  such  as  colds,  bron- 
chitis, pneumonia,  and  even  tuber- 
culosis. 


Rickets  is  a  very  widespread  dis- 
ease. It  exists  in  practically  all 
colder  climates.  It  is  most  prevalent 
in  large,  over-populated  cities,  and 
particularly  marked  among  the  less 
well-to-do  who  are  improperly 
housed  and  under-nourished.  There 
are  relatively  few  r:ases  in  rural  com- 
munities. This  fact  suggests  the 
most  important  factor  in  the  treat- 
ment and  prevention  of  rickets.  This 
factor  is  sunshine,  or  its  substitute 
in  the  form  of  artificially  produced 
ultra-violet  rays.  If  the  uncovered 
skin  is  amply  exposed  to  the  sun  or 
to  ultra-violet  rays,  rickets  does  not 
occur  and  rickety  children  rapidly 
improve.  These  rays  are  not  effec- 
tive through  window  glass.  Direct 
exposure  must  be  given. 

It  is  well  known  that  negroes  and 
other  dark-skinned  people  living  in 
the  temporate  regions  are  more 
prone  to  rickets  than  the  white  race. 
When  they  are  treated,  negroes  show 
less  improvement  and  require  cor- 
respondingly larger  doses  of  sun- 
light to  get  beneficial  results.  The 
pigment  of  their  skin  is  resistant  to 
the  sun.  Rickets  is  pactically  un- 
known in  the  tropics  where  the  sun 
rays  are  intense  and  people  live  out- 
of-doors. 

Another  important  preventative 
and  curative  agent  is  cod  liver  oil. 
It  is  a  curious  fact  that  two  such 
dissimilar  things  as  sunlight  and  fish 
oil  should  be  useful  for  the  same 
purpose.  Cod  liver  oil  contains 
Vitamin  D,  the  rickets-preventing 
vitamin.  This  substance  is  of  great 
importance  to  the  general  growth 
and  development  of  the  body.  It 
regulates  the  utilization  of  two  most 
valuable,     bone-building     materials, 


RICKETS— A  DEFICIENCY  DISEASE 


223 


calcium  and  phosphorus.  In  addition 
to  cod  liver  oil,  butter,  egg  yolk, 
and  whole  milk  are  our  best  food 
sources  of  this  vitamin.  Recently 
halibut  liver  oil  has  been  found  as 
effective  as  cod  liver  oil. 

Care  must  be  taken  to  protect  all 


babies  and  small  children  from 
rickets.  Cod  liver  oil  should  be  given 
regularly  in  ample  amounts,  at  least 
during  the  colder  months  of  the  year. 
In  the  warm  season,  sun  baths 
should  be  a  part  of  the  daily  routine. 


RECIPIES 


Corn  Omelet 


4  eggs 

4  tablespoons  milk 

1  cup  corn 

2  tablespoons  butter 
¥2  teaspoon  salt 
Pepper 

Beat  eggs  slightly,  just  enough  to 
blend  yolks  and  whites,  add  milk, 
corn,  and  seasoning.  Put  butter  in 
frying  pan,  and  when  melted  turn 
in  mixture.  WHien  it  cooks,  lift  with 
spatula,  letting  uncooked  part  run 
underneath  until  all  is  creamy  con- 
sistency. Increase  heat  that  it  may 
quickly  brown  underneath.  Fold 
and  turn  on  hot  platter.  Garnish 
with  parsley  and  serve  with  crisp 
bacon. 

Finnan  Haddie  a  la  King 

1  tablespoon  butter 
y%  cup  mushrooms 
14  green  pepper 

1  tablespoon  flour 
%  teaspoon  salt 

2  cups  rich  milk 

1  cup  finnan  haddie 

2  tablespoons  butter 


2  egg  yolks 

*,4  teaspoon  chopped  onion 

Melt  tablespoon  of  butter,  in  it 
cook  the  mushrooms,  peeled  and 
broken  in  pieces,  and  green  pepper, 
chopped  fine.  Cook  and  stir  five  min- 
utes ;  add  flour  and  salt  and  stir  until 
well  blended.  Add  milk  and  stir 
until  sauce  boils.  Set  over  hot  water, 
add  finnan  haddie,  cut  into  pieces, 
cover  and  let  stand  to  become  hot. 
Cream  two  tablespoons  butter,  beat 
in  yolks  of  two  eggs,  then  add  onion 
juice  and  pepper.  Add  to  the  first 
mixture  and  stir  until  egg  is  set. 
Serve  in  sections  of  hot  baked  potato 

Fresh  Pieplant  Pie 

1  cup  sugar 

%  cup  quick-cooking  tapioca 

3  cups  rhubarb,  cut  in  one-half  inch 

lengths 
Plain  pastry 

Mix  sugar,  rhubarb,  and  tapioca 
well  together  and  put  into  pie  dish 
lined  with  uncooked  pastry.  Place 
pastry  strips  across  the  top,  pressing 
them  securely  to  the  edges  which 
have  been  moistened  with  cold  water. 
Place  extra  strip  around  the  edges. 


Dumb 

By  Annie  Pike  Greenwood 

Have  all  birds  voices  in  this  happy  spring, 
Or  is  there  one,  like  me,  who  cannot  sing? 

Who  listens,  dumbly,  for  that  last  behest 
When  God  shall  make  us  vocal  like  the  rest? 


Looking  Back  Over  the  Years 

By  Sarah  M.  McLelland 


IN  looking  back  over  the  years  I 
have  been  privileged  to  be  in  the 
service  of  the  Master,  I  recog- 
nize and  try  to  appreciate  the  many 
blessings  I  have  received  from  His 
Spirit,  that  has  been  my  constant 
guide  while  in  his  service. 

Foremost  among  the  blessings  I 
have  received  are  the  friendships 
formed  through  the  association  in 
the  homes  of  the  representative 
people  of  the  Church.  In  thinking 
of  their  hospitality  and  appreciation 
of  our  efforts  to  help  them,  I  am 
reminded  of  the  words  of  Oliver 
Goldsmith, 

"111  fares  the  land  to  hastening  ills 

a  prey 
Where  wealth  accumulates  and  men 

decay. 
Princes  and  Lords  may  perish  or 

may  fade, 
A  breath  can  make  them,  as  a  breath 

has  made, 
But      a      bold      peasantry,      their 

country's  pride 
When  once  destroyed  can  never  be 

supplied." 

The  President  of  one  of  our 
Stakes  said  the  Relief  Society  was 
to  the  Church  what  the  mother  was 
to  the  home. 

Many  of  those  who  travel  in  the 
interest  of  the  Church  have  varied 
experiences.  During  the  first  years 
I  kept  a  record  of  my  travels  I  had 
many  interesting  and  thrilling  ad- 
ventures travelling  on  the  railroad 
also  on  stages  that  carried  the  mail 
and  occasionally  in  farmer's  wagons. 


TN  1911  the  day  before  Thanks- 
giving, my  companion  and  I  were 
travelling  in  northern  Arizona.  We 
left  St.  Johns  at  five  a.  m.  to  attend 
conference  in  Snowflake,  a  distance 
of  about  fifty  miles.  The  thermome- 
ter was  below  zero.  Arriving  at 
Concho,  a  small  Mexican  village, 
about  ten  a.  m.,  one  of  our  horses 
became  sick.  Our  driver,  a  young- 
boy,  tried  to  get  a  horse  but  failed. 
We  drove  on  slowly  to  Rock  Point, 
made  a  fire  and  ate  our  lunch.  After 
resting,  the  horse  seemed  better.  We 
drove  for  a  few  miles,  when  the 
horse  fell  down,  refusing  to  move. 
The  day  was  fairly  well  spent.  We 
were  anxious  to  move  on,  as  we  were 
not  prepared  to  spend  the  night 
camping  out,  having  neither  bedding 
nor  food.  Our  driver  suggested  that 
he  ride  the  well  horse  to  Snowflake, 
but  we  would  not  consent  to  this. 

After  a  time  the  horse  recovered, 
and  we  moved  on,  but  alas  took  the 
wrong  road.  Fortunately  my  com- 
panion had  a  compass,  and  we  dis- 
covered we  were  going  due  east  in- 
stead of  north.  We  at  last  got  on 
the  main  road  about  midnight.  We 
heard  the  rumbling  of  wheels.  Our 
rescuers  had  arrived,  and  we  were 
thankful. 

On  a  trip  to  Canada  and  Wyoming 
in  August  1911,  we  were  met  at  the 
station  in  Cardston  by  members  of 
the  Relief  Society  prepared  with 
umbrellas,  as  it  was  raining.  It  con- 
tinued to  rain  a  steady  down  pour 
for  five  days.  We  decided  Canada 
was  wet.  Meetings  were  held  as 
scheduled  and  well  attended.  One 
Sister  said  she  had  travelled  fifteen 
hundred  miles  to  attend  the  meeting 


LOOKING  BACK  OVER  THE  YEARS 


225 


and  felt  fully  repaid.  After  a  visit 
in  Magrath,  we  travelled  on  to 
Billings,  Montana.  We  spent  the 
day  there  and  took  the  train  for 
Toluca,  Wyoming,  arriving  at  ten- 
thirty  p.  m.  We  were  informed 
that  the  railroad  track  to  Cowley  had 
been  removed  and  that  we  would 
have  to  spend  the  night  in  the  station, 
as  the  hotel  had  recently  been  burned 
down.  The  first  train  that  would 
take  us  back  to  Billings  would  leave 
at  five-thirty  the  next  morning.  The 
outlook  was  not  encouraging,  no 
dinner,  no  breakfast,  no  bed.  At 
midnight  an  automobile  drove  to  the 
door  and  a  man  and  woman  with  a 
valise  and  a  quilt  came  in.  The 
quilt  was  thrown  in  a  corner  and  the 
woman  laid  down.  The  man  opened 
the  valise,  took  out  a  deck  of  cards, 
and  asked  us  if  we  would  join  him 
in  a  game  of  cards.  We  declined. 
He  then  took  a  bottle  from  his  pocket 
and  offered  us  a  drink  of  whisky, 
saying  it  would  fortify  us  for  the 
night.  We  refused.  He  said,  "You 
must  be  W.  C.  T.  U.  women." 

The  wind  began  blowing  and 
slamming  the  doors  open.  Lightning 
flashed  and  lit  up  our  gloomy  quar- 
ters. My  companion  said  what  would 
we  do  if  hoboes  came  in  and  held 
us  up.  The  man  said  I  am  prepared 
for  that  and  put  his  hand  on  his  hip 
pocket.  We  felt  a  bit  more  secure 
and  rested  until  daylight.  When 
the  train  arrived  we  were  ready  for 
breakfast,  but  alas  the  train  had  no 
diner  on.  Arriving  at  Billings  we 
were  hurried  to  a  narrow  gauge 
train  that  was  leavng  for  Cowley. 
We  arrived  in  Cowley  in  the  after- 


noon having  had  neither  food  nor 
sleep  for  twenty- four  hours. 

COON  after  our  people  had  been 
driven  from  Mexico,  my  com- 
panion, a  young  woman  representing 
the  Primary  Association,  and  I  left 
to  visit  Arizona,  At  this  time  the  men 
were  all  busy  building  bridges  and- 
clearing  away  sagebrush  and  grease- 
wood  to  make  roads  A  boy  was 
asked  to  ride  on  horseback  to  notify 
the  people  of  the  time  of  the  meeting 
and  that  visitors  had  arrived  from 
headquarters.  After  dinner  our 
hostess  said  the  team  was  ready.  We 
were  to  ride  in  a  light  wagon,  with 
a  board  seat  and  two  chairs.  I  was 
asked  to  drive — to  tell  the  truth  I 
did  not  know  how  to  drive,  but  dared 
not  refuse.  Our  hostess  sat  beside 
me  holding  her  baby  and  a  parasol, 
as  it  was  very  warm.  When  all  were 
seated,  I  took  the  reins  and  whip, 
cracked  the  whip,  and  off  they  went. 
I  heard  a  scream  but  dared  not  look 
back.  The  chairs  had  tipped  over, 
but  fortunately  no  one  was  hurt. 

That  evening  we  held  a  meeting  in 
a  private  house  that  was  used  for 
public  meetings.  There  were  benches 
for  seats  and  two  kerosene  lamps 
placed  on  a  table  furnished  the  light. 
We  had  a  glorious  meeting. 

What  wonders  the  years  have 
brought — electricity,  the  automobile, 
the  radio.  The  voices  of  General 
Board  members  have  been  heard  by 
means  of  this  modern  miracle  in 
many  countries.  We  used  to  travel 
in  white  tops,  we  expect  soon  to 
travel  by  air  plane. 


Happenings 

By  Annie  Wells  Cannon 


M 


ISS  FLORENCE  E.  ALLEN, 
appointed  in  March,  judge  on 
the  federal  circuit  court  of  appeals, 
was  born  in  Salt  Lake  City.  She  is 
the  first  woman  to  receive  an  ap- 
pointment to  that  court,  second  only 
to  the  supreme  court  of  the  United 
States. 

ELIZABETH  PU-YI,  the  new 
empress  of  Japan,  is  noted  for 
her  beauty  and  modern  ideas.  She 
is  the  daughter  of  a  Manchu  busi- 
ness man  and  was  educated  by  an 
American  school  mistress.  Oriental 
tradition  and  occidental  training- 
make  a  unique  combination  for  a 
queen. 

A  STRID  of  Sweden,  Belgium's 
new  queen,  has  long  since  won 
the  love  and  admiration  of  her  sub- 
jects by  her  gentle  grace  and  beauty. 
pRINCESS  ALICE,  Countess  of 
Athlone,  lias  found  a  new  thrill. 
With  her  husband,  the  Earl  and  two 
friends  she  recently  took  a  stroll  on 
the  floor  of  the  ocean,  exploring 
the  wonders  of  the  coral  garden 
peopled  with  brilliant  colored  fish, 
near  Rose  island,  one  of  the  Ba- 
hamas. 

QONJA  HENEI,  world  skating 
champion,  gave  an  exhibition  of 
her  grace  before  an  audience  of 
15,000  people  including  the  Swedish 
royal  family  at  Oslo. 

J_JELEN  JACOBS,  America's  ten- 
nis champion,  joined  the  world 
tournament  at  Kingston,  Jamaica.  It 
is  rumored  that  both  Miss  Jacobs 
and  Helen  Wills  Moody  will  go  to 
commercial  tennis  after  1934. 

VIRGINIA     and     Massachusetts 
have    both    turned    down    the 
Child  Labor  law.    Only  twenty  have 
thus  far  ratified. 


jyfISS  HELEN  HAYES  was 
chosen  by  the  dramatic  critics 
in  a  poll  taken  by  the  Associated 
Press  as  the  best  actress  on  Broad- 
way for  the  year  1933,  while  May 
Robson,  Katharine  Hepburn  and 
Diana  Winward  received  the  screen's 
highest  awards. 

C  U SAX  B.  ANTHONY  was  eulo- 
gized in  Congress  on  her  birth- 
day, February  15,  her  114th  anni- 
versary. That  Congress  at  whose 
doors  she  knocked  for  over  40  years 
for  recognition  of  women.  Times 
have  surely  changed. 
T\R.  LUCY  L.  W.  WILSON  of 
Philadelphia  has  been  awarded 
the  Bok  trophy — a  gold  medal  and 
a  check  for  $10,000.  This  makes 
her  unofficially  the  "First  Citizen" 
of  the  Quaker  City. 
JOSEPHINE  DAS KAM  BACON 
J  has  a  new  juvenile  story  out  this 
spring.  Mrs.  Bacon  won  the  first 
prize  for  an  international  hymn 
based  on  Beethoven's  Ninth  Sym- 
phony called  the  "Ode  to  Joy." 
jyTRS.  P.  V.  CARDON  of  Logan, 
LTah,  has  written  a  book  in 
verse  on  Indian  legends  to  which 
Mrs.  F.  P.  Champ  has  given  a  set- 
ting of  music,  the  introduction  is  by 
Pres.  Anthony  W.  Ivins. 
I  ADY  BURGHCLERE  has  ed- 
ited and  published  the  interest- 
ing correspondence  of  Lady  Salis- 
bury. Letters  from  nearly  all  the 
notables  of  the  Victorian  period  are 
included. 

QLARA  GERBERT  has  edited  a 
beautiful  anthology  of  dedica- 
tions and  prefaces  of  Elizabethan 
literature,  which  is  especially  de- 
lightful reading  for  devotees  of  that 
period. 


By  Holly  Baxter  Keddington 


A  HOBBY  is  a  favorite  pursuit 
or  object.  Nearly  everyone 
has  a  hobby  of  some  type  or 
other.  One  of  the  most  common 
hobbies  is  gardening.  This  one  ac- 
tivity can  be  divided  into  numerous 
interesting  hobbies.  For  example, 
collecting  various  varieties  of  bulbs, 
shrubs,  annual  or  perennial  flowers, 
or  collecting  strange  plants  for  in- 
door culture.  Gardening  seems  to  be 
a  seasonal  hobbv  but  the  real  "hob- 
by-ist"  will  carry  his  activity  on 
through  the  seasons  with  plans  and 
work  preparatory  to  outdoor  labor. 
April  is  the  month  when  most  of  the 
garden  preparation  and  planting  is 
done.  Try  some  new  variety  of  shrub 
or  annual  this  spring  and  give  away 
the  part  of  your  perennials  that 
crowd  other  growth.  If  you  have 
a  hobby  would  you  write  to  me  about 
it  ?  Later  we  hope  to  suggest  inter- 
esting hobbies  to  readers  of  this 
page.  Possibly  yours  is  just  the  one 
we  want. 

"LJAVE  you  read  the  book  "One 
Hundred  Million  Guinea  Pigs  ?" 
Whether  you  believe  every  statement 
in  it  or  not,  the  book  is  most  inter- 
esting. You  and  I  are  the  Guinea 
Pigs  of  the  book  upon  whom  are 
thrust  the  myriad  products  on  the 
market  today.  We  are  literally 
"April-fooled"  by  flowery,  not-so- 
true  advertising.  We  must  admit 
that  young  mothers  are  "fadists." 
We  really  are  sincere  in  our  endea- 
vor to  do  the  right  thing  by  our  little 
one  and   we   feel  that  we  must  be 


up-to-the-minute  on  every  subject  be 
it  vitamin  or  tantrum.  Read  about 
the  Guinea  Pigs  and  the  risks  taken 
when  we  buy  over-advertised  pro- 
ducts. Mothers  should  be  very  care- 
ful about  the  products  bought  for 
their  youngsters.  When  in  doubt, 
that  splendid  friend  of  yours,  your 
Physician  who  helped  you  through 
mumps,  measles  and  other  ailment? 
is  your  most  reliable  consultant. 

HP  HIS  little  page  does  not  intend 
to  market  or  indorse  any  pro- 
duct, but  I  do  give  three  cheers  for 
linoleum  varnish !  I  wasted  624 
hours  of  time  just  scrubbing  inlaid 
linoleum  that  needed  linoleum  var- 
nish years  before.  This  was  over  a 
period  of  twelve  years  of  house- 
keeping during  which  time  I  put 
papers  all  over  the  floor  as  soon  as 
I  was  off  my  knees  (that  looked 
awful),  and  next  day  the  family 
could  walk  on  the  linoleum ;  but  it 
was  immediately  in  need  of  another 
scrubbing.  Now,  thanks  to  the  var- 
nish, I  need  scrub  no  more.  The 
floor  is  done  once  or  twice  a  week 
and  it  stays  clean  for  days  longer 
than  before.  I  could  have  been  312 
times  to  Relief  Society  meetings  ana 
think  of  the  wasted  energy  and  the 
spoiled  dispositions  when  my  floor 
was  muddied. 

Crocus  and  tulip  by  my  path 

I  hear  a  robin  cheer. 
My  heart  is  light  with  gratitude. 

Fair  April — April's  here! 


Notes  from  the  Field 


Granite  Stake. 

'T~*HE  very  remarkable  results  ac- 
complished by  the  Granite 
Stake  Relief  Society  is  evidence  of 
what  can  be  done,  and  we  are  print- 
ing" it  in  detail  as  it  may  be  sugges- 
tive to  other  stakes  who  find  the 
visiting  teachers'  work  something  of 
a  problem. 

Visiting  Teachers'  Program :  Im- 
portant indeed  is  the  visiting  teach- 
ers' meeting,  held  the  first  Tuesday 
of  each  month  at  one  o'clock.  After 
singing  one  verse  of  a  song,  prayer 
is  offered  and  the  Topic  presented. 
Then  comes  a  very  choice  period  to 
the  President,  a  time  when  she  can 
get  close  to  her  supervisors  and 
teachers,  a  time  when  she  can  have  a 
heart  to  heart  talk  with  them,  an 
opportunity  to  present  the  right 
ethics  of  teaching  in  the  home.  The 
Teachers'  Books  are  then  distributed 
and  the  meeting  adjourned. 

The  second  Tuesday  of  each 
month  at  one  fifteen  o'clock  the 
Teachers'  Report  Meeting  is  held. 
After  singng  and  uniting  in  prayer, 
roll  is  called.  The  ward  is  divided 
into  districts  with  a  supervisor  over 
so  many  blocks  and  two  teachers  are 
assigned  to  each  block.  The  super- 
visor calls  on  one  teacher  of  each 
group  to  report  on  the  number  of 
families  visited  and  the  percentage, 
this  is  of  the  homes  assigned  to  her. 
She  also  reports  as  to  what  success 
she  has  had  in  presenting  the  Topic. 
While  she  is  giving  this  report,  her 
companion  teacher  hands  to  the 
President  a  written  confidential  re- 
port of  homes  or  conditions  that 
the  President  should  know  about. 
Her  report  book  and  contributions 
collected  are  then  handed  to  the 
Secretary.  The  next  month  the 
teacher  who  gave  the  verbal  report 


will  change  places  with  her  compan- 
ion who  has  handed  in  the  written 
report  and  thus  each  humble,  timid 
teacher  acquires  confidence  in  her- 
self as  she  stands  to  make  this  brief 
report. 

Guided  by  the  written  report  the 
President  makes  the  first  visit  to  the 
home  and  decides  whether  the  case 
needs  the  welfare  worker,  the  sun- 
shine worker,  or  the  aid  of  the  Presi- 
dent. 

Through  a  systematic  plan  of  pro- 
cedure and  well  trained  teachers, 
such  results  as  increased  attendance, 
renewal  of  friendships,  a  spirit  of 
harmony  and  love,  with  advance- 
ment, progress  and  growth,  may  be 
enjoyed,  making  duty  a  pleasure. 
Thus  bringing  officers  to  a  realiza- 
tion that  "whosoever  in  the  darkness 
lighteth  another  with  a  lamp,  light- 
eth  himself  also." 

The  Sunshine  Department :  Happy 
indeed  are  the  officers  of  Granite 
Stake  for  the  achievements  of  the 
sisters  in  the  various  wards  who 
work  in  this  special  activity.  Some 
eight  or  nine  years  ago  our  dear 
President,  Emmaretta  G.  Brown, 
saw  what  might  be  accomplished,  or, 
in  fact,  caught  the  vision  of  a  need 
in  Granite  Stake  for  a  work  to  be 
done  by  this  group,  such  as  is  now 
being  carried  on.  To  her,  their 
work  was  not  merely  to  minister  to 
the  homebound  souls,  but  to  carry 
good  cheer,  happiness  and  love,  or 
in  a  word,  "SUNSHINE/'  to  any 
and  all  who  might  be  prevented, 
either  by  physical  or  spiritual  dis- 
ability, from  full  enjoyment  of  the 
blessings  of  Relief  Society  work. 

By  permission  of  President  Clar- 
issa Williams,  the  name  "Sunshine 
Committee"  was  substituted  for 
"Homebound  Committee,"  and  the 


NOTES  FROM  THE  FIELD 


229 


field  of  labor  of  this  activity  en- 
larged. Thus  the  Presidents  are  re- 
lieved of  much  work  which  pre- 
viously fell  upon  them. 

The  Department  of  Sunshine 
Work  is  maintained  in  the  stake  or- 
ganization, with  a  member  of  the 
board  taking  charge  at  all  union 
meetings.  Care  is  taken  to  present 
helpful  material  for  the  guidance  of 
the  ward  groups.  We  have  an  aver- 
age attendance  of  forty-five  women 
at  these  meetings  each  month. 

From  the  beginning  the  depart- 
ment has  been  self-sustaining.  A 
circulating  library  has  been  built  up 
during  the  last  three  years.  A  Sun- 
shine party  was  held  in  the  Stake 
House,  the  admission  charge  being 
a  book  or  its  equivalent.  A  libra- 
rian is  in  charge  and  good  magazines 
are  circulated  in  addition  to  the 
books.  This  service  is  especially  ap- 
preciated by  the  homebound  in  each 
ward.  At  union  meeting,  in  addition 
to  our  own  fine  Relief  Society 
Magazine,  we  have  studied  Dr. 
Harry  Emerson  Fosdick's  appropri- 
ate work  Twelve  Tests  of  Character ; 
also,  we  have  discussed  special  ar- 
ticles by  such  current  writers  as 
Bruce  Barton,  Kathleen  Norris, 
Marjorie  Shuler,  Angelo  Patri  and 
others.  We  emphasize  the  value  of 
motivating  human  interest  stories, 
and  develop  in  our  meetings  the  re- 
lating of  interesting  actual  experi- 
ences of  our  Sunshine  workers. 
These  are  highly  faith-promoting. 
This  has  led  to  the  compiling  of  our 
"Sunshine  Gem  Book."  We  have  a 
"Good-Thought  Exchange."  Enough 
copies  of  these  are  brought  so  that 
each  ward  committee  is  supplied.  In 
some  cases  these  are  being  carefully 
preserved  and  filed,  and  no  doubt, 
for  some  will  become  treasures. 

There  is  a  very  live,  active  inter- 
est in  this  work,  and  the  native  ini- 
tiative of  the  workers  is  manifest  in 
the  remarkable  ways  discovered  for 


usefulness  and  enlargement  of  the 
field  of  service. 

Sunshine  workers  are  the  repre- 
sentatives of  their  President,  and  are 
delegated  to  bear  her  message  of 
cheer,  helpfulness,  love  and  sunshine 
— the  real  Gospel  message  of  "Good 
News." 

As  a  result  of  this  carefully  plan- 
ned department  we  are  reaping  the 
joy  of  seeing  women  who  were  in- 
different, women  where  the  spark  of 
desire  for  the  Gospel  was  burning  at 
a  low  ebb,  awake  to  a  love  of  the 
work  and  become  some  of  our  finest 
and  most  earnest  workers  of  today. 
The  Sunshine  workers  in  Granite 
Stake  have  become  to  the  Relief  So- 
ciety what  the  missionaries  are  to 
the  Church  in  the  world.  Positive 
reaction  of  the  simplest,  yet  most 
powerful  forces  of  religious  life  is 
the  result. 

With  the  closing  of  this  year's 
work,  Sunshine  work  is  a  beautiful 
part  of  Relief  Society.  It  goes  right 
to  the  heart  and  helps.  It  is  a  service 
simply  and  humbly  done  in  the  name 
and  spirit  of  the  Master. 

Grant  Stake. 

"PROM  another  one  of  our  city 
stakes  comes  the  report  of  the 
work  and  business  for  the  year.  Un- 
der the  able  leadership  of  Mrs.  Win- 
nifred  B.  Daynes,  Mrs.  Amy  E. 
Neff,  and  Mrs.  Marie  H.  Tanner, 
very  splendid  work  in  the  depart- 
ments of  the  Relief  Society  was  ac- 
complished, but  the  work  and  busi- 
ness seems  quite  outstanding. 

Activities  of  the  Grant  stake  for 
1932  and  1933  :  Most  of  the  wards 
gave  a  bazaar,  a  dinner,  a  play  and 
a  flower  show.  Five  wards  reported 
mending,  cleaning,  pressing  and 
patching  for  special  families.  Ex- 
changing recipes  of  candy  and  other 
recipes.  Twelve  of  our  wards  took 
up  this  group  work,  each  ward  re- 
ported increased   attendance.      One 


230 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


ward  formed  a  mothers'  club  and 
met  one  extra  evening  in  addition  to 
the  meeting  on  the  work  and  busi- 
ness day.  Another  ward  had  a 
kindergarten  department.  This  cared 
for  16  to  24  children  each  Tuesday 
afternoon ;  24  young  mothers  joined 
at  that  time.  Another  ward  had  18 
young  mothers  join.  The  stake  has 
had  some  very  excellent  reactions 
from  this  group  work. 

Report  from  Young  Mothers' 
Group :  This  is  one  of  our  groups 
that  meet  on  our  work  and  business 
days. 

Our  aim  for  the  Society  : 

1 .  To  increase  membership. 

2.  To  stimulate  interest  on  work  and 

business  day. 

3.  To    make    a    place    for    young 

women  in  our  Society. 
Our  aim  for  Mothers : 

1.  To  raise  the  standard  of  mother- 

hood. 

2.  To  encourage  large   families  by 

showing  value. 

3.  To  enjoy  our  children  more. 

4.  To  prove  that  the  home  is  the 

first  and  greatest  institution  for 
the  development  of  men. 

5.  A  mother's  prerogative  is  to  give 

the  first  and  greatest  training. 

6.  To    relieve    the     over-burdened 

mother. 
Our  success  can  only  be  measured 
by  our  members.    There  is  a  steady 
increase  in  members. 

Teton  Stake. 

^"pHE  Teton  Stake  Flower  Show 
and  Art  Exhibit  was  held  at 
Driggs,  Idaho  in  the  Fall  of  1933. 
The  ward  officers  loyally  supported 
the  stake  board  in  its  efforts  and  the 
day  proved  an  overwhelming  success. 
A  fine  array  of  needlework  and 
novelties  in  the  sewing  line,  canned 
and  fresh  fruits,  vegetables,  potted 
plants,  rugs,  quilts,  oil  paintings,  etc., 
adorned  the  stake  house.     A  large 


and  appreciative  audience  listened  to 
a  program  of  songs,  speeches  and  a 
short  play  put  on  by  Relief  Society 
members  under  the  direction  of  the 
stake  board.  Refreshments  were 
served  to  all  at  the  close  of  the  day. 
The  flowers  and  fruit  were  excep- 
tional considering  the  unusual  water 
shortage  and  prolonged  heat. 

Tintic  Stake. 

QN  September  19,  1933,  the  Tintic 
stake  Relief  Society  held  a  class 
leaders  and  visiting  teachers  conven- 
tion at  Eureka,  Utah.  The  morning 
session  was  devoted  to  class  leaders' 
work.  The  program  consisted  of  talks 
from  the  stake  class  leader,  musical 
numbers,  roll  call,  address  by  Gener- 
al Board  Member  Jennie  B.  Knight, 
and  the  introduction  of  the  slogan 
"I  will  Respond."  At  the  door  one 
of  the  stake  board  presented  each 
member  with  a  program  and  a  small 
gold  ribbon,  upon  which  the  slogan 
was  printed.  A  member  of  the  stake 
board  introduced  the  slogan  in  this 
session  in  a  very  clever  and  impres- 
sive manner.  A  poem  composed  by 
one  of  our  members  was  read.  This 
told  exactly  what  this  slogan  stood 
for  and  all  were  asked  to  accept  it 
and  live  up  to  it  to  the  best  of  their 
ability.  At  noon  a  free  luncheon 
was  served  to  all  present.  For  the 
dessert,  cookies  were  served  with  the 
slogan  also  written  on  them.  The 
afternoon  session  had  for  its  main 
theme  the  work  of  the  visiting  teach- 
ers. The  demonstration  given  by  the 
stake  board  was  original,  and 
showed  how  a  teachers'  meeting- 
should  be  conducted  the  first  Tues- 
day of  each  month.  Sister  Alice 
Reynolds  of  the  B.  Y.  U.  gave  an 
interesting  and  inspirational  talk. 
We  appreciated  having  both  Sisters 
Knight  and  Reynolds  with  us.  Mem- 
bers of  the  Priesthood  and  Relief 
Society  workers  numbering  104  were 
in  attendance  at  this  convention. 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  OF  THE  CHURCH  OF 
JESUS  CHRIST  OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS 

Motto — Charity  Never  Faiteth 
THE  GENERAL  BOARD 

MRS.    LOUISE    YATES    ROBISON President 

MRS.    AMY   BROWN   LYMAN -         -       First  Counselor 

MRS.    JULIA    ALLEMAN    CHILD Second  Counselor 

MRS.  JULIA  A.   F.   LUND           -                            -  -         General   Secretary  and   Treasurer 

Mrs.  Emma  A.  Empey                     Mrs.    Amy   Whipple   Evans  Mrs.  Ida  P.  Beal 

Miss  Sarah  M.  McLelland              Mrs.  Ethel  Reynolds  Smith  Mrs.  Katie  M.  Barker 

Mrs.   Annie   Wells   Cannon            Mrs.   Rosannah  C.  Irvine  Mrs.  Marcia  K.  Howells 

Mrs.   Jennie  B.   Knight                   Mrs.   Nettie  D.   Bradford  Mrs.   Hazel  H.   Greenwood 

Mrs.  Lalene  H.   Hart                      Mrs.   Inez  K.  Allen  Mrs.   Emeline  Y.   Nebeker 

Mrs.  Lotta  Paul  Baxter                 Mrs.  Elise  B.  Alder  Mrs.  Mary  Connelly  Kimball 

Mrs.  Cora  L.  Bennion . 

RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Editor Mary   Connelly   Kimbali 

Manager Louise  Y.   Robison 

Assistant  Manager Amy  Brown  Lyman 


Vol.  XXI 


APRIL,  1934 


No.  4 


EDITORIAL 
Let  Us  Have  Peace 


AGAIN  do  the  Easter  anthems 
ring  out  from  the  Churches 
with  their  triumphant  mes- 
sage "He  is  Risen."  Christ  the  Res- 
urrected Redeemer  of  mankind  has 
been  termed  The  Prince  of  Peace. 
Yet  his  professed  followers  have 
through  the  ages  prepared  for  war 
and  have  again  and  again  followed 
Mars.  After  the  World  War  people 
thought  that  never  again  while  those 
lived  who  could  remember  the  rav- 
ages and  terrible  consequences  of 
this  conflict  would  war  be  tolerated 
by  civilized  countries.  Yet  ever 
since  the  Armistice  was  signed  have 
there  been  rumblings  and  nations 
have  prepared  and  talked  about  the 
likelihood  of  war.  During  the  last 
four  years  there  have  been  success- 
ful or  unsuccessful  revolutions  in 
half  of  the  countries  of  the  World. 
Mrs.  Florence  Brewer  Boeckel, 
Educational  Director  of  the  Nation- 
al Council  for  the  Prevention  of 
War,  says,  "It  is  one  of  the  para- 
doxes of  this  century  of  progress 
that  the  world  has  made  notable 
progress  toward  peace,  and  yet 
stands  as  close  to  war  at  the  end  as 


at  the  beginning  of  the  century. 
Our  present  situation  can  best  be 
described  by  saying  that  we  are 
holding  war  at  bay.  We  have  erect- 
ed 'barricades  against  the  event  of 
war  but  behind  them  the  war  system, 
far  from  diminishing,  has  steadily 
increased.  Vaster  sums  than  ever 
before  are  being  spent  upon  it.  Its 
weapons  are  more  deadly.  Can  we 
hope  that  the  barricades  will  hold  if 
we  make  no  direct  attack  upon 
the  forces  of  opposition?" 

Terrible  as  were  the  wars  of  the 
past,  those  of  this  day  are  infinitely 
worse.  Its  destruction  has  been 
multiplied  manifold.  Now  not  only 
are  soldiers  mutilated  and  killed,  but 
women  and  children  are  attacked  by 
bombs,  poison  gases,  etc. 

The  peace  problem  is  complex. 
The  unprepared  nation  invites  at- 
tack, hence,  it  is  necessary  that  each 
nation  be  prepared  to  defend  itself 
in  case  of  hostilities.  Yet  it  does 
seem  that  an  unwarranted  expendi- 
ture of  money  is  being  made  in  these 
preparations.  Senator  William  H. 
King  says: 

"The   United   States  during  the 


232 


RliLIEE  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


past  eight  or  ten  years  has  been 
spending  for  military  purposes  ap- 
proximately $200,000,000  annually 
in  excess  of  that  expended  by  any 
other  country.  There  have  been  ap- 
propriated each  year  during  the 
period  referred  to  between  $700,000, 
000  and  $800,000,000  for  the  army 
and  the  navy  and  in  addition  many 
hundreds  of  millions  for  veterans 
pensions,  etc.,  resulting  from  the 
military  activities  of  our  govern- 
ment." 

Is  it  not  incrongruous  that  the  Chil- 
dren's Bureau  had  a  hard  struggle 
to  get  an  appropriation  of  $350,000, 
while  the  same  Congress  in  the  same 
month  appropriated  two  and  a  half 
times  that  amount  for  breeding  and 
boarding  the  horses  of  the  National 
Guard.  Other  funds  provided  for 
the  horses  of  the  Cavalry  and  the 
Army.  The  same  Congress  appro- 
priated $120,000,  "for  the  encour- 


agement of  the  breeding  of  riding 
horses  suitable  for  the  Army."* 

TF  public  opinion  is  sufficiently 
aroused  against  this  terrible  ex- 
penditure for  war  purposes,  the  ap- 
propriations will  be  cut  down.  For 
not  only  does  the  Government  yield 
to  the  pressure  of  financial  interests, , 
but  it  also  yields  to  the  pressure  of 
large  numbers  of  voters. 

If  Civilization  is  to  continue,  we 
must  have  peace  for  it  is  the  means 
of  carrying  on  civilized  life. 

While  the  joyous  Easter  season 
is  with  us  let  us  remember  the  teach- 
ings of  our  Master  and  determine 
to  walk  in  the  paths  of  peace.  Let 
us  create  public  sentiment  so  that 
we  shall  spend  no  more  money  for 
armies  and  navies  than  is  absolutely 
necessary  for  our  protection.  We 
can  cut  down  our  preparation  for 
war  and  merely  expend  what  is 
necessary  for  our  safety. 


Congratulations 


(CONGRATULATIONS    L  e  h  i 
°    Stake! 


ed  at  the  sight  that  met  them  in  the 

corridor  while    passing    from    the 

A  delightful  and  most  unique  en-      Auditorium     to     the     gymnasium. 

tertainment  was  given  in  Lehi  Stake      where  the  banquet  was  served.  Lined 

on  Saturday  evening,  March  3.  on  each  side  of  that  long  corridor 

About  one  year  ago  the  women  of      were  young  men,  dressed  in  white, 


the  stake  served  a  dinner  for  the 
Fathers  and  Sons  gathering.  This 
year  the  men,  under  the  able  direc- 
tion of  President  Schow  and  Presi- 
dent Peterson,  entertained  the  Moth- 
ers and  Daughters,  and  they  did  it 
most  royally. 

An  interesting  program  was  pre- 
sented entirely  by  men,  in  the  Audi- 
torium of  the  High  School  Building. 
A  group  of  High  School  boys  cap- 
tivated the  audience  in  a  burlesque  of 
a  woman's  sewing  circle 


wearing  white  caps  with  green  bows 
— a  thrilling  sight  for  anyone.  These 
were  the  waiters  who  served  most 
efficiently.  The  banquet  hall  was 
artistic  and  most  attractive — the 
white  cloths  decorated  with  strips 
of  green,  lighted  candles  and  a  pro- 
fusion of  flowers. 

Eight  hundred  and  eighteen  wom- 
en were  seated.  A  delicious  hot 
dinner  was  served.  President  Schow, 
President  Peterson  and  the  commit- 
tee were  untiring  in  looking  after 


Every  mother's  heart  was  touched,      the  comfort  of  the  guests, 
and  every  daughter  must  have  thrill-  The  three  General  Presidents  of 

■    .....  .    ■       —    ■ 

*Miss  Dorothy  Detzer  Executive  Secretary  International  League  for  Peace. 


EDITORIAL 


2M 


MOTHERS    AND  DAUGHTERS'  BANQUET,  LEH1  STAKE 


234  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improve-  grammed,  came  after  the  banquet, 

ment  Association,  the  Primary  As-  when  the  tired,  harrassed  men  sorted 

soeiation  and  the  Relief  Society  re-  their  spoons,  forks  and  saucepans, 
spectively  were  guests  of  honor  of  It  was  a  delightful  affair,  long  to 

the  Stake  Presidency.  be  remembered. 

An    unusual    feature,    not    pro-  — President  Louise  Y .  Robison. 


A  Worthy  Project 

\\7E  congratulate  the  Salt  Lake  E.  O.  Howard  by  Mrs.  J.  M.  Thom- 

*  *     City  Federation  of  Women's  as,  to  Mrs.  A.  W.  Watson  by  Mrs. 

Clubs  on  their  most  worthy  project,  Arthur  E.  Graham   (read  by  Mrs. 

beautifully  carried  out  of  recogniz-  C.  E.  Richards.) 

ing  seven  women  for  their  outstand-  These  seven  distinguished  women 

ing  services  to  the  community.  were  presented  with  medals  made 

It  is  a  worthy  custom  for  friends  of  Utah  silver  with  "For  Civic  Ser" 

and  organizations  to  pay  honor  to  vlce"  emblazoned  in  the  center  of 

the  dead.    It  is  far  better  to  recog-  a  laure!  .wreath  and  *e  nal?es  of 

nize  the  worth  of  men  and  women  the  recipients  engraved  on  the  re- 

and  give  them  their  meed  of  praise  ™r£  Slde  of  the  medf s;    *\humi1" 

„^;ir+v,^r  ~*-~  i:,^„nr  ltv  these  women  accepted  the  honors 

Wiiile  they  are  living.  /            ,            ,,       v     *  ,  , ,    £  ^ 

~      ,/     t        ,,&    ,     -     ir.-.  showered  upon  them  and  told  of  tne 

On  Monday,  March  5,   1934,  at  joy  they  had  found  in  their  service 

the  Ladies    Literary  Club  House  a  -phe  message  of  Mrs.  Wilson  to 

luncheon  attended  by  three-hundred  ]ier     nearers      uNever  '  weary     in 

women  was  given,  followed  by  a  very  well-doing,', '  gave  the  key  to  the 

fine  program.     Tributes   of   praise  successful  lives  of  these  women. 

were  paid  to  Mrs.  A.  H.  S.  Bird  by  As  the  seven  women  have  devoted 

Joanna  H.  Sprague,  to  Mrs.  Annie  themselves  loyally  to  furthering  the 

Wells  Cannon  by  Mrs.  Amy  Brown  cause   of  their  church  the  closing 

Lyman,  to  Mrs.  Ruth  May  Fox  by  song  was  most  appropriately  selected 

President    Louise    Y.    Robison,  to  and  gave  the  final  message  to  all  with 

Mrs.  A.  J.  Gorham  by  Mrs.  Charles  its  lovely  refrain,  "Oh,  Friend,  we 

G.  Plummer,  to  Mrs.  Alice  Merrill  never  choose  the  better  part  until 

Home  by  Mrs.  A.  B.  Irvine,  to  Mrs.  we  set  the  cross  up  in  our  heart." 


The  Plum  Tree  Hedge 

By  Merling  D.  Clyde 

By  neglected  buildings-screening 
Where  the  broken  fences  run, 

Still,  impeccable,  the  plum  trees 

Spread  their  white  skirts  to  the  sun. 

Like  some  virgin  maidens  standing 
On  the  brink  of  sordidness, 

Turn  their  backs,  in  pity  hide  it 

With  their  fresh  young  loveliness. 


Lesson  Department 

Theology  and  Testimony 

(First  Week  in  June) 

Death  and  the  Resurrection 
1.  Death.  To  those  who  have  no  (John    12:32-33)      Without   death 
faith  in  the  resurrection,  death  is  a  eternal  progress  would  be  impossible 
grim  pitiless   reaper  cutting  down  and  existence  would  lose  its  charm, 
both  old  and  young,  without  mercy  3.  Proper  Attitude  Toward  Death. 
and  without  restraint.    It  enters  the  On  the  other  hand,  human  beings 
home  of  not  only  the  aged  whose  are  instructed  of  the   Lord  to  do 
life's  work  is  largely  done,  but  also  everything   within   their   power   to 
that  of  the  young  whose  work  is  preserve  the  health  of  their  bodies 
scarcely  started.     It  strikes  at  the  and   otherwise   postpone   the    time 
bride,  the  mother,  and  the  child ;  no  of  their   earthly   departure.      ( See 
one  is  immune  to  its  attacks ;  eventu-  Word    of    Wisdom,    Doc.    &    Gov. 
ally  it  succeeds  in  reaching  every  Section  89).     Moreover,  the  Lord 
human  being.     Not  only  this ;  but  has  said  that  "whosoever  among  you 
to  the  natural  man  it  brings  about  are  sick,  and  have  not  faith  to  be 
the  total  annihilation  of  all  who  come  healed,  but  believe,  shall  be  nour- 
within  its  path,  for  when  death  over-  ished  with  all  tenderness,  with  herbs 
takes  its  victims  they  never  return,  and  mild  foods,  and  not  by  the  hand 
Thus,  to  the  unbeliever  in  the  resur-  of  an  enemy.    And  the  elders  of  the 
rection,  death  is  the  arch-enemy  of  church,  two  or  more,  shall  be  called 
the  human  race, — the  most  ruthless^  and   shall   pray   for  and   lay  their 
the   most   implacable   thing   in   the  hands  upon  them  in  my  name ;  and 
world.  if  they  die  they  shall  die  unto  me, 
2.  But  to  the  Latter-day  Saints,  and  if  they  live  they  shall  live  unto 
people  who  have  implicit  faith  in  the  me  .  .     .  .  And  again,  it  shall  come 
promises  of  God,  all  this  is  changed,  to  pass  that  he  that  hath  faith  in  me 
To  them,  death  is  as  necessary  as  to  be  healed,  and  is  not  appointed 
birth ;  it  is  as  much  a  part  of  the  plan  unto  death,  shall  be  healed."  (Doc. 
of  salvation  as  existence  itself.    The  &  Cov.  42 :43-48) 
spirits  of  men  existed  before  they  ac-  4.  From  the  foregoing  it  is  ap- 
quired  mortal  bodies;  they  came  to  parent  that  not  all  who  are  blessed 
earth  for  a  specific  purpose ;  and  they  by  the  elders  will  get  well.     Even 
must  go  elsewhere  for  a  continua-  those  who  have  the  requisite  faith 
tion  of  their  advancement.     It  was  will  be  healed  only  if  they  are  "not 
necessary  that  even  the  Son  of  Man  appointed  unto  death."  All  believers 
himself  should  pass  through  this  ex-  who  are  thus  blessed  by  the  elders 
perience.      We    read :    "The    Lord  are  promised,  however,  that  if  they 
your  Redeemer  suffered  death  in  the  die   they   will   die  unto  the   Lord, 
flesh  ;  wherefore  he  suffered  the  pain  Moreover,  "Those  that  die  unto  me," 
of  all  men,  that  all  men  might  repent  saith  the  Lord,  "shall  not  taste  of 
and  come  unto  him."  (Doc.  &  Cov.  death,    for   it   shall   be   sweet   unto 
18:11)      Again:   "And   I,   if  I   be  them."  (Doc.  &  Cov.  42:46)  Latter- 
lifted  up  from  the  earth,  will  draw  day  Saints,  almost  without  number, 
all  men  unto  me.    Thus  he  said,  sig-  can  testify  to  the  goodness  of  the 
nifying  what  death  he  should  die."  Lord  that  has  come  to  them  through 


236  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

the  administration  of  the  elders.  a  gutter  half  filled  with  swiftly  flow- 

5.  Even  though  the  Latter-day  ing  water.  The  child  was  enjoying 
Saints  thus  understand  the  purpose  itself  to  the  full.  Suddenly  the 
and  necessity  of  death,  yet  it  is  not.  mother  rushed  frantically  from  the 
sinful  for  them  to  mourn  when  their  house  and  quickly  gathered  the  child 
loved  ones  are  taken  away.  Indeed,  into  her  arms,  meantime  reproach- 
they  are  instructed  of  the  Lord  so  fully  saying:  "Haven't  I  told  you 
to  love  one  another  that  they  will  that  you  must  not  do  this!"  Then, 
weep  for  those  who  die.  Here  are  much  against  the  child's  protest,  the 
his  words :  "Thou  shalt  live  together  mother  carried  it  into  the  house. 

in  love,  insomuch  that  thou  shalt  8.  The  attitude  of  the  child  is  not 
weep  for  the  loss  of  them  that  die,  difficult  to  understand.  According  to 
and  more  especially  for  those  that  its  viewpoint,  it  was  doing  no  harm ; 
have  not  hope  of  a  glorious  resur-  indeed,  it  was  merely  protecting  it- 
rection."  (Doc.  &  Cov.  42:45).  self  from  the  heat  of  what  would 
Latter-day  Saints  thus  mourn  be-  otherwise  be  a  most  uncomfortable 
cause  of  the  absence  of  their  faithful  day.  Then,  apparently  without  rea- 
ones,  not  because  of  any  doubt  con-  son,  the  mother  carried  it  into  a 
eerning  their  existence  or  welfare,  warm  stuffy  house.  The  child,  how- 
Prolonged  and  excessive  mourning,  ever,  did  not  know  that  only  a  few 
however,  sometimes  engenders  bit-  feet  below  the  point  where  it  had 
terness  and  impairs  faith.  Confidence  been  sitting,  the  water  entered  an 
in  the  promises  of  God,  together  unprotected  conduit  leading  beneath 
with  continued  supplications  for  the  city  street.  On  the  other  hand, 
faith,  is  the  greatest  source  of  solace  the  child  saw  only  what  it  thought 
for  those  who  remain  behind.  was  the  mother's  disregard  for  its 

6.  Insufficient  Understanding.  It  own  comfort  and  welfare. 

is  often  difficult  for  human  beings  9.  Men  and  women  without  faith 

to  understand  the  purposes  of  God.  in  the  goodness  of  God  are  often 

There  can  be  no  doubt,  of  course,  equally  as  unwise.    They  set  up  their 

that  death  is  sometimes  the  result  of  opinions  as  superior  to  those  of  God, 

human  ignorance  or  even  sin,  and  and  sometimes  condemn  him  if  he 

sometimes  it  comes  When  seemingly  does  not  act  in  harmony  therewith, 

we  do  the  best  we  know  how.    Oc-  The  experienced  Latter-day  Saint, 

casionally  when  thus  bereaved,  we  however,  has  learned  that  the  wis- 

are  tempted  to  question  the  wisdom  dom  of  God  far  transcends  that  of 

and    even    the    judgment    of    God.  his  own,  and,  moreover,  that  if  he 

Faithful     Latter-day     Saints     have  places  trust  in  God,  and  otherwise 

learned,    however,    that    they    can  keeps   his   commandments,   all   will 

safely  trust  in  the  omniscience  of  turn  out  for  the  best.     Testimonies 

God,  even  unto  the  death  of  those  to  this  effect  are  widespread  among 

whom  they  most  dearly  love.     God  the  Later-day  Saints, 
specifically    states    that   he   is    dis-  10.  Resurrection   of  the  Master. 

pleased  with  those  who  do  not  con-  Christ  became  "the  first   fruits  of 

f ess  his  hand  in  all  things.  (See  Doc.  them  that   slept"    (I   Cor.    15:20). 

&  Cov.  59:21).  When  Mary  Magdalene  and  Mary 

7.  Man's  unwillingness  to  place  the  mother  of  James  appeared  at  the 
confidence  in  the  purposes  of  God  sepulchre  in  the  early  morning  of  the 
may  be  compared  with  the  following :  third  day,  an  angel  of  God,  with  a 
The  occasion  was  a  warm  July  day.  countenance  like  lightning  and  rai- 
A  scantily  clad  child  was  sitting  in  ment  as  white  as  snow,  stood  near 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT  237 

the  open  door,  and  said :  "Fear  not  shall  come  forth — yea,  even  all ;" 
ye:  for  I  know  that  ye  seek  Jesus,  (Doc.  &  Co  v.  29:26.  Read  also 
which  was  crucified.  He  is  not  here ;  Alma  11 :42-45) 
for  he  is  risen,  as  he  said.  Come,  15.  Resurrection  at  the  Time  of 
see  the  place  where  the  Lord  lay.  Christ's  Second  Coming.  Two  gen- 
And  go  quickly,  and  tell  his  disciples  eral  resurrections  are  spoken  of  as 
that  he  is  risen  from  the  dead ;  and,  coming  in  the  future,  namely :  one 
behold,  he  goeth  before  you  into  at  the  time  of  Christ's  Second  corn- 
Galilee  ;  there  shall  ye  see  him :  lo,  ing,  now  spoken  of  as  the  First  Res- 
I  have  told  you."   (Matt :  28  :S-7\  urrection ;  and  one  at  the  close  of  the 

11.  Throughout  the  following  Millennium,  often  termed  the  Final 
forty  days  he  appeared  unto  many,  Resurrection.  In  reality  the  first 
teaching  and  expounding  the  truth,  resurrection  occurred  when  the  Sa- 
The  literality  of  his  resurrection  is  vior  and  others  rose  from  the  dead, 
further  attested  by  the  fact  that  he  but  inasmuch  as  the  resurrection 
not  only  permitted  his  disciples  to  which  is  to  take  place  at  the  time  of 
see  and  handle  his  body  (John  20:  the  Savior's  coming  will  be  the  first 
26-28),  but  he  actually  ate  and  unto  us,  we  speak  of  it  as  the  First 
drank  with  them.     (Luke  24:39-43)  t  Resurrection. 

12.  At  the  close  of  this  period  he  16.  Concerning  this  event  the 
led  his  disciples  "as  far  as  to  Beth-  Lord  says :  "For  a  trump  shall 
any,  and  he  lifted  up  his  hands,  and  sound  both  long  and  loud,  even  as 
blessed  them.  And  it  came  to  pass,  upon  Mount  Sinai,  and  all  the  earth 
while  he  blessed  them,  he  was  parted  shall  quake,  and  they  shall  come 
from  them,  and  carried  up  into  hea-  forth — yea,  even  the  dead  which  died 
ven."  (Luke  24:50-51)  in  me,  to  receive  a  crown  of  right- 

13.  And  while  his  disciples  "look-  eousness,  and  to  h^  clothed  upon, 
ed  stedfastly  into  heaven,  as  he  went  even  as  I  am,  to  be  with  me,  that  we 
up,  behold,  two  men  stood  by  them  may  be  one."  (Doc.  &  Cov.  29:13) 
in  white  apparel ;  which  also  said,  ye  Those  who  arise  at  this  time  shall 
men  of  Galilee,  why  stand  ye  gazing  also  include  the  little  children,  those 
up  into  heaven?  This  same  Jesus,  who  have  not  received  the  gospel 
which  is  taken  up  from  you  into  hea-  but  have  lived  according  to  their  best 
ven,  shall  so  come  in  like  manner  as  light,  and  even  heathen  people  who 
ye  have  seen  him  go  into  heaven."  knew  not  the  law.  (See  Doc.  &  Cov. 
(Acts  1 :10-11)  45:54  also  Alma:  Ch.  10-11) 

14.  Universality  of  the  Resurrec-  17.  Concerning  the  glories  that 
Hon.  The  effects  of  the  Savior's  will  attend  his  coming  the  Lord  says  : 
atonement  are  in  general  two-fold,  "Behold,  I  will  come ;  and  they  shall 
namely;  (1)  the  resurrection  of  the  see  me  in  the  clouds  of  heaven, 
entire  human  family,  irrespective  of  clothed  with  power  and  great  glory, 
earthly  deeds,  and  (2)  expiation  for  with  all  the  holy  angels ;  and  he  that 
individual     sins,     dependent     upon  watches  not  for  me  shall  be  cut  off 

faith,     repentance,    and    continued      An  angel  shall  sound  his 

works  of  righteousness.  Concerning  trump,  and  the  saints  that  have  slept 

the  first,  the  apostle  Paul  says :  "For  shall  come  forth  to  meet  me  in  the 

as  in  Adam  all  die,  even  so  in  Christ  cloud."     (Doc.    &   Cov.   45  :44-45) 

shall  all  be  made  alive."  (I  Cor.  15  :  Further:   "The  saints  that  are  upon 

22)    The  Lord  himself  says :  "Then  the  earth,   who  are  alive,   shall  be 

shall  all  the  dead  awake,  for  their  quickened  and  be  caught  up  to  meet 

graves   shall  be   opened,   and  they  him.     And  they  who  have  slept  in 


238 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


their  graves  shall  come  forth,  for 
their  graves  shall  be  opened ;  and 
they  also  shall  be  caught  up  to  meet 
him  in  the  midst  of  the  pillar  of 
heaven.  They  are  Christ's  the  first 
fruits,  they  who  are  on  the  earth  and 
in  their  graves,  who  are  first  caught 
up  to  meet  him."  (Doc.  &  Cov.  88: 
96-98) 

18.  The  Final  Resurrection.  "But 
the  rest  of  the  dead  lived  not  again 
until  the  thouand  years  were  fin- 
ished." (Rev.  20:5  ;  See  also  Doc.  & 
Cov.  88:101)  This  will  be  followed 
by  the  final  judgment,  of  which  John 
spake  as  follows :  "And  I  saw  the 
dead,  small  and  great,  stand  before 
God ;  and  the  books  were  opened : 
and  another  book  was  opened,  which 
is  the  book  of  life  ;  and  the  dead  were 


judged  out  of  those  things  which 
were  written  in  the  books,  according 
to  their  works."  (Rev.  20:12) 

Suggestions  for  Discussion 
and  Review 

1.  Why  does  prolonged  grieving 
for  our  loved  ones  who  die  detract 
from  our  faith? 

2.  Why  would  eternal  existence  in 
our  present  mortal  form  be  undesir- 
able? 

3.  In  what  condition  is  the  indi- 
vidual between  death  and  the  resur- 
rection ? 

4.  Explain  the  two- fold  nature  of 
the  Savior's  atonement. 

5.  Compare  in  as  many  respects 
as  possible  the  resurrected  body  with 
the  mortal  body. 


Teachers'  Topic 
COURAGE  TO   MEET  LIFE'S  PROBLEMS 


Our  President,  Louise  Y.  Robison, 
recently  said,  "What  we  need  most 
is  courage  to  face  what  is  just  ahead 
of  us." 

There  is  no  other  day  in  our  lives 
so  important  as  today,  and  "sufficient 
unto  the  day  are  the  evils  thereof." 

These  evils  are  here  to  be  met  face 
to  face. 

Women  have  always  been  heroic 
in  every  crisis,  and  in  meeting  the 
simple  needs  of  every  day.  We  must 
not  slip  now. 

A  new  era  is  being  born,  and  with 
every  birth  there  is  pain  and  fear 
and  struggle.  The  women  will  help 
to  fight  it  through  and  in  the  front 
ranks.  Someone  has  asked  why  it  is 
that  nearly  six  times  as  many  men  as 
women  take  their  own  lives.  It  may 
be  because  sometimes  it  is  easier  to 
die  for  a  cause  than  to  live  for  it. 

"Whoso  lighteth  another  in  the 
dark  with  a  lamp  lighteth  also  him- 
self." Thus  the  women  will  hold 
high  the  lamp  of  hope  and  of  faith 


and  thereby  they  will  see  the  step  to 
be  taken  just  ahead. 

They  will  meet  disappointment, 
"see  hopes  frustrated  and  hope 
anew."  They  will  face  ingratitude 
but  will  not  turn  back  from  helping 
others.  Jesus  did  even  so.  Their 
heads  may  be  battered,  their  hearts 
may  bleed,  but  they  will  not  surren- 
der to  darkness  and  gloom. 

The  problems  of  life  here  and  now 
are  as  difficult  and  more  complicated 
than  those  of  our  pioneer  mothers. 
It  is  our  job  to  carry  on  with  faith 
and  courage  as  did  they.  "What  we 
have  inherited  from  them  we  must 
earn  before  it  is  really  our  own." 

Women  have  the  power  to  change 
the  sense  of  values  now  prevalent. 
Life  is  more  than  money  and  finan- 
cial success.  True  culture  is  more 
than  vain  manners  and  costly  rai- 
ment. Homes  are  more  than  nouses 
and  furnishings.  A  log  cabin  may 
be  a  paradise  if  cheerfulness  and 
kindness  are  within. 

We  truly  find  life  when  we  are 
willing  to  lose  it  for  others. 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


239 


Literature 

(Third  Wleek  in  June 

LIFE  AND  LITERATURE 

SPIRITUAL    VOICES    IN  MODERN  LITERATURE 


"I  hear  a  voice  that  sings : 
Build  thee  more  stately  mansions,  O 
my  soul, 
As  the  swift  seasons  roll ! 

"The  Chambered  Nautilus" 
— Holmes 

Nature  is  God's  work:  Civiliza- 
tion is  Man's  work.  Throughout 
the  ages  the  activities  of  man,  ex- 
ploration and  conquest,  organization 
and  leadership,  science  and  inven- 
tion, philosophy  and  art  have  com- 
bined to  make  the  world  of  today. 
Change  and  decay  may  have  re- 
moved the  visible  evidences  of  the 
past;  but  always  the  ideals  of  yes- 
terday are  stamped  ineffaceably  upon 
the  monuments  of  tomorrow.  On 
and  on,  man  has  striven  in  order  to 
make  a  world  in  which  he  could 
realize  the  greatest  freedom  and  the 
highest  development.  On  every  hand 
is  the  newness  of  a  modern  world. 
The  arrangements  of  everyday  life 
are  new  and  the  intellectual  structure 
by  which  we  interpret  life  is  new,  but 
there  is  a  realm  of  human  experience 
that  never  changes — love  and  hate, 
hope  and  fear,  motives  and  impulses, 
joys  and  griefs.  The  march  of  civil- 
ization has  left  the  realm  of  human 
experiences  unaltered. 

The  spiritual  substance  of  litera- 
ture is  from  the  abiding  realm  of 
human  experience,  the  ideas,  feel- 
ings, sympathies,  emotions,  and  pas- 
sions which  move  and  inspire  men's 
lives. 

Spiritual  Values  of  Literature 

Literature  as  a  criticism  of  life 
can  be  more  than  an  explanation  and 
an  interpretation;  it  can  present  a 
vision  of  what  life  can  be  at  its  best. 


The  complexity  of  modern  life  has 
been  a  shattering  influence  to  many. 
"Through  religion  and  through  art 
men  have  found  rest  from  the  ten- 
sion of  life." 

Man's  greatest  struggle  has  been 
a  spiritual  struggle,  a  struggle  for' 
self-realization.  The  Greeks  be- 
lieving "Man  was  the  measure  of 
all  things"  sought  earthly  perfec- 
tion by  a  system  of  art,  education, 
and  philosophy.  This  was  a  great 
gift  to  man.  The  Hebrews  struggled 
unceasingly  for  moral  integrity  be- 
cause they  believed  "Man  is  the  im- 
mortal son  of  God;"  their  gift  to 
the  world  is  the  Bible,  the  supreme 
book  of  religion.  Great  art  has 
sought  to  embody  the  Hellenic 
ideals  of  beauty  and  form  with  the 
spiritual  ideals  of  the  Hebrews.  It 
has  been  the  aim  of  great  art,  music, 
literature,  painting,  sculpture,  and 
architecture — to  bring  to  man  the 
true  significance  of  life.  This  spirit- 
ual quality  of  great  art  has  two 
values ;  first,  it  has  brought  to  man 
a  deeper  understanding  of  his  spirit- 
ual life,  second,  a  knowledge  of 
human  nature  that  enables  him  to 
meet  the  conflicts  of  life  with 
courage  and  dignity.  The  great  liter- 
ary masterpieces  of  the  past  have 
come  down  to  us  today  as  the  best 
loved  books  of  the  ages,  and  have 
joined  with  religion  in  keeping  alive 
the  torch  of  faith  in  the  ultimate 
destiny  of  man.  Their  message 
challenges  man  to  rise  to  moral  gran- 
deur, to  the  joy  of  a  perfect  peace 
that  comes  through  Self-realization. 
Among  the  great  masterpieces  of 
literature  that  are  valued  for  their 
ethical  and  religious  values  are  num- 


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RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


bered:  "Prometheus  Bound"  by 
Aeschylus,  teaching  that  disobedi- 
ence to  Moral  Law  brings  suffering 
and  suffering  teaches  ;  "The  Book  of 
Job,"  author  unknown,  deals  with 
the  mystery  of  human  suffering; 
"Everyman,"  a  morality,  with  the 
message  that  "deeds  can  never  be 
undone ;"  the  dramas  of  Shakespeare 
laying  bare  the  forces  that  determine 
human  character ;  "Paradise  Lost" 
by  Milton,  "justifying  the  ways  of 
•  God  to  man ;"  "Faust"  by  Goethe  re- 
volving around  the  problems  "What 
is  the  secret  of  Life,  Death,  and 
Nature"  and  "What  Brings.  Purifi- 
cation and  Self-realization ;"  "Prom- 
etheus Unbound"  by  Shelley  show- 
ing that  Love  and  Righteousness 
must,  in  the  very  nature  of  things, 
eventually  triumph  over  injustice. 
The  combined  message  of  all  is  in 
the  words  of  Viscount  Morley:  "to 
lead  us  into  inner  moods  of  settled 
peace,  to  touch  the  depth  and  calm 
the  tumult  of  the  soul,  to  give  us 
quietness,  strength,  steadfastness, 
and  purpose,  whether  to  do  or  to 
endure." 

Spiritual  Voices  in  Modern 
Literature 

It  is  a  far  cry  from  Aristotle  to 
Matthew  Arnold,  yet  each  looked  at 
literature  and  saw  there  more  than 
an  expression  for  a  mere  presenta- 
tion of  life.  Today,  as  in  the  past, 
the  great  writers,  each  after  his  own 
genius,  have  given  expression  to  a 
spiritual  message.  Among  such  ex- 
pressions are  included  Tennyson's 
"In  Memoriam,"  Hawthorne's 
"Scarlet  Letter,"  Wordsworth's 
"Ode  to  Duty,"  Browning's  "Saul," 
Masefield's  "Everlasting  Mercy." 
Of  all  the  modern  writers  two  are 
outstanding  in  their  consideration  of 
man  as  an  individual  seeking  a  full- 
ness of  life,  Henry  Ibsen  and  Ralph 
Waldo  Emerson. 


Ibsen  and  Self-realisation 

In  the  dramas  "Brand,"  the  Saint, 
and  "Peer  Gynt,"  the  Sinner,  Ibsen 
portrays  vividly  the  universal  truth, 
"Man  is  his  own  star." 

Henry  Ibsen  was  a  Norwegian, 
born  in  Bergen  at  the  beginning  of 
the  nineteenth  century.  The  child- 
hood of  Ibsen  was  colored  by  the  life 
of  Bergen,  its  wooden  mansions,  its 
glorious  Christmas  festivals,  and  its 
wonderful  fairs.  School  and  church, 
madhouse  and  jail,  all  part  of  the 
town  square,  they  too  left  an  inpres- 
sion  upon  the  young  boy.  Prosper- 
ous days  gave  way  to  adversity 
bringing  mortification  and  humilia- 
tion. Unprepossessing  in  appear- 
ance, the  boy  began  a  life  of  isola- 
tion, starving  mentally  and  morally. 
Apprenticed  to  an  apothecary,  Ib- 
sen's leisure  was  spent  in  writing 
verse.  In  a  series  of  sonnets  he  im- 
plored King  Oscar  to  help  Denmark 
in  her  struggle  for  liberty.  One  of 
the  poems  attracted  the  attention  of 
the  owner  of  the  National  Theatre 
of  Bergen,  1851.  Ibsen  began  to 
write  for  the  theatre.  The  early 
plays  were  lyrical  in  form  and  ideal- 
istic in  theme  and  as  such  were  un- 
successful. Prosperity  came  later 
with  "The  Doll's  House,"  demon- 
strating the  possibilities  of  the  drama 
as  an  instrument  of  social  reform. 
Ibsen's  fame  increased  with  every 
new  plan.  Always  the  dramatist 
looked  at  individuals  struggling  in 
the  whirlpools  of  society.  Looking 
at  a  civilization  that  was  beginning 
to  shake  itself  loose  from  religion, 
he  wrote  "Brand"  and  "Peer  Gynt;" 
looking  at  a  world  needing  new 
social  traditions  he  wrote  "A  Doll's 
House"  and  "Ghosts;"  looking  at 
public  life  that  needed  leaders  of  in- 
tegrity he  wrote  "An  Enemy  of  the 
People"  and  "Rosmersholm ;"  look- 
ing at  individual  conflicts  he  wrote 
"Hedda  Gabler,"  "The  Master 
Builder,"  and  "Little  Eyolf." 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


241 


Every  audience  was  thrilled  wit]? 
Nora's  independence  as  she  declared, 
"First  of  all,  I  am  a  woman,"  in 
"A  Doll's  House,"  and  "Ghosts" 
with  its  grim  echo  "The  sins  of  the 
fathers"  created  a  terrific  uproar. 
Ibsen  answered  with  an  explanation 
of  his  purpose:  'T  have  tried  to 
show  you  that  your  sentimentality 
needs  correction,  you  live  in  'A 
Doll's  House ;'  your  society  is  physi- 
cally and  morally  in  need  of  cleans- 
ing, it  is  full  of  "Ghosts."  I  have 
spoken  thus  for  a  man  shares  the 
responsibility  and  the  guilt  of  the 
society  to  which  he  belongs."  Ibsen, 
as  a  man,  contemplated  mankind. 
He  spoke  denouncing,  exposing^ 
tearing  apart  individuals  as  well  as 
society.  Drama  served  him  as  it 
had  served  no  "Master  builder" 
since  Shakespeare 

Brand — The  Sinner 

Ibsen  says  of  "Brand,"  "It  (.ame 
into  being  as  a  result  of  something 
I  had  experienced."  That  experi- 
ence was  the  teaching  of  the  pastor 
of  Skein :  "Christianity  is  a  gospel 
of  renunciation,  hence  it  is  one  of 
sorrow."  The  gospel  of  "Brand"  is 
"All  or  Nothing."  Brand  failed  be- 
cause he  was  an  idealist  representing 
God  as  wrathful  and  jealous  de- 
manding sacrifice,  and  entirely  neg- 
lecting the  ideal  "God  is  a  God  of 
love." 

Pastor  Brand,  the  hero  of  the 
drama,  adopts  as  his  motto  "All  or 
nothing."  He  is  called  across  the 
fjord  to  minister  to  a  dying  man. 
A  storm  is  raging  and  the  pastor 
calls  for  volunteers  to  row  the  boat. 
No  man  responds  but  a  woman 
volunteers.  Only  that  morning  she 
had  become  betrothed,  but  she  leaves 
her  lover  when  he  refuses  to  steer 
the  boat.  From  that  moment  Agnes 
becomes   the    devoted    follower    of 


Brand  and  later  his  wife.  Both  de- 
vote themselves  to  their  parish, 
striving  always  to  eliminate  personal 
weakness.  Brand  refuses  to  admin- 
ister the  last  sacrament  to  his  mother 
because  she  will  not  give  her  whole 
wealth  to  the  church.  When  a  son 
is  born  to  Agnes  and  Brand,  they  see 
the  babe  pine  for  sunshine.  They 
make  preparations  to  leave  the  vil- 
lage to  save  the  child's  life,  but 
eventually  the  goal  "All  or  nothing" 
forbids.    The  babe  dies. 

It  is  Christmas  Eve  and  Agnes 
would  draw  back  the  curtains  so  the 
light  might  fall  on  the  little  grave. 
Brand  forbids  it.  Later  a  gypsy 
calls  at  the  house  asking  for  clothing 
for  her  child.  Brand  bids  Agnes 
give  the  garments  of  their  child  to 
the  woman.  Agnes  would  save  one 
treasure,  a  little  cap,  but  Brand  de- 
mands "All  or  nothing"  because  this 
is  God's  service.  As  she  yields  in 
anguish  she  cries  out,  "God  is  not 
so  hard  as  you." 

The  struggle  is   too   much  for 
Agnes,  she  dies  and  Brand  is  left, 
the  priest.    Now  he  uses  his  moth- 
er's  wealth   to   build   a   beautiful 
church.     The  peasants  help  with 
the  work.     They  are  so  proud  of 
the  new  edifice.    Angered  by  this 
Brand,  on  the  morning  of  the  dedi- 
cation, locks  the  door  and  throws 
the  key  into  the  lake  telling  the 
flock  "to  go  home  and  dress  your 
souls."    Requesting  the  faithful  to 
follow  him,  Brand  leads  them  to 
the  mountain  heights  to  seek  the 
Ice    Church.      The    peasant    girl, 
Gerd,  leads  them  over  the  moun- 
tain trails.      The  crowd    follows 
eagerly  at  first,  but  when  news  of 
the  herring  shoal  comes  the  crowd 
returns  to  the  village.    Tired  and 
bleeding    Brand    goes    on    alone, 
nothing     daunted.     As    the    ava- 
lanche comes  taking  Brand  a  voice 
is  heard,  "He  is  the  God  of  Love." 


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RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


The  stupendousness  of  the  cre- 
ation of  "Brand"  awes  the  reader 
to  silence.  The  beauty  of  the 
poetry  and  the  intenseness  of  the 
situations  carry  the  message  as  a 
melody.  The  details  of  the  drama 
may  fade  but  never  its  message, 
"All  or  Nothing." 

Peer  Gynt — The  Sinner 

"Peer  Gynt"  is  a  folk-tale,  fan- 
tastic and  imaginative.  Ibsen 
wrote  it  as  an  answer  to  "Brand." 
As  the  situation  in  "Brand"  all 
need  the  power  of  the  will  to  over- 
come them,  so  in  "Peer  Gynt" 
every  situation  presents  the  op- 
portunity for  compromise.  He  is 
a  type  of  humanity  just  as  is 
Brand.  While  Brand  represents 
the  striving  of  man  for  a  greater 
self,  Peer  Gynt  represents  blind 
egotism,  a  soul  in  which  the 
"Gyntish"  self  is  master. 

The  story  opens  at  the  farm  of 
Peer's  mother,  Ase.  Peer  is  being 
scolded  for  his  careless,  lazy 
habits.  He  is  a  pleasure-loving 
rascal  like  the  father  before  him. 
Declaring  that  he  will  be  "King  or 
Kaiser,"  he  lifts  his  mother  to  the 
low  house-roof,  and  goes  to  make 
love  to  the  daughter  of  a  neigh- 
boring farmer.  Next  we  see 
Peer  Gynt  at  the  girl's  betrothal 
feast;  he  has  attended  uninvited. 
For  sheer  mischief  he  persuades 
the  bride  to  elope  with  him.  Next 
morning  he  sends  her  back  to  the 
bridegroom,  because  he  really 
loves  Solveg,  a  peasant  girl.  Peer 
Gynt  is  outlawed  for  his  mischief 
and  goes  to  live  in  the  forest.  Sol- 
veg out  of  love  for  Peer  leaves  her 
home  and  follows  him  to  the  for- 
est. He  is  touched  by  the  girl's 
love  and  purity,  and  is  loath  to 
accept  the  sacrifice.  The  great 
scene  of  the  play  comes  next,  the 
death  of  Ase.    Peer  Gynt  loves  his 


mother.  As  she  lies  suffering 
waiting  for  death,  Peer  comforts 
her  last  hours  with  stories  of  his 
childhood  and  of  Norse  mythology 
thus  "riding  her  over  the  divide." 
After  the  death  of  his  mother, 
Peer  leaves  his  home.  Years  pass 
and  he  becomes  a  "king"  of  com- 
merce in  Morocco.  He  has  been 
trading  in  negro  slaves  for  Caro- 
lina and  idol  images  for  China. 
Losing  his  fortune  he  is  stranded 
with  a  band  of  brigands,  later, 
however,  he  finds  himself  crowned 
emperor  of  an  asylum  in  -Cairo. 
When  an  old  man  Peer  Gynt  re- 
turns home.  As  the  vessel  nears 
the  shore  a  wrecked  vessel  drifts 
by.  Peer  offers  to  pay  the  sailors 
to  go  and  rescue  the  drowning 
men.  Denouncing  the  men  as 
cowards  for  not  helping,  Peer 
Gynt  does  not  risk  his  own  life, 
however.  Upon  landing  he  goes 
to  his  old  forest  home.  There  is 
Solveg  singing  and  waiting.  At 
last  the  better  self  reigns,  but  it 
is  too  late.  Soon  the  Button-Mold- 
er  comes  to  warn  him  to  prepare 
for  death.  Peer  Gynt  has  had  his 
chance  "to  be  a  shining  button  on 
the  vest  of  the  world,"  but  he  is 
found  "not  to  be  one  thing  or  an- 
other." At  last  he  learns  that  in 
seeking  his  own  satisfactions,  he 
has  missed  the  best  in  life. 

Ibsen  attacks  self-sufficiency 
through  the  character  of  Peer 
Gynt.  The  spirit  of  compromise 
avails  nothing;  it  stagnates  and 
prevents  attainment.  The  two 
dramas-  "Brand"  and  "Peer  Gynt" 
let  us  see  the  problem  of  Self— 
Realization  but  they  do  not  offer 
a  solution. 

The  Voice  of  Emerson 

Matthew  Arnold  said  of  Ralph 
Waldo  Emerson,  "He  is  the  friend 
and  aider  of  those  who  would  live 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


243 


in  the  spirit."  This  he  did  first 
by  encouraging  self-reliance,  and 
secondly  by  encouraging  " God- 
reliance." 

Concord,  Massachusetts  claims 
Emerson  as  her  first  citizen,  while 
Boston  boasts  of  him  as  her  native 
son  (1803-1882.)  The  descend- 
ant of  a  long  line  of  ministers,  it 
seemed  inevitable  that  he  should 
go  to  Harvard  and  study  for  the 
ministry.  Of  his  home  life  Emer- 
son* said,  "Toil,  Want,  Truth,  and 
Mutual  Faith  were  the  four  angels 
of  my  mother's  home."  At  the  age 
of  twenty-three  he  was  ordained 
as  a  Unitarian  minister.  It  was 
during  a  period  of  intense  re- 
ligious unrest  that  Emerson  re- 
signed from  the  ministry  because 
he  could  not  agree  with  all  the 
doctrines  of  his  church.  In  sad- 
ness and  poor  health  he  started  on 
his  first  visit  to  Europe  traveling 
in  many  countries  and  visiting 
Landor,  Coleridge,  Wordsworth, 
and  Carlyle  with  whom  he  estab- 
lished a  life-long  friendship.  Up- 
on his  return  Emerson  lived  much 
alone  as  his  poem  "Good-bye"  ex- 
presses : 
"Good-bye,    proud    world!      I'm 

going  home : 
Good-bye   to    Flattery's   fawning 

face : 
To   grandeur  with   his   wise  gri- 
mace; 
To  upstart  Wealth's  averted  eye ; 
To  supple  office,  low  and  high ; 
To  crowded    halls,  to  court    and 
street ; 

To  frozen  hearts  and  hasting  feet ; 
*     *     * 

"O,  when  I  am  safe  in  my  sylvan 

home, 
I  tread  on  the  pride  of  Greece  and 

Rome; 
And  when  I  am  stretched  beneath 

the  pines, 
Where  the  evening  star  so  holy 

shines, 


I  laugh  at  the  lore  and  the  pride 

of  man, 
At   the   sophist   schools   and   the 

learned  clan; 
For  what   are   they   all,   in   their 

high  conceit 
When  man  in  the  bush  with  God 

may  meet?" 
Fortunately,    his   wife's    estate 
brought  him   a   little  income,   so 
that    he    could    live    simply    and 
leisurely  at  Concord. 

The  poems  and  essays  of  Emer- 
son reflect  the  traits  of  the  writer. 
One  critic  has  said  of  him,  "He 
lived  and  wrote  by  a  sort  of  divine 
instinct."  In  his  work  he  was 
highly  individual.  In  his  reading 
and  studying,  in  his  thinking,  in 
his  walks  and  talks,  he  jotted 
down  his  thoughts  just  as  they 
came  to  him.  The  thoughts  were 
organized  later  into  lectures  and 
essays.  Emerson  chose  the  essay 
as  the  literary  form  for  the  ex- 
pression of  his  thoughts,  because 
it  was  the  form  best  fitted  to  them. 
Most  of  Emerson's  life  was  spent 
in  meditation,  writing,  and  lectur- 
ing. 

America  is  proud  to  call  Emer- 
son her  great  thinker,  scholar, 
teacher,  and  philosopher.  Using 
always  the  scholarly  form,  his  ap- 
peal has  been  to  those  who  lived 
in  the  realm  of  thought.  In  his 
wisdom  the  reader  finds  security 
because  it  is  the  wisdom  of  the 
ages.  Emerson  is  one  of  the  great 
forces  in  all  literature. 

"Self-Reliance"  is  Emerson's 
greatest  essay.  Its  theme  is 
"Know  yourself  and  trust  your- 
self." The  self  to  be  trusted  is  not 
the  egoistic  or  selfish  self,  but 
the  divine  self.  The  essay  is  there- 
fore a  mental  and  spiritual  chal- 
lenge. The  thoughts  are  expressed 
sincerely,  earnestly,  and  effect- 
ively. Some  of  the  great  truths 
expressed  can  never  be  forgotten : 


244 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


"Trust  thyself;  every  heart  vi- 
brates to  that  iron  string." 

"To  be  great  is  to  be  misunder- 
stood." 

"Nothing  can  bring  you  peace 
but  the  triumph  of  principles." 

"A  foolish  consistency  is  the 
hobgoblin  of  little  minds." 

"Let  a  man  then,  know  his 
worth,  and  keep  things  under  his 

feet." 

"What  I  must  do  is  all  that  con- 
cerns me,  not  what  people  think." 

"There  is  a  time  in  every  man's 
education  when  he  arrives  at  the 
conviction  that  envy  is  igno- 
rance." 

The  main  divisions  of  the  essay 
follow  the  lines  of  thought : 

I.  Trust  yourself. 
II.  Hindrances  to  self-reliance. 

1.  The  tendency  to  follow 
our  own  past. 

2.  Ignorance  of  self. 

3.  Too  much  deference  to 
others. 

4.  Sincerity  and  independ- 
ence have  been  the  traits 
of  all  great  men. 

III.  The  call  to  self-reliance. 

1.  The     self     is     divine     in 
origin  and  nature,  worthy  to 

be  trusted. 

2.  The  soul  is  original,  self- 
poised,  and  self-sufficient. 

3.  Be  strong  and  follow  truth 
in  all  the  relations  of  life. 

IV.  The    need    for    self-reliance 
everywhere. 

1.  In  society  and  business. 

2.  In  prayer  and  creed. 

3.  In  the  arts. 

4.  In  our  relations  with  so- 
ciety. 

Selections  from  other  essays  by 
Emerson : 

Nature 

"The  difference  between  land- 
scape and  landscape  is  small,  but 
there  is  great  difference  in  be- 
holders." 


Manners 

"The  gentleman  is  a  man  of 
truth,  lord  of  his  own  actions,  and 
expressing  that  lordship  in  his  be- 
havior, not  in  any  manner  de- 
pendent,1 and  servile  either  on  per- 
sons, or  opinions,  or  possessions." 

Friendship 

"A  friend  is  a  person  with  whom 
I  may  be  sincere.  Before  him  I 
may  think  aloud.— A  friend  may 
be  reckoned  the  masterpiece  of 
nature." 
Compensation 

"Every  excess  causes  a  defect, 
every  defect  an  excess. — Nature 
hates  monopolies  and  exceptions. 
— There  is  always  some  leveling 
circumstance  that  puts  down  the 
overbearing,  the  strong,  the  rich, 
the  fortunate,  substantially  on  the 
same  ground  with  all  the  others." 
"The  farmer  imagines  power 
and  place  are  fine  things.  But  the 
President  has  paid  dear  for  his 
White  House." 

"He  who  by  force  of  will  or  of 
thought  is  great  and  overlooks 
thousands,  has  the  responsibility 
of  overlooking." 

In  reading  Emerson  we  know 
we  have  been  on  the  heights ;  he 
leads  us  with  him  "up  the  shining 
trail  of  the  ideal  and  the  eternal." 
We  realize  with  a  new  intensity 
that : 
"Man   is   his   own   star:   and  the 

soul  that  can 
Render  an  honest  and  a  perfect 

man 
Commands  all  light,  all  influence, 

all  fate; 
Nothing  to  him  falls  early  or  too 

late. 
Our  acts  our  angels  are,  or  good 

or  ill, 
Our  fatal  shadows  that  walk  by 

us   still." 

*     *     * 

"The  aids  to  noble  life  lie  within 
us." 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


245 


Suggestions  for  Study, 

A.  Materials: 

1.  The  Story  of  the  World's 
Literature — Macy.  Chap- 
ters 46,  48. 

2.  The  Outline  of  Literature — 
Drinkwater. 

3.  Essays — Emerson. 

4.  Brand — Ibsen. 

5.  Peer  Gynt — Ibsen. 

B.  Program : 

1.  Music: 

Selections      from      Grieg's 
"Peer  Gynt"  suite. 


2.  Discussion : 

a.  The  Spiritual  Values  of 
Literature. 

3.  Reviews : 

a.  Brand. 

b.  Peer  Gynt. 

4.  Readings : 

a.  Selections    from    Emer- 
son's Essays. 

C.  Method: 

The  lesson   is   planned   as  the 
closing  program  of  the  year. 

The  message  of  the  lesson  is  the 
important  thing. 


Social  Service 

(Fourth  Week  in  April) 
Home  and  School 


The  major  function  of  the  home 
is  the  care  and  training  of  Children. 
The  activities  of  the  home  are  man- 
aged in  diverse  ways  by  the  parents 
themselves  and  are  financed  pri- 
vately from  the  earnings  of  the 
members  of  the  family  group.  The 
state  or  public  has  interfered  by 
regulating  family  life  only  by  pre- 
venting abandonment  of  children  or 
undue  cruelty  to  or  neglect  of  them. 
The  major  function  of  schoojs  is  the 
training  of  children.  At  first  this 
aim  was  wholly  one  of  removing  il- 
literacy. The  rise  of  popular  gov- 
ernment required  a  common  training 
in  citizenship.  In  later  years  the 
preparation  of  the  child  for  certain 
vocations  and  training  in  social  con- 
duct and  the  correct  moral  use  of 
leisure  time  have  been  made  func- 
tions of  the  school.  Schools  are 
financed  in  a  cooperative  way  by 
taxation.  This  lesson  aims  to  en- 
courage class  members  to  think  out 
clearly  the  relationships  between 
these  two  major  institutions.  These 
relationships  should  include  the  fol- 
lowing : 


1.  Recognition  of  the  specific  re- 
sponsibilities of  the  home. 

2.  Recognition  of  the  specific  re- 
sponsibilities of  the  school. 

3.  Analyses  of  cooperative  re- 
sponsibilities. 

4.  Analyses  of-  possible  points  of 
conflict. 

5.  Relationships  between  respon- 
sibilities and  support. 

6.  The  dangers  to  childhood  and 
to  society  in  conflict  between  the 
two  institutions 

Suggestions  for  Procedure : 

Plan  the  lesson  carefully  in  the 
light  of  the  six  aims. 

Assign  the  reading  guide  and  ask 
the  class  members  to  come  prepared 
to  discuss  the  six  aims.  As  each 
aim  is  discussed  the  class  leader 
should  apply  fae  interpretation  of 
the  material  outlined  from  the  report 
of  the  White  House  Conference  and 
the  discussions  given  below. 

Reading  guide  for  class  members : 
Personality,  pp.  11-20. 

Note  the  emphasis  of  the  child  as 
the  objective  in  both  institutions. 


246 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


Do  you  feel  that  the  author  tends 
to  make  the  home  a  means  to  school 
success  ? 

Historically  which  is  the  helping 
institution  ? 

What  seems  to  be  the  chief  reason 
for  the  school  being  more  efficient 
and  therefore,  seeming  to  be  more 
important  now? 

Three  problems  for  cooperation 
are  specifically  pointed  out  and  dis- 
cussed : 

1.  The  child's  health: 

Notice  carefully  what  is  out- 
lined as  the   responsibility  of 
the  home  in  this  matter. 
Are   equally   definite    require- 
ments stated  for  the  schools? 

2.  School  aims  and  methods  : 
Who  should  formulate  school 
aims  ? 

What  factors  are  to  be  con- 
sidered by  the  parents  in  train- 
ing the  child  to  begin  school  ? 
Should  parents  dictate  school 
methods  of  precedence? 
Should  parents  know  about 
these  methods? 

What  cooperation  is  necessary 
when  a  pupil's  program  is  mod- 
ified because  of  peculiarities 
indicated  by  psychological  tests 
or  other  examinations? 
Is  the  decision  not  to  have 
home  study  to  be  made  by 
teachers  or  parents?  Why? 
Can  the  home  help  in  teaching 
the  formal  school  studies? 
Should  it  do  so?  Note  the 
social  as  well  as  the  school  an- 
swer to  this  question. 
Is  the  "strain"  that  often  ac- 
companies school  work  due  to 
the  school  or  to  parental  stand- 
ards? 

Does  the  best  education  point 
the  child  back  into  his  home  or 
away  from  it? 

3.  Satisfaction  of  inner  needs  so 
that  the  emotional  desires  are 
met. 


Note  carefuly  how  this  prob- 
lem changes  the  various  charac- 
teristic periods  of  childhood 
represented  by  the  various 
school  levels. 

In  what  ways  is  independence 
desired  ? 

How  are  the  congenial  human 
relations  developed? 
Of  what  types  of  pupil  achieve- 
ment should  the  parents  be 
particularly  proud? 
To  what  extent  should  teachers 
modify  school  programs  be- 
cause of  different  home  condi- 
tions ? 

The    questions    given    in    the 
booklet   are   based   on  an   as- 
sumed survey  of  school  condi- 
tions in  each  community.    It  is 
worth   while   to   find   out   the 
facts  called  for. 
Suggestions  based  on  the  White 
House  Conference  Report  and  sup- 
plemented by  the  author  of  the  les- 
sons. 

1.  The  function  of  the  home. 
Louis  Stanley  discusses  the  fol- 
lowing three  basic  purposes  of 
the  family: 

a.  care  and  training  of  the 
young. 

b.  the  nurturing  of  traditions. 

c.  "building  up  of  an  adult 
family  life  which  will  send 
out  individuals  better  able 
to  face  life  than  were  their 
parents."  pp.  133ff 

He  points  out  clearly  (p.  135) 
that  the  chief  determining  fac- 
tor in  the  training  value  of  the 
home  is  the  interplay  of  person- 
alities. The  home  must  there- 
fore, be  a  real  social  institution. 
The  standards  of  the  family 
need  to  be  such  as  deviate  in  an 
acceptable  way  from  the  social 
norm  or  a  handicap  is  placed  on 
the  child  by  his  home  or  family. 
As  an  illustration:  A  young 
student  guide  at  Berea  College 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


247 


refused  to  give  her  home  town 
or  family  status  in  the  face  of 
persistent  questioning.  Her 
ideals  had  exceeded  her  home 
realities  and  she  was  exerting 
energy  to  overcome,  as  she 
thought  necessary,  the  home 
influence. 

The  physical  care  of  the  child 
is  dependent  on  the  knowledge 
of  the  parents  and  the  health- 
ful provisions  in  the  home.  It 
is  forcefully  pointed  out  (p. 
138)  that  there  is  an  economic 
limit  below  which  children  can- 
not be  well  cared  for.  Parents 
must  think  vigorously  of  the 
inherent  individual  and  social 
dangers  of  forcing  back  on  the 
home  for  individual  direction 
and  financing  of  many  of  the 
present  school  functions,  at  a 
time  when  home  poverty  is 
more  acute  than  it  has  been 
for  years.  Cooperative  financ- 
ing is  still  the  only  safe  method. 
It  may  be  necessary  to  reduce 
the  support  for  these  public 
Child-care  institutions  but  this 
does  not  imply  the  necessity  for 
shifting  the  burden  back  to  the 
home  that  is  already  in  poverty. 
The  findings  regarding  the  so- 
cial status  of  the  modern  family 
are  summarized  on  page  142 
and  are  worth  studying. 
2.  The  responsibilities  of  the 
school. 

The  school  is  an  agent  for  child 
care  and  training.  No  child 
should  be  sacrificed  to  the  per- 
petuation of  any  part  of  the 
school.  The  literary  training 
is  a  traditional  responsibility. 
Health  as  an  aim  is  new.  It 
is  emphatic  (p.  170)  that  all 
details  of  school  instruction 
should  be  so  organized  and 
managed  that  the  health  of  the 
child  is  conserved.  The  reading 
guide  material  emphasizes  spe- 


cific intellectual  goals  for  each 
level  of  school.  Reading,  num- 
ber calculations,  spelling,  cor- 
rect and  ready  language,  and 
facts  of  geography,  history  and 
science  are  to  be  taught  by  the 
school.  These  must  be  taught 
in  such  a  way  that  interest  in 
them  carries  over  to  the  use  of 
reading  and  observation  as  lei- 
sure time  pleasures.  The  at- 
titudes developed  as  a  result  of 
the  intellectual  generalizations 
formed  at  school  should  lead  to 
good  fellowship,  friendliness,  a 
desire  to  work  and  civic  loyalty. 
All  this  is  the  specific  purpose 
of  the  school. 
3.  The  cooperative  activities  are 
stressed  in  the  reading  material 
in  the  pamphlet.  Cooperation 
in  the  health  work  is  outlined 
in  the  Conference  report  p.  186. 
Perhaps  the  greatest  single 
field  of  cooperative  training  is 
in  the  field  of  character.  Home 
life  should  exemplify  what  is 
desired  of  children.  School 
should  be  conducted  so  that  the 
acceptable  virtues  are  reward- 
ed. Neither  can  justly  place 
the  blame  on  the  other  for 
character  failures.  Cooperation 
in  character  education  must  ex- 
tend out  to  other  community 
agencies.  Church  instruction 
should  be  adapted  to  modern 
problems  in  modern  condi- 
tions. If  there  is  a  con- 
flict of  standards  between  the 
church,  the  school,  homes,  the 
community  government,  and 
others  a  young  person  is  left 
practically  without  guidance.  In 
a  recent  scale  prepared  by  Dr. 
Goodwin  Watson  for  rating 
the  home  contribution  to  per- 
sonality development  of  chil- 
dren one  item  is  stated  as  fol- 
lows: 
Negative  extreme.   "Parents 


248 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


easily  upset,  grow  emotional, 
evade  or  lie  in  matters  of 
guilt,  death,  sex,  status,  criti- 
cisms, relatives,  religion,  etc. 
Positive  extreme:  "Parents 
emotionally  mature,  face 
problems  frankly,  good  self- 
insight,  essentially  honest  in 
dealing  with  other  persons, 
especially  with  the  child. " 
If  all  homes  rated  high  toward 
the  positive  extreme ;  if  what 
the  child  learns  from  the  habits, 
likes,  tastes,  tricks,  sense  of 
justice,  degree  of  humor,  and 
courtesy  of  the  teacher  are  all 
wholesome;  and  if  all  school 
instruction  is  such  that  real 
permanent  interests  are  devel- 
oped and  morbid  fears  elimina- 
ted and  learning  motivated  on 
a  high  plane,  then  home  and 
school  are  cooperating  for 
character  education.  The  class 
might  well  make  a  verbal  sur- 
vey of  the  extent  of  such  co- 
operation in  the  community. 
Are  there  cases  of  parents  who 
become  angry  at  the  teacher 
and  try  to  force  promotions, 
etc?  Are  there  parents  who 
defend  their  children  in  cases 
of  malicious  mischief?  Are 
there  parents  who  think  of 
school  success  only  in  terms  of 
high  marks  no  matter  how  ob- 
tained? Are  there  teachers 
who  send  notes  home  demand- 
ing that  parents  motivate  the 
children?  Do  children  report 
some  courses  as  special  occa- 
sions for  cheating?  Are  some 
required  high  school  courses 
disliked  by  most  pupils  ?  Are 
there  some  teachers  universally 
disliked  by  pupils?  These  are 
typical  questions  to  be  an- 
swered in  this  survey  of  co- 
operation. 
4.  Points  of  conflict  between  home 
and  school  are  numerous  and 


yet  all  avoidable.  To  prevent 
conflicts  it  is  necessary  that 
parents  and  teachers  both  have 
a  common  aim  for  school  work 
— the  welfare  of  the  child. 
Schools  are  not  organized  as  an 
agency  for  satisfying  the  social 
pride  of  parents  often  at  the 
expense  of  a  child's  welfare. 
Parental  demands  for  marks 
and  special  classification  of  pu- 
pils on  this  basis  mar  the  spirit 
of  cooperation. 

Schools  likewise  should  never 
be  used  by  teachers  for  expres- 
sing personal  prejudice. 
Schools  are  not  organized  to 
subsidize  the  private  business 
of  a  community.  What  is 
bought  for  school  use  should  be 
determined  by  its  educational 
usefulness.  Persons  Who  are 
employed  to  teach  or  do  other 
work  should  be  fully  qualified 
to  perform  the  task. 
Schools  are  not  agents  of 
propaganda  for  special  inter- 
ests. The  curriculum  should  be 
controlled  by  the  consideration 
of  general  educational  values. 
The  content  of  textbooks 
should  be  scientific  and  accu- 
rate. No  child  in  school  should 
be  subjected  to  the  influences 
of  special  advertising  or  sales- 
manship activities. 
Schools  are  not  agents  for  the 
general  welfare  which  is 
achieved  by  common  training 
of  all  citizens.  Demands  for 
extensive  vocational  training 
programs,  and  special  social 
privileges  increase  the  cost  ex- 
cessively and  complicate  the 
problem  of  training  for  Ameri- 
can Citizenship. 
In  a  sense  schools  are  designed 
to  perpetuate  traditions  and 
culture.  Teachers  should  not 
use  this  as  a  justification  for 
not  training  pupils  to  solve  the 


LESSON  DEPARTMENT 


249 


problems  of  the  present  and  to 
face  the  future.  When  time  is 
limited  some  of  the  traditional 
requirements  may  have  to  go. 
Broad  aims  demand  a  variety 
of  program  The  new  school 
cannot  be  run  as  was  the  old 
school.  Teachers  should  not 
try  to  develop  independence  in 
children  by  old  school-master 
autocracy.  Parents  must  not 
cry  for  the  type  of  management 
of  the  good  old  days.  Both 
must  see  the  problem  involved 
in  the  new  demands  of  the 
school. 

Misuse  of  marks,  test  results 
and  formal  assignments  lead  to 
misunderstanding.  Teachers 
often  proclaim  the  breadth  of 
aim  but  reward  and  judge  only 
by  absolute  results  in  formal 
learning.  Parents  often  demand 
recognition  for  children  which 
will  be  unfairly  influential  in 
their  standard  of  values.  In 
both  cases  too  much  emphasis 
on  the  uniform  intellectual  re- 
sults leads  to  cheating  or  other 
manifestation  of  fear. 
Both  school  and  home  must  ad- 
just in  programming.  Absence 
interferes  with  the  regularity 
of  school  work.  Over  emphasis 
by  teachers  on  attendance  often 
cause  serious  home  embarrass- 
ments. The  only  ground  for 
adjustment  is  for  each  to  do 
the  thing  that  is  for  the  best  of 
the  child. 

Motives  must  inhere  in  each 
institution,  but  one  may  sup- 
plement the  other.  Teachers 
should  supplement  interest  in 
school  work  and  develop  in  the 
pupils  the  drive  that  will  carry 
it  forward.  Home  approval 
gives  zest  to  school  work. 
Parents  must  develop  purposes 
in  the  minds  of  children  for 
doing  the  work  of  the  home. 


Teachers  make  this  more  at- 
tractive by  encouragement  and 
recognition. 

One  fundamental  principle 
should  guide  all  of  these  seem- 
ing points  of  conflict — school 
and  the  parental  home  are  both 
temporary  in  the  life  of  the 
child.  Both  are  instruments  of 
cultural  training  for  a  different 
life  from  either  one. 
5.  The  Relationships  between  re- 
sponsibilities and  support. 
In  origin  school  is  a  secondary 
institution.  Its  function  was 
delegated  to  it  by  parents.  It 
remains  a  service  institution 
supported  by  public  funds.  If 
civilization  is  to  continue  the 
functions  now  performed  by. 
public  education,  must  continue 
to  be  performed  either  in 
school  or  elsewhere.  If  they 
are  performed  in  school  they 
must  be  paid  for  by  taxation. 
If  performed  in  the  home  or  by 
volunteer  activity  they  will  be 
paid  for  in  other  ways.  It  is 
a  doctrine  ingrained  in  Ameri- 
can life  that  property  shall  be 
taxed  for  the  education  of  chil- 
dren. If  a  group  of  workers 
are  to  be  trained  specially  for 
public  school  work  they  should 
be  assured  a  professional  em- 
ployment status  and  a  living 
income.  The  service  is  to  the 
children.  People  now  are 
spending  from  two  to  four  per- 
cent of  their  income  for  the 
education  of  the  children.  They 
must  continue  such  support. 
Economy  in  organization  and 
management  should  be  secured 
through  Boards  of  Education. 
The  school  profession  cannot 
maintain  schools  without  the 
support  of  the  people  who 
created  the  schools  to  perform 
a  cooperative  function. 
It  is  clearly  the  responsibility 


250 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


of  the  school  profession  to  con- 
duct good  schools  at  all  times. 
It  is  clearly  the  responsibility 
of  the  public  to  support  good 
schools.     Neither  can  shift  the 
burden  to  the  other.     In  any 
case  in  which  class  conflict  be- 
tween school  workers  and  tax 
payers  develop  there  is  present 
a  misunderstanding  of  the  prin- 
ciples set  forth  in  this  lesson. 
Counts    says    (The    American 
Road  to  Culture,  pp.  16-17) 
"Confront     practically     any 
group  of  citizens  with  a  dif- 
ficult problem  in  the  sphere 
of  human  relations  and  they 
will  suggest  education  as  the 
solution.     Indeed  this  belief 
in  the  general  beneficence  of 
education  is  one  of  the  fe- 
tishes  of   American   society. 


Although    the    processes    of 
tuition  may  be  but  obscurely 
understood    by    the    popular 
mind,    they   are    thought   to 
possess    something    akin    to 
magical  power.    Perhaps  the 
most  striking  aspect  of  this 
phenomenon,  however,  lies  in 
the    fact    that    education    is 
identified  with  the  work  of 
the  school ;  as  a  consequence 
the    faith    in    education    be- 
comes a  faith  in  the  school, 
and  the  school  is  looked  upon 
as  a  worker  of  miracles.     In 
fact,  the  school  is  the  Ameri- 
can road  to  culture. " 
It  is  in  school  that  childhood 
is  trained.     Home  makes  life 
of  children  secure.    Both  must 
work  together  in  understand- 
ing and  appreciation. 


By  Henry  F.  Kirkham 

Oh,  once  I  sang  grandly  the  glory  of  war, 
Of  the  bugle's  clear  call,  the  guns'  sullen  roar; 
But  always  there  ran  through  that  martial  refrain 
The  cries  of  the  wounded,  the  tears  of  the  slain. 

Again,  I  sang  proudly  the  song  of  the  great, 

Of  the  fulness  of  life,  the  masters  of  fate; 

Yet  softly  as  shadows  that  creep  through  a  nave, 

Came  faint  echoes  sighing — "all  lost  in  the  grave." 

So  ever  runs  lightly  that  sad  note  I  name, 
"What  use  of  mere  riches,  what  hope  in  mere  fame?" 
When  even  the  love  of  a'  man' for  a  maid 
Like  roses  may  wither,  like  twilight  may  fade. 

Still  somewhere,  I'm  sure,  there's  a  song  I  shall  sing, 
Full-throated  and  pure  as  a  lark  on  the  wing; 
Like  the  stars  of  heaven  resplendent  above, 
Just  a  song  of  sweet  childhood,  a  song  of  true  love. 


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THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Organ  of  the  Relief  Society  of  the  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints 

Vol.  XXI  MAY,  1934  No.  5 

CONTENTS 

Cherry  Trees  in  Bloom Frontispiece 

On  Mother's  Day Mabel  S.   Harmer  251 

Little  Pretty  Pocket  Book Florence  Ivins  Hyde  253 

The  Universal  Mother Mary  Grant  Judd  259 

The  Living  Flame Vesta  P.  Crawford  261 

An  Ode  to  Mother Mary  E.  S.  Abel  263 

The  Relief  Society  Conference Julia  A.  F.  Lund  264 

Officers'  Department   264 

General  Session    274 

Ordinary    Mother    Dorothy    Clapp    Robinson  294 

Mother's:   Day    Marie  296 

Anne  Brent,   Helpmate Elsie  C.  Carroll  297 

Mother    Roxana  Farnsworth  Hise  301 

Peace   Nicholas  Murray  Butler  301 

Mother's   Day    Fontella   S.   Calder  302 

Thinking  of  You Bertha  A.   Kleinman  307 

Cherry  Blossoms  and  Washington  Monument 307 

Happenings  Annie  Wells  Cannon  308 

My  N.  R.  A.  Border Hattie  M.  Moore  309 

For  Young  Mothers Holly  Baxter  Keddington  310 

Let's  Go  A-Maying Estelle  Webb  Thomas  311 

Since  Mother  Went  Away Coral  J.  Black  312 

Cost  of  War   313 

Relief  Society  Annual  Report 314 

Editorial — New  Government   Relief   Plan 317 

Mother's   Day    318 


PUBLISHED  MONTHLY  BY  THE  GENERAL  BOARD  OF 

RELIEF  SOCIETY 

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When  Buying  Mention  Relief  Society  Magazine 


f 


n 


I 


On  cMother's  ^Day^ 

By  Mabel  S.  Harmer 

Today  you  brought  me  roses  and  choice  gifts, 
Dear  ones — you  did  not  know 

From  memory's  storehouse  came  more  precious  ones 
Given  long  ago. 

The  touch  of  baby  arms  about  my  neck 
When  eventide  was  near,* 
The  smile  that  struggled  for  supremacy 
Over  a  wilful  tear. 

The  night  that  John  had  hurt  his  arm 
And  hid  his  childish  woe 
Into  a  pillow  with  his  stifled  sobs 
That  mother  might  not  know. 

The  day  that  Nancy,  radiant  with  young  love 
Sat  smiling  at  my  feet 

And  whispered  of  the  joy  that  now  was  hers, 
So  old — yet  ever  sweet! 

Flowers,  however  fair,  will  droop  and  fade, 
Their  moment  quickly  goes, 
But  golden  hours  you  gave  will  always  live — 
Far  lovelier  than  the  rose! 


Th. 


^Relief  Society  cMa^azine 


Vol.  XXT 


MAY.     1934 


No.  5 


"Little  Pretty  Pocket  Book" 

By  Florence  Ivins  Hyde 

The  material  for  this  article  has  been  gleaned  from  encyclopedias,  histories,  magazine 
articles  and  pamphlets  by  Miss  Caun  of  the  American  Library  Association 


THE  awarding  of  the  first  New- 
bery  Prize  in  1922  gave  rise 
to  a  new  interest  not  only  in 
literature  for  children,  but  in  John 
Newbery,  himself.  Students  were 
led  to  search  old  bookshops  and  rec- 
ords here  and  in  Europe  for  the  story 
of  the  evolution  of  juvenile  books, 
which  proved  to  be  as  romantic  and 
fascinating  a  story  as  any  in  litera- 
ture. The  beginning  of  the  story  for 
the  purpose  of  teaching  is  lost  in 
antiquity,  but  the  development  of 
juvenile  books  can  be  traced  by  sev- 
eral definite  landmarks. 

PHE  first  implement  for  teaching 
children  to  read  was  known  as 
the  Horn  Book.  It  was  a  leaf  of 
paper  about  3  in.  in  width  by  5  in.  in 
length,  containing  the  alphabet,  some 
letter  combinations,  and  the  Lord's 
Prayer,  mounted  on  wood  with  a 
hole  for  a  string  which  fastened  it 
to  the  girdle.  The  paper  was  cov- 
ered with  a  piece  of  transparent  horn 
(to  save  it  from  being  "spoiled  by 
the  wet  and  dirty  fingers  of  the  little 
ones")  fastened  to  the  wood  by 
brass  edging  and  small  nails.  This 
little  Horn-Book  is  what  the  poet 
Cowper  described  as — 


''Neatly  secured   from  being  soiled 

or  torn, 
Beneath  a  pane  of  thin  transparent 

horn, 
A  book  to  please  us  at  our  tender 

age. 
'Tis  called  a  book   (though  but  a 

single  page), 
Presents   the   prayer   our    Saviour 

deigned  to  teach, 
Wihich   children   use,  and   parsons 

when  they  preach." 

This  Horn-Book  was  the  type 
used  by  the  common  folk  but  for 
the  aristocracy,  the  wooden  backs 
were  sometimes  covered  w  i  t  h 
stamped  leather  or  silver,  or  made 
of  bone,  ivory,  or  other  fine  substi- 
tute. At  the  top  of  the  page  was  a 
cross  for  at  that  time  the  children 
were  all  good  Catholics  and  at  the 
beginning  of  each  lesson  they  were 
taught  to  cross  themselves  and  say. 
"God  speed  me,  A,  B,  C." 

Until  the  art  of  printing  became 
perfected,  these  little  Horn  Books 
were  made  by  using  wood  cuts  for 
both  the  letters  and  illustrations. 
When  the  first  English  Primers  were 
printed  this  original  Horn  Book- 
formed  the  first  page  and  so  it  be- 


254 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


THE  HORN  BOOK 

came  the  germ  from  which  all  subse- 
quent primers  have  developed.  The 
Pilgrim  fathers  brought  it  to  Ameri- 
ca with  them.  There  is  a  record  of 
one  clergyman  who  had  the  crosses 
erased  before  he  passed  them  out. 
Now,  they  are  exceedingly  rare,  on- 
ly three  or  four  specimens  being  in 
this  country.  One  sold  in  London 
in  1865  for  $350. 

From  this  the  famous  New  Eng- 
land Primer  developed.  It  is  said 
that  there  never  was  printed  a  work 
in  America  without  any  claim  to  in- 
spiration, whose  influence  in  its  day 
was  so  extended  as  that  of  this  book, 
which  for  a  century  and  a  half  was 
the  first  book  in  religion  and  morals, 
as  well  as  in  learning  and  in  litera- 
ture.   It  was  called  the  "Little  Bible 


of  New  England."  It  contained 
hymns,  prayers,  proverbs,  etc.  The 
following  quotations  are  taken  from 
the  first  page : 

"Children  obey  your   Parents  in 
the  Lord,  for  this  is  right." 

"God  will  have  no  time  to  save  us, 
if  we  find  no  day  to  serve  him." 

"Shall  we  have  six  days  in  seven 
and  God  not  one?" 

Children,  probably,  liked  better  to 
read  such  verses  as  these  : 

"The  dog  will  bite  the  thief  at 
night,"  or 

"An  idle  fool  is  whipped  at 
school." 

Children,  perhaps,  didn't  enjoy  so 
much  hearing  the  teacher  say, 
"Stand  up  and  say  your  catechism," 
for  if  the  child  had  been  idle  and  had 
not  learned  it,  he  was  likely  to  feel 
the  whip  about  his  legs  or  the  pinch- 
ers on  his  ears;  and  he  might  even 
spend  the  rest  of  the  day  on  the  dunce 
stool.  This  primer  was  compiled  by 
Ministers  of  the  gospel  for  the  chil- 
dren of  Puritan  parents  as  is  indi- 
cated by  this  rhyme  on  the  last 
page: 

"Thus  end  the  days  of  woeful  youth, 
Who  wont  obey  nor  mind  the  truth  ; 
Nor  hearken  to  what  preachers  say, 
But  do  their  parents  disobey. 
They  in  their  youth  go  down  to  hell. 
Unto  eternal  wrath  to  dwell 
Many  don't  live  out  half  their  days. 
For  cleaving  unto  sinful  ways." 

PHE  next  landmark  was  known 
as  the   Battledore,   which   was 
printed   on   cardboard    and    folded 
down  the  middle.    These  little  books 
contained    fables,    stories,    pictures, 
and  reading  lessons  such  as  the  fol- 
lowing: "I  pray  God  to  bless  my 
Father  and   Mother,    Brothers  and 
Sisters,  and  all  my  Good   Friends, 
and  my  Enemies.    Amen." 
"He  that  learns  not  his  A,  B,  C, 
Forever  will  a  Blockhead  be, 
But  he  that  learns  his  letters  fair, 


'LITTLE  PRETTY  POCKET  BOOK" 


255 


Shall  have  a  coach  to  take  the  Air." 
They  were  sold  at  one  penny  each, 
plain,  and  two  pence,  colored. 

HpHEN  followed  the  little  Chap 
Books,  so  called  because  they 
were  sold  from  door  to  door  by 
Chapmen  or  traveling  Peddlers. 
They  were  first  printed  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  eighteenth  century,  but 
many  of  the  crude  illustrations  date 
from  a  hundred  years  before  that 
time  and  the  stories,  themselves,  are 
often  still  older.  Many  thousands 
of  these  little  books  were  sold,  for 
they  were  the  only  literature  of  the 
people,  old  and  young,  for  many 
years.  They,  too,  are  very  rare. 
As  long  ago  as  the  time  of  Sir  Walt- 
er Scott,  he  wrote,  "These  books, 
once  sold  at  the  low  and  easy  price 
of  a  half-penny,  lare  now  worth 
their  weight  in  gold."  The  finest 
collection  in  America  is  owned  by 
Harvard  College. 

OEFORE  this  time,  children's 
books  had  had  education  rather 
than  entertainment  for  their  main 
purpose.  It  remained  for  John  New- 
bery  to  make  use  of  the  little  Chap 
Books  for  entertainment.  He  is 
called  the  "Father  of  Children's  Lit- 
erature" because  he  was  the  first 
bookseller  to  make  the  business  of 
children's  books  important.  He  was 
born  in  1713  in  a  small  village  in 
England.  While  a  boy  he  read  all 
the  books  he  could  obtain,  and,  al- 
though he  had  little  schooling,  he  be- 
came a  very  good  English  scholar. 
He  was  not  satisfied  with  being  a 
farmer  as  his  father  had  been,  but 
went  to  work  as  an  apprentice  to 
the  editor  of  a  newspaper,  laying 
the  foundation  for  his  later  work  as 
a  publisher.  In  his  own  bookshop 
in  London,  called  the  "Bible  and 
Crown,"  John  Newbery  published 
a  book  under  the  intriguing  title, 
"Little  Pretty  Pocket  Book,"  which 
so  far  as  it  is  known,  was  the  first 


book  ever  published  solely  for  chil- 
dren, and  for  which  he  became  fam- 
ous. On  the  frontispiece  appeared 
the  words,  "Instruction  With  De- 
light," but  written  in  Latin.  This 
was  a  bold  inscription  for  those  times 
for  no  one  before  had  dared  to  sug- 
gest that  children's  books  should  give 
them  delight. 

Other  books  which  have  since  be- 
come children's  classics,  such  as 
Aesop's  Fables,  Pilgrim's  Progress, 
Robinson  Crusoe,  and  Gulliver's 
Travels,  had  been  written  much  earli- 
er, some  at  least  two  centuries  be- 
fore. They,  however,  were  not  writ- 
ten for  children  but,  rather  for 
adults.  John  Newbery  was  the  only 
person  of  his  day  to  establish  a  per- 
manent shop  for  the  publication  of 
juvenile  books,  and  the  first  publisher 
to  issue  them  for  the  "enjoyment  of 
children." 

"Not  only  was  the  subject  matter 
of  his  books  important  to  Newbery, 
but  he  was  also  particular  about 
their  form.  Some  of  them  were 
bound  in  plain  calf,  with  an  open 
back  in  green  vellum  and  green  pa- 
per. Many  of  them  were  strongly 
bound  in  gilt  and  flowered  Dutch 
paper.  This  was  rather  thin  with 
floral  patterns  in  red,  blue,  green, 
and  gold.  All  the  coloring  was,  ap- 
parently, done  by  hand.  The  covers 
when  new,  looked  very  gay ;  but 
as  they  aged,  they  faded  out,  so  that 
they  gave  the  effect  of  old  chintz ; 
and  later  they  turned  to  mahogany 
brown."  The  secret  process  by 
which  this  paper  was  made  has  long 
since  been  lost. 

This  typical'  newspaper  advertise- 
ment indicates  that  Newbery  under- 
stood well  the  art  of  advertising: 
"This  day  was  published  Nurse 
Trueloves  New  Year's  Gift,  or  the 
book  of  books  for  children  adorned 
with  cuts,  and  designed  as  a  present 
for  the  very  little  boy  who  would 
become  a  great  man  and  ride  upon 


256 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


a  tine  horse  ;  and  to  every  little  girl 
who  would  become  a  great  woman, 
and  ride  in  a  lord-mayor's  gilt 
coach.  Printed  for  the  author,  who 
has  ordered  these  books  to  be  given 
gratis  to  all  little  boys  and  girls,  at 
the  Bible  and  Sun  in  St.  Paul's 
Churchyard,  they  paying  for  the 
binding,  which  is  only  twopence  each 
book." 

For  the  first  time  in  history, 
through  the  effort  of  Newbery,  writ- 
ers of  distinction  became  interested 
in  children's  things.  Such  men  as 
Oliver  Goldsmith  and  some  of  the 
finest  artists  of  the  time,  wrote  and 
complied  with  Xewbery,  juvenile 
books.  Very  few  of  them  remain. 
"Goody  Two  Shoes"  is  best  known 
to  us.  It  was  written  by  Goldsmith 
about  1 766.  The  original  manuscript 
was  placed  in  the  Vatican  at  Rome. 
On  the  frontispiece  the  publisher  has 
written,  "for  the  benefit  of  those 

Who  from  a  state  of  rags  and  care, 
And  having  shoes  but  half  a  pair, 
Their  fortune  and  their  fame  would  fix. 
And  gallop  in   a  coach  and   six." 

Another     little     book,     "Mother 


Goose's  Melody,"  was  compiled  by 
Oliver  Goldsmith.  The  binding  is 
in  Gilt  Pattern  Dutch  paper  used 
to  "gild  the  pill"  of  knowledge.  On 
the  front  page  is  the  following: 

Mother  Goose  Melody ; 
or 

Sonnets   for  the  cradle. 

In  Two  Parts, 

Part    I.      Contains    the    most   celebrated 

songs  and  lullabies  of  the  Old  British 

Nurses,   calculated   to   amuse   children 

and  to  excite  them  to  sleep. 
Part    II.     Those   of   the   sweet   songster 

and  Nurse  of  Wit  and  Humor,  Master 

William   Shakespeare. 
Embellished    with    cuts    and    Illustrated 

with    Notes    and    Maxims,    Historical. 

Philosophical,    and    Critical. 

Some  of  the  rhymes  and  maxims 
are  coarse  and  free,  like  the  humor 
of  the  time,  but  some  are  really 
funny,  and  some  are  wise  as,  ''The 
surest  way  to  gain  our  end  is  to 
moderate  our  desires."  And  some 
are  very  fine  such  as,  "Hark,  Hark, 
the  Lark." 

This  is  the  original  collection  of 
rhymes  and  jingles  of  Mother  Goose 
from  wThich  all  other  editions  have 
sprung. 


'LITTLE  PRETTY  POCKET  BOOK" 


2& 


"J^HE  Old  Woman  and  Her  Pig" 
was  the  original  "Toy  Book," 
published  by  John  Newbery.  All 
these  little  books  are  charming  in 
color  as  well  as  in  design  and  it  is 
sometimes  questioned  whether  we 
realize  as  well  as  the  publishers  of 
old  the  value  of  simplicity  in  books 
for  the  young.  The  illustrations  are 
done  in  colors  of  red,  blue,  green, 
yellow,  with  plenty  of  white  spaces 
and  not  too  much  design. 

HPHESE  quaint  little  penny  books 
are  highly  prized  today.     The 


originals  are  owned  by  only  the  great 
and  rich  collectors.  Mr.  Charles 
Welch,  an  American  publisher, 
has  spent  large  sums  of  money  dupli- 
cating these  rare  old  books  for  the 
children  of  this  country.  Helen 
Martin  has  written,  "To  the  child 
of  the  eighteenth  century,  life  was 
pictured  as  a  harsh  time.  Into  the 
midst  of  this  dreary  scene  came  John 
Newbery.  Charming  little  books,  all 
flowery  and   gilt,   created   by   some 


of  the  great  of  the  day,  were  pub- 
lished and  sold  in  the  shop  of  this 
"genial  friend  of  all  mankind."  On 
shelves  close  at  hand,  as  though  to 
complete  the  circle  of  childhood's 
pleasures,  were  shining  new  red 
balls,  blue  pincushions,  gay  green 
tops.  Smiling,  indulgent  mothers 
were  drawn  into  this  colorful  shop 
by  pantaletted,  organdie-gowned  lit- 
tle girls,  or  sedate,  black-dressed 
little  boys,  who  sighed  for  "Goody 
Two  Shoes"  or  "Tommy  Trip." 
When  John  Newbery  died,  he  had 
participated  in  a  literary  revolution ; 
he  had  encouraged  the  best  authors 
of  the  day  to  write  for  children ;  he 
had  attracted  the  parents  into  buy- 
ing these  gay  little  books  for  their 
children  ;  he  had  introduced  the  chil- 
dren, themselves,  to  the  joys  of  read- 
ing and  the  pleasant  ownership  of 
books." 

PHIS,«then,  was  John  Newbery's 
contribution  to  child  welfare. 
154  years  after  his  death,  as  a  means 
of  encouraging  the  writing  of  more 
worthwhile  books  for  children  by 
authors  of  real  ability,  it  was  pro- 
posed by  members  of  the  American 
Library  Association,  that  a  medal  be 
awarded  each  year  for  the  best  chil- 
dren's book  published.  It  was  fitting 
that  the  medal  be  called  the  "John 
Newbery  Medal"  in  honor  of,  as 
they  said,  "the  Bookseller  who 
seems  to  have  been  the  first  to  realize 
that  children  have  reading  interests 
of  their  own,  and  who  sought  to 
meet  their  needs  by  finding  authors 
to  write  for  them." 

The  medal  is  done  on  bronze.  On 
one  side  are  a  man  with  a  book,  and 
two  children.  On  the  other  side, 
around  the  edge  are  the  words,  "John 
Newbery  Medal.  Awarded  annually 
by  the  Children's  section  of  the 
American  Library  Association.  In 
the  center  is  an  open  book  with  the 
inscription,  "For  the  Most   Distin- 


258 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


guished  Contribution  to  American 
Literature  for  Children."  It  was 
designed  by  a  young  American  ex- 
service  man,  Rene  Paul  Chambellan. 


just  then  a  little  do^  came  trotting  up.  and 
id  Woraaft  said  to  Hub  : 
'  Dog,  dog,  bite  pig , 
P>£  wori't  gel  over  the  stile, 
And  I  *hai)*i  grt  home  to-ti'^ht ,** 
Bat  the  dew  would  not. 


Eleven  Xewbery  awards  have  been 
made  in  the  following  order : 

The  Story  of  Mankind — Hen- 
drick  \'an  Loon   1922 


The  Voyages  of  Dr.  Doolittle — 

Hugh  Lofting 1923 

The  Dark  Frigate — Charles  B. 

Hawes    lc>24 

Tales   from   Silver    Lands    — 

Charles  J.  Finger 1925 

Shen  of  the  Sea — Arthur  Chris- 
man  1926 

Smoky — Will   James 1927 

Gay   Xeck — Dhan   Gopal   Mu- 

kerji    1928 

The  Trumpeter  of   Krakow — 

Eric  P.  Kelly  1929 

Hitty— Rachel  Field    1930 

The  Cat  Who  Went  to  Heaven 

— Elizabeth  Coatsworth  .  .  .  .1931 
Waterless  Mountain — Laura.  . 

Adams  Armer 1932 

Young  Fu  1933 

Mr.  Coryell's  criticism  of  one  of 
them  is  true  of  all ;  that  it  "is  worth 
reading  because  it  widens  the  mental 
horizon  and  deepens  the  spiritual 
understanding  of  its  readers  by  the 
glimpse  that  it  gives  of  life  as  it 
really  is  in  the  far  away  or  long  ago. 
The  boy  or  girl  who  reads  the  book 
lives  for  the  time  being  in  a  different 
world  with  the  satisfied  feeling  of 
having  gone  places  and  done  things." 
Most  of  them  can  be  read  by  chil- 
dren and  adults  with  equal  interest. 

(To  be  Continued) 


The  Universal  Mother 


A  DRAMATIZATION  FOR  USE  IN  A  MOTHER'S  DAY  PROGRAM 

By  Mary  Grant  Judd 


For  the  opening  music  a  chorus  of 
young  girls'  voices  (off  stage)  sings  "The 
Call  of  Womanhood,"  from  Beehive  girls 
Handbook. 

Introduction 

At  eventide  in  philosophic  mood, 
I  pondered  on  that  high  calling  of 

Motherhood. 
I  seemed  to  see  the  universal  Mother. 

In  difference  phase  and  circumstance 
She  came  before  my  view 
And  yet  did  ever  represent 
The  common  lot  of  all — 
The  gift  of  life, 
In  which  she  plays  a  part : 
The  toil  she  knows, 
The  faith  which  she  instills, 
The  patience  growing  out  of  trial. 
And  last  of  all  the  wisdom  coming 
with  the  years. 

Vocal  solo,  "Cradle  Song,"  by  Kate 
Vannah.  (Beesley  Music  Company,  61 
South  Main  St.,  Salt  Lake  City — Price 
50c.) 

As  the  lullaby  concludes  the  curtains' 
part,  discovering  a  young  mother  bend- 
ing over  a  baby  in  a  cradle.  The  music, 
softly  played,  continues  while  "The 
Young  Mother"  is  read. 

THE   YOUNG   MOTHER 

She  holds  the  torch  of  life  aloft  and 

carries  on, 
Full  well  she  knows  the  price  it  cost^ 

to  keep  the  flame  aglow. 
And  if  it  smoulders,  dies,  her  very 

breath  she  gives 
To   fan  it  into  life  again.      She   is 

the  link 
'Twixt  ages  past  and  those  which 

are  to  come. 
Her  part  of  God's  great  plan  was 

known   before   earth-life   be- 
gan. 


And  should  she  falter,  flinch  or  turn 
aside 

From  path  of  thorns,  redemptions' 
plan 

Could  not  be  consummate. 

She  knows  the  price.    Ah,  yes ! 

The  price  in  pain,  in  fear,  in  sacrifice. 

But,  too,  she  knows  the  recompense. 

Her  great  reward  the  clasp  of  chub- 
by arms  about  her  neck, 

The  loving  smile,  the  trusting  hand 
in  hers, 

The  peace  surpassing  understanding 
in  her  heart. 

The  sense  of  duty  done  that  in  her 
stirs. 

Music,  "Come,  Come  Ye  Saints." 
played,  or  sung,  s'bftly  off  stage. 

The  second  tableau  shows  a  woman  in 
pioneer  dress,  one  child  in  her  arms',  an- 
other tugging  at  her  skirts.  Covered 
wagon,  etc.,  in  background.  ("The  Pio- 
neer Mother"  is  read  without  music.) 

The  Pioneer  Mother 

Hail  to  Thee,  brave  wife !  Amongst 
brave  mothers 

How  courageous  Thou !  Who  took 
thy  lonely  trek 

Across  the  trackless  plains.  Who 
left  behind 

Those  comforts  dear  to  woman  heart. 

Who  stood  beside  thy  mate,  and  fal- 
tered not. 

Who  helped  to  plan,  to  build,  to 
realize 

The  dream  that  had  been  his.  Our 
heritage 

We  owe  to  thee  and  him.  And  ever 
thou  shalt  typify 

That  courage  which  is  part  of  moth- 
er hearts, 

That  willingness  to  toil,  to  serve, 

With  never  thought  of  self, 

Of  which  all  mother  love  is  made. 


260 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


Music  appropriate  for  missionaries 
sung  off  stage.  A  male  quartet  humming 
"Let  the  Lower  Lights  be  Burning,"  is 
good. 

Tableau  shows  mother  on  one  side  of 
the  stage,  son  standing  back  of  pulpit  on 
extreme  opposite  side. 

The  Missionary  Mother 

How  big  are  mother  hearts! 

How  all  embracing  mother  love  can 
be! 

Not  only  for  her  own  is  she  con- 
cerned, 

But  towards  those  others  waiting,  as 
in  night, 

She  yearns.  And  willingly  her  son 
as  envoy  sends, 

To  guide  them  towards  the  light. 

Her  missionary  boy  looks  back  to 
her, 

And  seems  to  say  as  bard  of  old ; 

"And  she  of  whom  you  speak 

My  mother,  looks  as  whole  as  some 
serene 

Creation  minted  in  the  golden  moods 

Of  sovereign  artists ;  not  a  thought, 
a  touch, 

But  pure  as  lines  of  green  that  streak 
the  white 

Of  the  first  snowdrop's  inner  leaves  : 

One,  not  learned,  save  in  gracious 
household  ways, 

Not  perfect,  nay,  but  full  of  tender 
wants, 

No  Angel,  but  a  dearer  being,  all  dipt 

In  Angel  instincts,  breathing  Para- 
dise, 

Interpreter  between  the  Gods  and 
men.,, 

(From  Tennyson's  "Princess.") 

Vocal  Solo,  "Resignation,"  by  Caro 
Roma.  (Beesley  Music  Co.,  61  South 
Main  St.,  Salt  Lake  City— Price  40c.) 

In  fourth  scene  a  sort  of  altar  (may  be 
draped  steps)  is  placed  backstage.  The 
Gold  Star  Mother  enters,  carrying  a 
sword  and  a  formal  wreath;  she  walks 
srlowly  and  reverently  to  the  ?>ltar  and 
places  the  symbols  upon  it, 


THE  GOLD  STAR  MOTHER 

When  on  her  country's  altar,  the 
gold-star  mother  laid 

Her  precious  sacrifice,  then  mother- 
hood was  sanctified 

With  chastening  sorrow's  load.  As 
one  of  old  who  gave  a  son 

Her  anguished  heart  cried  out : 
"How  hard  to  travel  Cal- 
vary's road ; 

Yet  depth  of  soul  results,  and  un- 
derstanding heart 

While   resignation    bows    her   head 
in  prayer: 
"The  Lord  hath  given; 
The  Lord  doth  take  away : 
But  blessed  be  his  name." 

Fifth  tableau  shows  Grandmother  seat- 
ed in  arm  chair,  with  sewing,  etc. 

The  GrandtMOtmek 

And   her    we    call    Gmwd-mother ! 

How  fitting  is  that  name. 
Serene  and  wise  she  looks  on  life. 

nor  let's  its  petty  cares 
Affect  her  calm,  untroubled  soul.    A 

glad  philosophy  is  hers ; 
Long,  long  ago  she  learned  that  all 

comes  right  at  last. 
Her  sons  and  daughters  go  to  her, 

she  helps    them    bear    their 

trials, 
For  well  she  knows  that  life  in  any 

age  is  largely 
Repetition  of  the  past.    The  children 

too  are  drawn  to  her, 
Tn  that  dear  presence  bask,  as  flowers 

in  the  sun. 
She  guides,    directs,    advises,    and 

blesses  every  one. 

In  the  concluding  picture  each  mother 
re-enters  as  the  reader  mentions  her,  and 
walks  to  the  Grandmother,  who  has  re- 
mained seated.  The  five  mothers  thus 
grouped  form  the  final  picture.  The 
reader  turns  from  the  mothers  directly  to 
her  audience  on  the  final  verse. 

Finale 

With  grave  responsibility  is  fraught, 

the  mother's  task, 
So  to  a  higher  source  she  looks  for 

aid. 


THE  LIVING  FLAME 


261 


And  may  the  one  who  sees  the  spar- 
rows fall, 
Be  nof  unmindful  of  her  need. 

For  her  we  pray  the  vigor  of  the 

youthful  mother, 
And  too,  the  courage  of  the  pioneer. 
The  resignation  symbolized  by  gold- 
en star, 


The  faith  of  missionary  mother,  and 
the  zeal. 

And  for  us  all,  we  ask  the  help  to  be 
What  they  would  have  us  be — real 

sisters,  brothers — 
And  thus  to  pay,  if  only  in  a  part. 
The  debt  we  owe  to  them,  our  angel 

mothers. 


The  Living  Flame 

By  Vesta  P.  Crawford 


SHEILA     flattened     her      nose 
against  the  window  pane.  Her 
mother,  watching,  could  see  on- 
ly the  back  of  the  child's  head,  a  mass 
of  hair  so  fine  that  its  shining  strands 
were  a  golden  maze. 

"I  can't  see  anything,"  said  the 
little  girl.     "Not  anything!" 

The  mother  moved  to  the  window. 
"See.  Sheila,  all  those  tall  buildings 
with  windows  that  look  like  a  thou- 
sand eyes  in  the  high  gray  walls." 

"Buildings  aren't  anything." 

"But  look,  there  are  people.  A 
little  girl.  Can  you  see  her  down 
there?  She  has  a  red  cap.  She 
takes  a  few  small  steps  and  then  a 
little  skip,  just  as  you  do." 

"She  doesn't  look  like  Midge.  Oh, 
Mama,  can  you  remember  Midge?" 
Sheila  turned  from  the  window,  her 
brown  eyes  glowing.  "Oh,  if  I 
could  just  see  Midge  for  one  little 
minute.  Remember  how  she  carried 
her  doll  under  one  arm.  Tt  had  a 
blue  print  dress." 

"Would  you  like  to  write  Midge  a 
letter?" 

"No.  1  can't  tell  her  anything 
that  we  are  doing.  We  aren't  doing 
anything.  We  don't  know  anyone. 
Cities  are  too  big.    Too  far  away." 

Margaret  Ashton,  holding  back 
the  blue  window  drapes  with  slender 
hands,  looked  at  the  blank  walls  and 


the  staring  windows  and  the  street 
below. 

"Mamma,  would  you  mind  very 
much  if  I  cried  just  a  little.  Not 
more  than  five  minutes.  [t*s  for 
Midge  mostly." 

Margaret  came  to  her  swiftly  and 
put  her  arms  around  the  little  quiv- 
ering body.  She  understood  toe 
well.     She  wasted  to  cry,  too. 

"Mostly  for  Midge.  I  wonder  ii 
she  still  lives  on  the  corner  across 
from  the  Sunday  School  House.  Xot 
loud  crying,  mumsy.  and  just  the 
fewest  tears." 

Margaret  searched  desperately  for 
something  comforting  to  say. 
Strange  how  she  must  say  something 
to  make  Sheila  feel  better  when  she 
was  so  desperately  lonely  herself. 

"Sheila,  let's  play  a  game.  We'll 
imagine  that  daddy  had  never  been 
transferred  to  this  big  city  at  all. 
We'll  play  that  he  is  still  engineer 
for  the  power  plant  back  in  Watson - 
ville." 

"How  do  we  play  that?"  A  faint 
glint  of  interest  glowed  in  the  velvet 
brown  eyes.  Sheila  lifted  her  head 
but  the  little  jxyinted  chin  still  quiv- 
ered. 

Well,  for  right  now,  we'll  play  we 
were  back  home  again  on  the  shady 
street.  I'll  describe  it  first,  Then 
vou  describe." 


262 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


''And  let's  compare  home  things 
with  what  we  can  see  out  of  this  very 
window.     Begin,  mumsy." 

Margaret  settled  back  into  the  soft 
depths  of  a  rust-red  chair.  The  folds 
of  her  pale  yellow  dress  were  light 
and  lacy  and  her  small  hands  moved 
up  and  down  on  the  dark  mohair. 

"Well,  in  the  first  place  it's  morn- 
ing time.  The  steep  hills  east  of 
Watsonville  are  blue-gray  and  ever 
so  misty.  Veiled,  they  are,  and  ex- 
actly the  color  of  the  furthest  build- 
ing that  you  can  see  from  here.  And 
the  fields  at  the  end  of  the  street 
are  as  golden  as  that  gleaming  win- 
dow where  the  sun  strikes.  The  grass 
along  the  street  is  green,  mostly 
green.  But  it  is  worn  some  in  places 
where  little  girls  play  or  sit  and  cut 
paper  dolls  in  the  long  afternoon.'" 

"Mumsy,  the  rope  from  the  swing 
hangs  down,  worn  out  and  raggedy 
like.  It  broke  the  day  I  was  nine, 
just  before  we  moved.  The  zinnias 
are  on  the  east  side  of  the  house 
and  they  are  so — so  many  colored 
against  the  white  wall.  The  roof  of 
the  house  is  red.  It  has  exactly  four 
front  steps.  That's  how  I  learned 
to  count.     Now  you,  mumsy." 

"It  is  about  five  o'clock  on  Tues- 
day. Mama  has  been  to  Relief 
Society  meeting  and  she  is  sitting  on 
the  front  porch  thinking  that  it  is 
time  to  get  dinner.  Then  she  sees 
Sheila  coming  home  from  Primary. 
Look  out  of  the  window  now,  Sheila, 
look  at  this  very  street.  The  little 
girl  in  red  is  you.  See,  she's  tall 
like  you  and  slender,  and  the  other 
two  little  girls  are  friends  of  yours, 
little  girls  you  play  with. 

"No,  mumsy.  People  don't  play 
with  me,  here." 

"Sheila,  you  forgot.  We're  in 
Watsonville." 

"Oh,  yes.  Imagination  is  hard 
when  you  know  it  just  can't  happen. 
But  I'll  try.  Look,  mumsy,  look 
now.     Two  ladies  are  coming  down 


the  street.  One  is  tall  and  she  wears 
a  brown  suit  and  a  hat  with  a  buckle 
— see  it  shine,  on  one  side.  The 
other  one  is  little,  like  you,  mumsy, 
just  wispy,  and  she's  wearing  blue. 
We'll  play  they  are  Relief  Society 
teachers.  And  see,  just  see!  There's 
a  little  girl  with  them.  She  looks 
like  Midge.  She  does !  Oh — oh — 
she  looks  just  too  much  like  Midge 


Margaret  drew  the  long-legged 
little  girl  up  into  her  arms  and  buried 
her  face  in  the  shining  hair.  If  only 
they  hadn't  come  so  far  away.  If 
they  hadn't  had  to  leave  their 
friends.  If  they  could  just  have  in 
this  city  one  little  scrap  of  some- 
thing like  home,  just  a  shred  of 
something  familiar. 

"Oh,  mumsy,  she  did  ,look  like 
Midge.  I  can't  play  the  imagining 
game  any  more.  It  hurts  worse 
than  to  just  do  nothing  at  all." 

Margaret  felt  hot  tears  run  down 
over  her  hands  that  cupped  the  little 
face.  Again  she  searched  desper- 
ately for  something  to  say.  Oh,  for 
one  illuminating  thought. 

THEN  the  door  bell  rang  with 
a  reverberating  jingle.  It  echoed 
in  the  still  room. 

"It  couldn't  be  anybody  at  all," 
sobbed  Sheila. 

Margaret  arose  unsteadily.  Her 
hand  trembled  on  the  door  knob. 
She  opened  the  door  slowly. 

"How  do  you  do."  Then  she 
stepped  back  with  amazement  in  her 
eyes.  Why  these  were  Sheila's  la- 
dies !  The  ones  she  had  seen  on  the 
street,  the  tall  one  in  brown  and  the 
wispy  one  in  blue.  And  there  was 
the  little  girl  that  looked  like  Midge 
— just  her  size.  Straight  brown 
hair.    Sea  blue  eyes.    So  like  Midge. 

Sheila  sat  upright  in  her  chair, 
her  back  tense.  Then  she  tiptoed 
quietly  to  her  mother's  side,  half 
hiding. 


THE  LIVING  FLAME 


263 


The  woman  in  brown  held  out 
her  hand.  " Sister  Ashton,  we  are 
Relief  Society  teachers.  I  am  Sister 
Allen  and  this  is  Sister  Bronson." 

"Relief  Society  Teachers!"  Mar- 
garet Ashton  swayed  a  little.  It  was 
too  unbelievable.  "Here!"  she  ex- 
claimed, "why  I  didn't  know  there 
was  a  branch  of  the  Giurch  here." 

Margaret  motioned  them  to  chairs. 
Sister  Bronson,  the  wispy  woman 
in  blue  explained,  "There  isn't  a 
real  branch,  but  we  few  sisters  who 
are  members  have  a  Relief  Society. 
Wie  want  you  to  become  acquainted 
with  us,  for  we  are  your  neighbors." 

"Do  you  live  near?" 

"Oh,  no.  Miles  away  on  the  other 
side  of  the  city.  But  Relief  Society 
sisters  are  neighbors  the  world 
over." 

Margaret  settled  back  into  her 
chair.  A  great  contentment  engulfed 
her.  Almost  she  was  sitting  in  her 
little  house  back  in  Watsonville  with 
the  dark  mountain  spires  a  vista 
through  her  window. 

Sister  Allen  held  a  magazine  in 
her  hand,  but  she  did  not  open  it. 
"Our  topic  for  today  is :  'For  your 
Father,  who  is  in  heaven,  knoweth 


that  you  have  need  of  all  these 
things.'  " 

What  great  need  she  had  felt.  Oh, 
the  unifying,  comforting  power  of 
the  simple  words.  Someone  remem- 
bered her  even  in  a  strange  city  far 
from  home.  Someone  had  sought 
her  out.  Suddenly  she  thought  that 
neighborliness  and  love  were  like  a 
shining  girdle  around  the  world  and 
the  Relief  Society  teachers  walked 
along  that  shining  path. 

At  the  window  Sheila  stood  with 
the  little  girl,  their  hands  linked 
together,  brown  head  close  against 
the  shining  golden  one.  The  little 
girl  probably  belonged  to  the  tall 
woman  dressed  in  brown,  Margaret 
thought. 

Sister  Allen  spoke  again.  Her 
voice  was  low  and  friendly.  "The 
Church,  you  know,  is  a  living  flame 
that  seeks  us  out  wherever  we  are 
and  lights  our^way." 

That  was  it.  Margaret's  face 
glowed  with  some  of  that  inner  fire. 
The  Church  organizations,  she 
thought,  were  reflections  from  that 
central  living  flame.  And  the  Relief 
Society  sisters  were  truly  bearers 
of  the  glowing  spark. 


An  Ode  to  Mothers 


By  Mary  E.  S.  Abel 

Dearest    Mother !    Earth    was    not    her 

goal- 
It's   vanities   and   wealth.     Her   soul 
Was  on  the  things'  of  God.     Her  great 

delight 
Was  to  do  the  things   well  pleasing  in 

His    sight. 


Your  sweet  example,  your  faith  sincere, 
You'd    feel   "'Twas   not   in   vain,"    sweet 
mother    dear. 


Unbounded    joy    was     hers1    when     she 

could  see 
Her  children,  clothed  in  sweet  humility, 
Seeking  His  ways.     Her  cup  of  joy  ran 

o'er. 
'Twas  all  she  asked  of  them.    She  craved 

no  more. 

O  Mother,  could  you  feel  and  know 
How  much  we  prize  your  life  with  us 
below 


Your  prayers  of  faith  have  reached  our 

Father's  Throne 
And  brought  the  greatest  joy  to  mortals 

known. 
Your  faith,  your  true  devotion  makes  us 

see 
That  God  was  kind  to  grant  us  such  as 

thee. 

Your   memory   is   the    sweetest   thought 

we  claim 
For  you  we  dearly  love  and  bless1  your 

name. 
And  hope  to  live  that  your  expectations 

may 
Be  realized  in  that  Eternal  day. 


The  Relief  Society  Conference 

April  4  and  5,  1934 
By  Julia  A.  F.  Lund,  Gen.  Sec\. 


PHE  Annual  Conference  of  the 
Relief  Society  was  held  April  4 
and  5,  1934,  in  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 
President  Louise  Y.  Robison  pre- 
sided. 

The  following  sessions  were  held  : 
an  Officers'  Meeting  for  General, 
Stake  and  Mission  Officers ;  three 
Department  Meetings ;  a  Reception 
for  Stake  and  Mission  Officers ;  a 
Breakfast  for  Stake  and  Mission 
Presidents ;  two  General  Sessions  in 
the  Tabernacle ;  and  an  Institute  of 
Arts  and  Crafts,  for  Stake  Work  and 
Business  Leaders.  All  the  meetings 
proved  to  be  most  instructive  and 
satisfactory. 

The  Conference  was  well  attended 
by  enthusiastic  workers  from  103 
of  the  Stakes,  and  from  the  Mexican 


Mission  and  nine  of  the  Missions  in 
the  United  States.  The  following  is 
the  attendance  at  the  Officers'  Meet- 
ing, held  in  the  Auditorium  of  the 
B  i  s  h  o  p's  Building,  Wednesday, 
April  4,  at  10  a.  m. :  Mission  Presi- 
dents 10;  Stake  Presidents  78; 
Counselors  110;  Secretary-Treas- 
urers 45  ;  Board  Members  333  ;  total 
576. 

The  music  was  under  the  direction 
of  the  Music  Committee  of  the  Gen- 
eral Board.  The  Relief  Society  sing- 
ers, with  the  very  able  leadership  of 
Mrs.  Charlotte  Owen  Sackett,  were 
excellent,  while  the  superb  organ 
music,  rendered  by  Frank  Asper, 
lifted  these  features  of  the  Confer- 
ence program  to  a  high  degree  of 
inspiration  and  artistry. 


OFFICERS'  DEPARTMENT 

WEDNESDAY  MORNING 
PRESIDENT  LOUISE  Y.  ROBISON 


TT  is  a  wonderful  sight  to  see  all 

of  you  sisters,  many  of  you  hav- 
ing come  from  a  great  distance. 

We  have  a  number  of  new  stake 
presidents  and  officers,  whom  we 
greet.  We  have  a  bit  of  a  heart-ache 
that  some  of  the  fine  sisters  who  have 
met  with  us  for  many  years  are  not 
here  this  morning. 

We  have  had  a  most  beautiful  re- 
sponse from  all  of  the  stakes.  I  think 
102  out  of  the  105  have  answered 
the  questionnaires,  which  have  been 
most  enlightening,  and  we  have  re- 
ceived valuable  information  from 
them. 

I  must  tell  you  how  thankful  we 
are  for  you  and  for  your  loyal,  sup- 


porting spirit,  and  for  the  wonderful 
work  that  you  have  carried  on  during 
the  last  six  months.  No  matter  how 
much  we  have  asked  you  to  do  (and 
we  have  asked  a  great  deal  since  last 
October),  we  have  never  had  a  fail- 
ure on  your  part,  so  we  want  to  thank 
you  and  to  pray  that  the  Lord  will 
bless  us  during  this  conference. 

I  have  been  in  the  Temple  several 
times  lately,  and  always  with  a 
prayer  in  my  heart  that  our  Father 
in  Heaven  would  graciously  give  us 
a  rich  outpouring  of  His  Spirit.  I 
believe  the  thing  we  need  now  most 
of  anything  in  the  world,  is  the 
Spirit  of  God,  to  enable  us  to  meet 
life  with  trust  and  faith. 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE 


265 


I  pray  that  you  will  get  what  you  that  our  Heavenly   Father  will  lift 

need    during   this    conference,    and  these  troubles,  and  give  you  courage 

those  of  you  who  have  come  with  to  go  on,  and  I  ask  it  in  the  name  of 

trouble  in  your  hearts,  and  I  know  Jesus  Christ.    Amen, 
you  have,  will  find  comfort.    I  pray 


JULIA  A.  F.  LUND, 
General  Secretary 


TT  gives  me  great  pleasure,  Sisters, 
to  give  you  the  following  sum- 
marized report  of  the  Relief  Society 
for  the  year  1933.  The  complete 
report  will  be  published  in  the  May 
issue  of  the  Relief  Society  Maga- 
zine. Total  balance  on  hand,  Jan- 
uary 1,  1933,  $132,681.71 ;  Total  Re- 
ceipts during  1933,  $207,014.53; 
Total  Balance  on  Hand  and  Receipts, 
$339,696.24;  Paid  for  Charitable 
Purposes,  $83,853.27;  Total  Dis- 
bursements, $211,362.21 ;  Total  Bal- 
ance, December  31,  1933,  $128,- 
334.03;  Total  Assets,  $969,64^.20; 
Ward  Conferences  Held,  1,423; 
Number  of  Visits  by  Visiting  Teach- 
ers, 918,663;  Number  Special  Visits 
to  Sick  and  Homebound,  220,188. 
Membership    in    1932,    67,382;    in 


1933,  68,796,  an  increase  of  1,414; 
the  membership  includes :  Executive 
and  Special  Officers,  11,372;  Visit- 
ing Teachers,  24,144;  Other  Mem- 
bers,  33,280.     Average   attendance, 

1932,  28,790,  in  1933,  32,485,  an  in- 
crease of  3,695.  Paid  for  Charitable 
Purposes   in   1932,   $111,343.23,   in 

1933,  $83,853.27,  a  decrease  of  $27,- 
489.96. 

I  would  like  to  call  special  atten- 
tion to  the  fact  that  while  we  have 
not,  from  our  organization,  spent  so 
much  money  for  charity,  the  service 
angle  of  the  organization  has  great- 
ly increased,  showing  that  the  sis- 
ters are  keenly  alive  to  their  re- 
sponsibilities in  the  matter  of  our 
work. 


Relief  Society  Libraries 

Jennie  B.  Knight,  Member  of  the  General  Board 


A  SPEAKER  at  a  recent  conven- 
tion described  a  situation  sim- 
ilar to  this,  aptly,  when  she  said  that 
•  she  was  reminded  of  the  delightful 
story  "Alice  in  Wonderland"  and  the 
famous  lines,  "The  time  had  come 
the  walrus  said,  to  talk  of  many 
things,  of  ships  and  shoes  and  seal- 
ing wax,  of  cabbages  and  kings." 
Among  the  many  interesting  things 
that  we  are  to  discuss  this  morning 
are  the  Relief  Society  libraries. 

When  women  are  shown  the  needs 
of  a  community,  they  arise  to  the 
occasion  to  meet  that  need,  whether 
it  be  for  food  or  clothes  or  books. 
Other  women's  organizations  as  well 


as  our  own  are  renewing  their  ef- 
fort to  supply  books  to  be  read  by 
the  people  of  the  community. 

According  to  a  recent  report  of  a 
Library  Association  of  America  held 
in  Chicago  last  year,  38%  of  the 
population  of  the  United  States  are 
without  library  service  of  any  sort. 
A  gratifying  discovery  in  the  survey 
by  the  library  committee  disclosed 
that  book  circulation  has  increased 
40%  in  the  past  three  years.  More 
young  people  than  old,  more  unedu- 
cated than  educated  people  use  li- 
braries. Aliens  read  more  seriously 
than  United  States  born.  Is  this  not 
significant  of  a  growing  need  for  in- 


266 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


creased  library  service  and  a  chal- 
lenge to  every  community  ? 

We  are  satisfied  that  the  efforts  of 
our  officers  and  class  leaders  are  re- 
sponsible in  a  measure,  for  the  in- 
creased numbers  of  library  users  in 
our  section  of  the  country.  We  de- 
sire to  compliment  them  on  their  suc- 
cesses and  know  that  the  many  fine 
things  now  begun  will  continue. 

Speaking  of  public  libraries,  we 
urge  that  our  women  take  more  in- 
terest in  them  and  do  more  reading 
than  ever  before.  We  wish  also  to 
express  our  sincere  appreciation  to 
the  librarians  who  have  been  instru- 
mental in  securing  the  text  books  for 
our  reading  courses  and  placing 
them  on  the  reserved  shelves  in  the 
libraries. 

We  are  gratified  at  the  informa- 
tion given  in  our  recent  survey  of 
the  library  situation  in  our  Relief  So- 
cieties. We  especially  appreciate 
those  reports  which  gave  definite  in- 
formation in  answer  to  the  ques- 
tions, "Have  you  done  anything  to- 
wards establishing  libraries?" 
"What  method  do  you  use?".  We 
find  almost  a  unanimous  opinion  that 
the  library  project  is  worth  while 
and  in  the  report  there  is  an  ex- 
pression of  willingness,  and  an 
anxiety  to  have  more  and  better  Re- 
lief Society  Ward  Libraries  through- 
out the  Stakes.  We  have  replies 
from  a  hundred  and  one  Stakes. 

12  reported  that  special  instructions 
concerning  libraries  had  been 
given  to  the  wards  since  the  con- 
ventions of  1933. 

7  reported  "not  much  has  been  ac- 
complished." 

8  reported  nothing  had  been  done 
about  the  matter. 

19  stakes  had  Relief  Society  li- 
braries in  all  of  the  wards. 

42  stakes  have  libraries  in  one  or 
more  wards. 

19  stakes  have  stake  but  not  ward 
libraries. 


8  stakes  have  both  ward  and  stake 
libraries. 

1 1  stakes  have  Relief  Society  books 
on    shelves    in    their    public    li- 
braries. 
3  reported  books  in  school,  semin- 
ary or  Parent  Teachers'  library. 

30  stakes  reported  no  Relief  Society 
libraries,  of  these  five  gave  as 
their  reason,  access  to  splendid 
public  libraries. 

10  stakes  reported  having  no  access 
to  any  libraries  of  any  sort  and 
very  few  books  in  their  societies. 

One  stake  reported  "Two  years 
ago  we  used  all  of  our  books  in  the 
way  of  a  traveling  library,  giving 
ten  books  to  a  ward  for  a  month. 
Much  reading  was  done  by  our 
women,  it  was  also  gratifying  to  our 
librarian  who  took  the  score  for  rec- 
ord of  books  read." 

Which  of  all  our  stakes  would 
like  to  have  said  of  it,  that  in  pro- 
portion to  its  membership  it  is  the 
most  bookless  stake  in  the  Church ! 
How  much  more  we  would  all  like 
to  have  it  said  of  us,  that  our  stake 
furnishes  "The  best  reading  for  the 
largest  number  at  the  least  cost." 

We  cite  particularly  the  method 
adopted  by  the  Cache  stake,  which 
has  been  a  great  success,  a  detailed 
account  of  which  may  be  found  in 
the  Relief  Society  Magazine,  Vol. 
20,  page  43. 

One  of  the  first  steps  in  establish- 
ing a  library,  is  to  provide  a  suitable 
place  to  keep  the  books,  a  shelf  or 
shelves,  where  they  can  be  seen  is 
better  than  a  box.  Then  some  sys- 
tem of  cataloguing  the  books  is  nec- 
essary, this  may  be  done  alphabetic- 
ally, by  authors,  or  by  subjects.  All 
books  should  be  listed  either  on  cards 
or  in  a  record  book.  A  card  5  inches 
by  3  inches  with  the  author's  name 
and  title  of  the  book  written  at  the 
top  may  be  placed  in  each  book.  The 
best  libraries  write  the  surname  first, 
also  giving  the  name  of  the  publish- 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE 


267 


ing  company.  These  cards  may  be 
placed  in  each  book.  When  taking 
a  book  out  of  the  collection  the  bor- 
rower writes  her  name  on  the  card, 
also  the  date,  and  gives  the  card  to 
the  librarian,  who  files  it.  When  the 
book  is  returned  the  name  is  check- 


the  books  already  in  our  possession, 
read  by  more  of  our  members,  and 
that  we  make  an  effort  to  add  to  our 
small  nucleus  such  books  as  will  an- 
swer the  injunction  found  in  the 
Doctrine  and  Covenants,  "Seek  ye 
out  of  the  best  books,  words  of  wis- 


ed off  and  the  card  replaced  in  the  dom,  seek  by  learning,  by  study  and 

book.  also  by  faith,"  and  endeavor  to  have 

We  are  pleased  to  announce  that  a  system  for  the  proper  care  and  dis- 
markers  may  be  obtained  at  Relief  tribution  of  the  books  established  in 
Society  headquarters  for  the  books,  each  stake  and  ward, 
free,  thus  all  of  the  Relief  Society  To  stimulate  reading,  monthly  re- 
books  of  the  Church  may  have  a  uni-  ports  might  be  made  of  the  volumes 
form  marker.  Do  not  be  surprised  read  by  each  member.  Let  us  re- 
if  you  are  asked  for  the  number  of  member  that  there  are  in  our  corn- 
volumes  in  your  libraries,  in  the  fu-  munities  many  young  and  many 
ture,  or  perhaps  the  number  of  vol-  older  people  who  have  had  leisure 
umes  read.  hours  forced  upon  them.     May  we 

We  recommend  that  where  there  not  be  of  inestimable  service  to  them, 

are  large  public  libraries,  the  stake  by  making  it  possible  for  them  to 

presidents  and  librarians  advise  with  get  books  to  read  during  these  hours, 

the  ward  officers  about  their  libraries  The  standard  of  our  conversations 

and  ascertain  just  how  accessible  the  and  the  ideals  of  our  families  will  be 

books  are  to  their  members,  and  then  raised   and   our   understanding   en- 

use  their  best  judgment  in  establish-  larged  if  we  do  more  reading, 

ing  Relief  Society  libraries  in  those  How  about  a  resolution?     "Less 

towns.  time    consumed     in    making    pies, 

We    hope,    and    urge    that    some  pickles    and    preserves,    more    time 

method  be  devised  whereby  all  mem-  spent  with  poems,  paragraphs  and 

bers  of  the  various  wards  may  have  pages."    And  remember,  "The  best 

access  to  good  books.     We  recom-  reading  for  the  largest  number  at 

mend  also,  that  we  resolve  to  have  the  least  cost." 

Relief  Society  Magazine  Campaign 

HAZEL  H.  GREENWOOD, 

Member  of  the  General  Board 


FT  is  a  natural  impulse  for  us  to 
share  with  others  the  fine  things 
we  enjoy,  this  adds  to  our  own 
pleasure.  There  is  nothing  in  moral 
or  religious  life  that  we  experience 
or  make  a  part  of  our  lives  that  does 
not  inspire  a  desire  to  acquaint  oth- 
ers with  it.  While  we  are  doing 
this  we  are  the  beneficiaries.  That 
desire  to  impart  it  to  others  demon- 
strates more  than  anything  else,  an 
appreciation  of  high  fine  principles. 


The  whole  genius  of  the  Gospel  is 
not  only  to  live  it,  but  to  impart  it 
to  others. 

We  would  have  all  women  expe- 
rience the  joy  and  the  satisfaction 
that  we  have  in  Relief  Society,  and 
we  never  tire  in  trying  to  convince 
them  of  this  pleasure,  and  getting 
them  to  join  in  the  activity. 

The  Relief  Society  Magazine  is 
the  medium  through  which  the  or- 
ganization works.     It  is  a  pleasure 


268 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


and  a  profit,  and  we  are  anxious  that 
all  should  share  it.  It  is  a  necessary 
organ  for  the  operation  of  our  So- 
ciety. In  order  to  keep  in  touch 
with  its  spirit  and  purpose  it  is  nec- 
essary that  we  have  access  to  this 
official  guide  and  instructor.  As  a 
text  book  is  to  a  school,  so  is  the 
Magazine  to  our  Relief  Society.  Our 
aim  is  to  have  every  woman  a  sub- 
scriber to  the  Magazine. 

We  wish  first  to  make  our  people 
Magazine  conscious,  then  to  devise 
ways  and  means  to  make  it  avail- 
able. 

Last  year  a  Magazine  drive  was 
suggested  to  extend  from  September 
15  to  October  15,  this  drive  to  be 
Church-wide.  In  defense  of  this 
choice  let  me  say  that  November  was 
taken  by  another  Church  publication, 
and  September  was  considered  su- 
perior to  December  for  various  rea- 
sons. So  many  things  have  to  be 
paid,  taxes,  tithing,  Christmas,  at 
the  end  of  the  year,  and  our  year 
really  begins  with  September.  When 
we  get  into  the  swing  of  things,  it 
is  as  easy  to  subscribe  then  as  at  any 
other  time. 

A  report  received  shows  that  86  % 
of  the  stakes  had  a  drive  in  Septem- 
ber with  various  degrees  of  success, 
the  majority,  however,  reporting 
substantial  gains. 

There  are  several  arguments  in 
favor  of  a  concentrated  drive.  One 
stake  president  voiced  this  when  she 
said,  "It  gave  our  Magazine  repre- 
sentative public  recognition  and  had 
the  approval  of  the  Bishop." 

A  drive  concentrates  effort  over  a 
shorter  period,  and  can  be  more  in- 
tensive. There  must  be  preparation 
for  this,  and  here  is  an  opportunity 
to  develop  the  ingenuity  and  re- 
sourcefulness of  our  officers.  In 
order  to  advertise  the  Magazine  these 
means  have  been  used : 
Ward  Conference  made  up  from  the 

Magazine. 


Talks  in  Meetings. 

House  to  house  canvas  (quite  gen- 
eral and  varied  in  form). 

Special  Magazine  programs  and 
parties. 

Departments  in  Union  Meetings. 
Salesmanship  classes  in  Union  Meet- 
ing. 

Personal  contact  by  Magazine  repre- 
sentative, president  or  other  offi- 
cers. 

Contests  of  various  kinds  in  wards, 
districts  or  stakes  in  which  the 
losers  treat. 

All  these  methods  have  helped  to 
get  results.  It  seems  to  be  the  con- 
sensus of  opinion  that  most  people 
can  pay  in  small  amounts  more 
easily;  so  penny  boxes,  banks,  in- 
stallments in  various  ways  are  used. 

In  some  stakes  a  sacrifice  month 
was  observed  where  some  few  things 
were  given  up  to  meet  the  expense  of 
the  Magazine.  Children  were  made 
conscious  of  the  needs  of  mother, 
etc.  Special  parties  were  arranged  to 
raise  money  for  those  unable  to  pay. 
At  some  parties  every  member  was 
given  50c  credit  on  the  Magazine, 
and  she  paid  the  other  50c. 

These  are  just  a  few  suggestions 
gathered  from  the  results  of  the  sur- 
vey. Any  plan  must  be  carefully 
thought  out  and  well  organized.  It 
is  well  for  us  to  understand  sales- 
manship, but  high  pressure  sales- 
manship should  be  avoided.  Be 
enthusiastic  but  let  it  be  from  a  thor- 
ough knowledge  of  the  worth  of 
what  you  have  to  sell.  No  one  should 
be  made  to  feel  delinquent  because 
she  cannot  subscribe.  Make  it  easy 
and  make  it  possible.  Many  people 
pride  themselves  on  having  all  the 
Magazines  bound.  Every  stake 
should  have  them. 

We  cannot  afford  to  antagonize 
people ;  we  are  coming  back  next 
year.  Sometimes  too  much  said  is  a 
bad   thing,   continuing   until   it   be- 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE 


269 


comes  monotonous.  We  want  our 
women  to  be  loyal,  and  they  are  !  But 
people  resent  doing  things  from  a 
sense  of  duty  alone.  This  is  a  prac- 
tical age ;  people  want  something  for 
their  money,  and  if  we  lead  them  to 
see  they  are  getting  value,  then  it 
becomes  a  privilege  to  subscribe.  We 
have  in  a  year's  subscription  to  the 
Magazine  27  educational  lessons  and 
9  Teachers'  Topics,  which  is  worth 


much  more  than  the  price  asked  for 
the  year's  subscription. 

If  the  lessons  are  studied,  and  a 
part  of  the  suggested  supplementary 
material  read,  it  takes  all  the  time  I 
can  devote  to  formal  study. 

These  are  unusual  times.  You 
Relief  Society  sisters  have  done  well. 
We  wish  to  congratulate  you  on  your 
success  and  thank  you  for  your  sup- 
port. May  you  achieve  greater  suc- 
cess in  the  future. 


PRESIDENT  LOUISE  Y.  ROBISON 


TX7"HILE  these  sisters  have  been 
telling  of  the  fine  things  about 
the  libraries  and  the  Magazine,  I 
have  thought  of  another  avenue 
where  you  women  have  done  beau- 
tiful work.  With  a  desire  to  dissem- 
inate the  fine  material  in  the  Social 
Service  Pamphlets,  and  hoping  that 
they  could  be  of  greater  service  in 
the  stakes,  we  sent  to  each  of  our 
stake  presidents  a  set  for  each  ward 
in  the  stake.  The  report  that  has 
come  in  is  most  encouraging.  A  few 
of  the  stakes  have  said  they  had  no 
use  for  them,  but  perhaps  in  the 
stakes  adjoining  would  come  the  re- 
quest for  more.  We  sent  the  same 
allotment  to  Fremont  stake  as  we 
did  to  the  others,  and  by  return  mail 
came  the  reply,  "We  hope  we  can 
get  25  sets  more  before  union  meet- 
ing, as  we  can  dispose  of  them."  Be- 
fore the  month  was  up  we  had  a 
check  and  another  order  for  100  sets. 
I  believe  that  was  the  banner  stake, 
but  we  have  had  very  fine  reports 
from  many  others.  We  still  have 
some  of  these  pamphlets,  and  if  the 
Presidents  feel  that  there  are  any 
mothers  in  the  stake  who  would  be 
benefited,  and  who  cannot  afford  to 
pay  for  them,  we  will  be  pleased  to 
give  them.  We  also  would  like  to 
call  attention  to  the  fact  that  we 
have  some  of  our  literary  books, 
"The  Story  of  the  World's  Litera- 
ture," by  John  Macy.     This  is  the 


same  text  in  literature  that  we  used 
this  year,  so  you  will  be  under  no 
obligation  to  change,  and  we  shall 
be  glad  to  supply  any  who  may  need 
them.  The  Doctrine  and  Covenants 
work  will  be  continued  as  it  has  been, 
so  there  will  be  no  change  in  the- 
ology. A  very  fine  course  of  study 
is  being  outlined  for  the  social  serv- 
ice lessons,  but  these  will  not  require 
a  book. 

At  the  request  of  Sister  Emily  T. 
Merrill,  president  of  the  European 
Mission  Relief  Society,  a  simple 
course  in  "Home  Hygiene,"  is  being 
prepared.  This  course,  called 
"Health  and  Home  Nursing,"  will 
be  published  in  our  Magazine.  We 
hope  that  the  stakes  who  have  the 
teachers  available,  and  who  have 
been  carrying  on  our  three  major 
topics,  will  continue  to  do  so.  -We 
want  our  theology  carried  on  every- 
where in  the  world.  We  hope  those 
who  can  carry  on  the  literary  work, 
will  do  so ;  the  same  with  the  social 
service  lessons,  which  you  will  find 
easier  this  year.  Not  only  in  the 
European  Mission,  but  in  all  the 
missions,  if  you  feel  there  is  a  great- 
er need  for  "Home  Nursing,"  use 
these  lessons,  which  we  hope  will  be 
very  helpful. 

This  year  we  have  had  in  the  Re- 
lief Society  a  very  great  number  of 
reorganizations.  Of  course  we  know 
it  is  for  the  best,  and  we  welcome 


270 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


you  new  Presidents,  women  of  in-     dear  faces  of  some  who  have  been 
tegrity  and  faith,  but  we  miss  the     with  us  through  many  years. 


REORGANIZATIONS 


Date 
Aug.,  1933 
Dec.,  1933 
Sept.,  1933 
June,  1933 
Aug.,  1933 
Dec,  1933 
Jan.,  1934 
July,  1933 
July,  1933 
Mar.,  1934 
Oct.,  1933 
Aug.,  1933 
Sept.,  1933 
Nov.,  1933 
June,  1933 
July,  1933 


Stake 
Bear  Lake 
Benson 
Boise 
Burley 
Garfield 
Grant 
Hollywood 
Lethbridge 
Logan 
Morgan 
Oquirrh 
Pocatello 
St.  George 
San  Luis 
Star  Valley 
Taylor 


Released 
Eliza  B.  Cook 
Ethel  B.  Webb 
Mary  C.  Martineau 
Luella  Wright 
Ida  H.  Steed 
Winnifred  B.  Daynes 
Katherine  R.  Stewart 
Mildred  C.  Harvey 
Bessie  G.  Ballard 
Sophia  Anderson 
Marie  B.  Tygeson 
Martha  E.  Pugmire 
Josephine  J.  Miles 
Martha  E.  Haskell 
Kittie  D.  Burton 
Julia  E.  Ririe 


Appointed  President 
Hazel  Shepherd 
Ruey  Bernhisel 
Mabel  S.  Nokes 
Dora  Pickett 
Esther  B.  Mathews 
Amy  E.  Neff 
Zatelle  Sessions 
Ida  Wood 
Ada  E.  Morrell 
Elizabeth  Geary 
Phoebe  Ridd 
Vera  Rich  Horsfall 
Juanita  Brooks 
Mary  K.  Bagwell 
Pearl  B.  Holbrook 
Allie  R.  Jensen 


Mission 
Central  States 
Eastern  States 
European 
Mexican 
New  Zealand 
Southern  States 
Western  States 


Released 
Charlotte  T.  Bennion 
Alice  D.  Moyle 
Leah  D.  Widtsoe 
Vilate  R.  Ivins 
Jennie  E.  Magleby 
Grace  E.  Callis 
Nellie  D.  Woodruff 

ORGANIZATIONS 


Appointed  President 
Nellie  D.  Woodruff 
Grace  S.  Colton 
Emily  T.  Merrill 
Anna  H.  Pratt 
Polly  Duncan 
Ina  A.  Richards 
Winnifred  B.  Daynes 


Dec,  1933— Wells  Stake,  Marie  H. 
Tanner,  Appointed  President. 

Oct.,  1933 — South  American  Miss 
ion  (two  branches),  Reinhold  Stoof, 
President. 
We  have  asked  you  if  you  prefer 
nine  lessons  prepared  in  our  course 
of  study,  or  if  you  think  eight  would 
produce  better  results.  Some  of  the 
stakes  feel  that  the  month  of  June  is 
a  difficult  month  to  hold  their  work 
as  scheduled,  and  there  were  a  num- 
ber of  good  reasons  advanced.  In 
answer  to  our  questionnaire,  out  of 
102  answers,  67  want  nine  months 
continued,  24  want  eight  months, 
and  11  said  either  way  that  was  de- 
cided would  suit  them.  According 
to  our  rules  in  the  Church,  the  ma- 
jority expresses  all  of  our  opinions, 


so  we  are  all  now  in  favor  of  nine 
lessons.  If  there  are  problems  that 
arise  that  cannot  very  well  be  taken 
care  of  in  those  stakes  who  wanted 
the  eight  lessons,  we  will  consider 
them  later. 

We  are  better  prepared  now  than 
ever  before  to  give  educational  work 
in  social  service.  Sister  Lyman  is 
in  charge,  with  her  assistants,  and 
they  are  not  only  giving  a  course  at 
the  Brigham  Young  University  in 
Provo,  but  four  of  our  near-by 
stakes  are  now  taking  the  course  of 
social  service.  This  is  for  stake  offi- 
cers, ward  presidents,  and  where 
they  have  ward  aids  for  them  also, 
and  especially  for  the  Bishops,  if 
they  can  spare  the  time  to  meet  with 
us.     It  is  an  excellent  program,  and 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE  271 

we  are   fortunate  in  having  Sister  we  could  use.  The  Mutual  Improve- 

Lyman,  who  is  not  only  qualified  as  ment  Association  had  already  select- 

a  teacher,  but  so  well  prepared  in  ed  from  October  15  to  November 

social  welfare  and  in  Church  stand-  15,  and  we  felt  that  from  September 

ards.     I  believe  that  this  is  one  of  15  to  October  15  would  be  the  best 

the  richest  opportunities  that  we  are  time  for  us.     This  is  the  time  for 

offering  to  Relief   Society.     There  the  public  drive — concentrate  on  it 

may  be  groups  brought  into  head-  as  you  have  been  told, 

quarters,  as  we  have  done  before,  "What  shall  we  do  on  our  Work 

for  the  longer  courses,  and  short  in-  and  Business  Day  ?"  is  a  very  gen- 

stitutes  can  be  arranged  in  the  stakes.  eral  question.    The  women  are  tired 

Our  one  regret  is  that  these  trained  0f  quilting  and  sewing  carpet  rags, 

women  are  not  used  more  extensive-  We  know  that  to  be  a  leader  of  the 

ly.     We  urge  you  to  give  careful  Work  and  Business  group  is  one  of 

thought  in  making  your  selection  of  the  hardest  places  to  fill,  and  it  is 

these  sisters,  and  we  are  wondering  difficult   to  prepare   attractive   pro- 

if,  after  taking  the  training,  you  see  grams  for  the  Work  and  Business 

that  they  are  put  into  service  in  the  Day.     I  hope  that  in  this  session  of 

stakes.    They  are  most  valuable.  We  our  conference  many  of  you  will  get 

have   been   a  bit  disappointed   that  inspiration  from  the  demonstrations 

these   women   have   not  been  used  that  will  be  given  here  during  the 

more    extensively    on    the    Federal  whole  week. 

Committees  out  in  the  counties.  The  We  had  one  of  our  fine  presidents 
question  arises,  have  the  stake  presi-  ask  if  it  would  be  permissible  in  her 
dents  stood  firmly  enough  behind  stake  to  take  up  the  lesson  on  gen- 
these  social  service  aids,  and  made  ealogy  on  Work  and  Business  Day. 
it  known  that  they  have  had  train-  We  do  not  want  to  discourage  any- 
ing?  They  are  sometimes  the  only  one;  we  feel  that  genealogy  is  one 
persons  who  have  had  training  in  of  the  most  important  things  we 
the  county,  and  yet  they  have  not  have  to  consider,  but  there  is  organ- 
been  used.  If  Sister  Lyman  ar-  ized  in  the  Church  a  Genealogical 
ranges  to  come  to  your  stake,  we  Society,  and  they  of  that  organiza- 
hope  that  you  will  be  careful  in  the  tion  are  carrying  on  their  special 
selection  of  women,  and  choose  those  work.  We  have  the  three  meetings 
whom  you  think  will  be  able  to  serve  in  Relief  Society  now  that  are  edu- 
you  for  the  greatest  length  of  time,  cational,  and  we  feel  that  in  adult 
It  takes  a  great  deal  of  effort  on  the  work  an  educational  program  is  not 
part  of  Sister  Lyman  and  her  assist-  complete  unless  we  learn  to  use  our 
ants,  to  give  this  course,  and  it  is  hands.  I  hope  that  the  fourth  Tues- 
quite  a  heavy  responsibility  for  you  day  will  be  used  for  doing  helpful 
in  the  stakes,  and  we  want  the  best  things.  I  just  happened  to  see  in 
results  to  follow.  the  things  that  were  brought  into  us 
We  never  have,  before  this  year,  during  the  week,  a  curtain  which 
had  a  month  when  we  could  have  an  looked  like  Monks  Cloth,  and  a  wool 
official  Magazine  Drive.  This  does  design  had  been  worked  on  it  so  beau- 
not  mean  that  we  do  not  want  you  ti fully.  I  believe  if  you  could  see  it, 
to  take  subscriptions  the  whole  year  you  would  all  like  to  have  curtains 
through,  but  when  we  met  with  made  that  way.  There  are  so  many 
Brother  Ballard  and  those  in  charge  things  that  are  beautiful  and  useful. 
of  the  publications  of  the  Church,  We  want  to  discourage  expensive 
we  had  second  choice  of  the  time  that  things,  but  cultivate  taste  and  make 


272 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


the  best  use  of  what  we  have  at  hand. 
On  some  of  the  questionnaires  the 
wards  say  that  Work  and  Business 
Meeting  is  held  any  time  the  women 
take  a  notion  to  have  it.  I  believe 
this  is  a  problem  for  the  stake  presi- 
dent to  settle,  and  best  results  follow 
from  a  definite  time  for  all  meetings. 
We    are    still    having    questions 


about  rafTling.  When  an  article  is 
given  with  a  chance  it  is  raffling — 
when  you  sell  a  chance  on  anything, 
it  is  rafTling.  The  Relief  Society 
has  not  changed  its  standards,  and 
is  unqualifiedly  against  any  com- 
promise of  the  right,  and  any  form 
of  gambling. 


Work  and  Business  Department 
WEDNESDAY  AFTERNOON 

Lotta  Paul  Baxter,  Chairman 


T 


'HIS  Department  work  was  open- 
ed by  a  meeting  of  those  charged 
with  the  conduct  of  this  very  import- 
ant phase  of  Relief  Society  activity 
in  the  stakes  and  missions. 

An  Institute  covering  four  days 
was  planned,  in  response  to  many  re- 
quests from  the  stakes  for  help  in 
this  particular  part  of  the  work. 
Mrs.  Glenn  J.  Beeley  was  director 
of  the  Institute. 

Experts  in  the  various  lines  were 
in  attendance  to  advise  and  demon- 
strate the  various  phases  of  Interior 
Decoration,  Arts  and  Crafts.  The 
most  complete  cooperation  between 
the  business  men  and  Relief  Society 
was  exemplified.  Great  assistance 
was  rendered  by  local  Relief  Society 


women,  under  the  direction  of  Mrs. 
Elfleda  L.  Jensen,  Relief  Society 
Stake  President  of  East  Jordan. 

Mrs.  Glenn  J.  Beeley  spoke  on 
"The  Tricks  of  the  Trade,"  and 
"Application  of  Ornament,"  illus- 
trated with  lantern  slides.  Demon- 
strations included  wall  paper,  cur- 
tains, drapes,  slip  covers,  refinishing 
old  floors  and  linoleum,  refinishing 
old  furniture,  painting  walls,  dye- 
ing, machine-made  rugs,  lamp 
shades,  embroidery  and  numerous 
suggestions  for  bazaars,  always 
keeping  before  the  sisters  good  taste, 
simplicity  and  economy. 

Each  stake  leader  was  supplied 
with  a  portfolio  filled  with  instruc- 
tions and  suggestions  for  projects 
in  the  Work  and  Business  Meeting. 


Choristers  and  Organists'  Department 

Ida  Peterson  Beal,  Chairman 


A    LARGE    and    an    enthusiastic 
group    met    in    Barratt    Hall, 
Wednesday,  April  4,   1934,  for  in- 
structions in  music   for  the  organ- 
ization. 

Professor  Tracy  Y.  Cannon,  di- 
rector of  the  McCune  School  of  Mu- 
sic and  Art,  clearly  outlined  the  value 
of  interpretation  of  our  songs ;  the 
proper  combination  of  words  and 
music.     He   stated  that  the  words 


tempo  or  speed  of  a  song.  Organ- 
ists and  Choristers  should  read  care- 
fully the  words  of  a  song  so  that  the 
proper  interpretation  may  be  given. 
Mrs.  Florence  Jepperson  Madsen, 
professor  of  music  at  the  Brigham 
Young  University,  gave  many  help- 
ful suggestions  on  tone  ;  the  develop- 
ment of  proper  breathing ;  the  relax- 
ing of  the  throat  muscles,  etc.  Mrs. 
Madsen  illustrated  her  work  by  a 
trio  of  voung  girls  from  the  Brigham 


and  their  meaning  would  suggest  the      Young  University. 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE 


273 


Mrs.  Elise  B.  Alder  spoke  on  Mu- 
sic Appreciation,  and  the  music  pro- 
gram for  the  coming  year. 

Mrs.  Charlotte  Owen  Sackett,  as- 
sisted by  Mrs.  Alta  B.  Cassity,  gave 
a  demonstration  of  hymn  work  from 
the  "L.  D.  S.  Hymn  Book,"  in  which 
the  entire  group  participated. 

The  music  program  for  the  year 
was  given  and  demonstrated  by  a 


group  of  singers  from  the  Relief  So- 
ciety Chorus. 

The  songs  for  the  year  are : 
"Though  Deepening  Trials ;"  "God 
Moves  in  a  Mysterious  Way ;"  "I 
Think  When  I  Read  That  Sweet 
Story  of  Old;"  "Sleepers  Wake;" 
"The  Lost  Chord."  Suggestive  list : 
"Prayer  Perfect;"  Teach  Me  to 
Pray;"  "As  the  Dew  from  Heaven 
Distilling." 


Social  Welfare  Department 

Counselor  Amy  Brown  Lyman,  Chairman 


A  LARGE  group  of  Relief  So- 
ciety women  who  are  charged 
with  the  responsibility  of  directing 
the  Social  Welfare  work  in  the 
stakes,  met  in  the  Assembly  Hall, 
Temple  Square,  on  Wednesday, 
April  4,  1934,  at  2  p.  m.,  to  hear 
questions  of  great  importance  to 
them,  discussed. 

Dr.  Dorothy  B.  Nyswander,  As- 
sociate Professor  of  Psychology  at 
the  University  of  Utah,  and  Director 
of  the  Woman's  Division  of  the  C. 
W.  A.  in  Utah,  spoke  on  "Woman's 
Place  in  the  Reconstruction  Pro- 
gram of  the  United  States." 

Mrs.  Ruth  Lohmoelder,  Assistant 
in  the  Relief  Society  General  Wel- 
fare Department  reported  the  results 


of  the  questionnaire  from  the  De- 
partment. The  "Analysis  of  the  So- 
cial Service  Survey"  covered  (1)  the 
source  of  funds  for  relief;  (2)  the 
part  the  Bishops  and  Ward  Presi- 
dents take  in  administering  the  re- 
lief; (3)  the  extent  to  which  Stake 
Registration  Cards  are  used. 

Counselor  Amy  Brown  Lyman 
spoke  upon  the  Registration  Cards ; 
the  duties  of  the  Relief  Society  Gen- 
eral Welfare  Department ;  the  insti- 
tutes and  general  plan  of  educational 
work. 

Miss  Evelyn  Hodges,  of  the  Re- 
lief Society  Social  Service  Depart- 
ment gave  a  paper  on  "Emotional 
Reactions  to  Unemployment  and 
Relief." 


Reception  for  Stake  Officers 

WEDNESDAY  EVENING 
Lalene  H.  Hart,  Chairman 


PHIS  very  happy  social  feature  of 
the  Conference  was  held  in  the 
Relief  Society  headquarters,  second 
floor  of  the  Bishop's  Building,  at 
7:30  p.  m.,  Wednesday,  April  4, 
1934. 

The  spacious  rooms,  fine  music, 
dainty  refreshments,  served  by  the 


daughters  of  the  General  Board 
Members,  and  the  hospitable  spirit 
of  Relief  Society,  all  combined  to 
make  a  most  delightful  event,  where 
approximately  500  stake,  mission 
and  general  officers  met  to  visit  and 
renew  acquaintances. 


274  RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 

Stake  Presidents'  Breakfast 

THURSDAY  MORNING 

Cora  L.  Bennion,  Chairman 

'"THE  important  meeting  of  Stake  President  Louise  Y.  Robison  pre- 

and  Mission  Presidents,  with  the  sided,    and    many    important    prob- 

General  President  and  Board  Mem-  lems   pertaining   to   Relief    Society 

bers  was  held  in  the  Supper  Room  work  were  discussed.    Ten  missions 

of  the  Hotel  Utah,  Thursday,  April  and  one  hundred  and  three  stakes 

5,  1934,  at  7:30  a.  m.  were  here  represented. 

GENERAL  SESSION 

THURSDAY  MORNING 
PRESIDENT  LOUISE  Y.  ROBISON 

TX/'E  are  very  happy  to  greet  this  daughters  in  the  mission  field,  things 

great  congregation  of  women  that  will  build  up  and  bless  you  and 

this  morning,  and  also  the  brethren  make  you  feel  that  the  sacrifice  you 

who  are  here  with  us.  made  in  sending  these  fine  young 

We  pray  that  the   Spirit  of  the  people  into   the   mission   work   has 

Lord  will  be  with  us,  and  that  these  been  a  very  great  reward  to  you,  and 

returned  Mission  Presidents  will  tell  a  contribution  to  the  Church, 
you    mothers    who   have    sons    and 

LEAH  D.  WIDTSOE 

Former  Relief  Society  President  of  the  European  Mission 

f  AM  sure  that  whenever  the  Gos-  was  inactive  in  any  public  sense,  and 

pel  has  been  upon  the  earth  in  its  was  held  in  submission  to  her  hus- 

fulness,  there  has  been  active  work  band,  her  lord. 

for  women  to  do.  We  do  not  know  One  of  the  great  contributions  of 
the  detail  of  the  work  that  was  done  the  Prophet  Joseph,  our  modern 
by  the  women  of  Ancient  Israel,  but  prophet,  was  the  restoration  of  the 
we  do  know  from  our  study  of  the  rights  of  woman,  of  her  independ- 
Old  and  New  Testament  that  worn-  ence,  and  the  right  to  exercise  her 
en  were  active  in  those  days,  for  we  free  agency.  I  never  tire  in  telling, 
read  that  there  were  priests  and  and  I  always  have  joy  in  thinking 
priestesses  in  those  times,  and  they  of  the  fact  that  this  great  privilege 
could  not  have  been  isolated  excep-  was  given  to  woman  in  this  disten- 
tions. Then  we  come  down  through  sation  as  a  gift.  She  did  not  have  to 
the  ages  when  the  Gospel  of  Jesus  ask  for  it,  she  has  never  had  to  fight 
Christ  was  taken  from  the  earth,  not  for  it,  it  came  to  her  with  the  restora- 
by  an  arbitrary  act  of  God,  but  tion  of  the  Gospel  in  its  fulness.  For 
through  the  slothfulness  of  man  this  gift,  if  we  shall  call  it  that,  this 
himself,  losing  that  power,  and  we  privilege,  we  should  show  our  grati- 
find  through  all  the  dark  ages  that  tude,  and  we  try  to  do  so  through 
woman  was  held  more  or  less  en-  our  works.  I  am  convinced  that 
thralled.     Her  voice  was  still,  she  there  is  a  work  for  the  Relief  So- 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE 


275 


ciety  to  do  in  the  world  today  as 
never  before  in  its  history.  That 
has  been  the  thought  in  mind  in 
emphasizing  the  work  of  the  women 
in  the  European  Missions,  and  it  is 
here  at  home. 

The  Relief  Society  has  been  or- 
ganized for  many  years  in  Europe. 

In  Europe  there  are  eleven  mis- 
sions speaking  eight  different  lan- 
guages. The  office  of  the  President 
of  the  European  Relief  Society  is 
supervisory  only,  attempting  to  cor- 
relate the  work  of  the  Society  in  all 
these  missions.  The  total  member- 
ship of  the  Relief  Society  in  the  mis- 
sions is  about  4,375,  with  an  average 
attendance  at  meetings  of  58.8%  of 
the  enrollment.  Practically  all  of 
the  Societies  are  following  the  pre- 
scribed outline  of  study. 

In  making  my  report  of  conditions 
in  the  missions,  I  desire  to  pay  a  trib- 
ute of  respect  to  the  sisters  who  pre- 
ceded me  as  European  Mission 
Supervisors  of  Relief  Society,  also 
to  note  the  intelligent  help  given  in 
the  work  by  the  Mission  Presidents 
of  Relief  Society  who  have  served 
in  the  different  missions  while  I 
have  been  in  the  mission  field,  as 
well  as  to  the  conscientious  and  will- 
ing activity  of  the  local  members  in 
each  mission.  The  fine  cooperation 
of  these  sisters,  one  and  all,  has  made 
possible  the  progress  that  has  been 
made.  The  Relief  Societies  in  our 
newest  missions,  those  of  Czecho- 
slovakia and  Palestine-Syria,  are 
undertaking  the  Relief  Society  work 
in  earnest  and  with  much  intelli- 
gence. Their  leaders  are  well  quali- 
fied and  great  progress  will  be  made 
there  as  elsewhere  in  the  mission 
field. 

Formerly  the  great  ideal  of  the 
people  who  joined  the  Church  in  the 
missions  was  to  gather  to  Zion,  but 
during  the  last  decade  Uncle  Sam 
has  closed  his  doors,  and  our  mem- 
bers have  had  to  stay  on  the  other 


side  whether  they  would  or  not.  This 
has  been  a  hardship  to  some,  for  they 
have  longed  for  years,  and  saved 
their  money  in  the  hope  that  they 
might  come  to  Zion.  With  this 
change  in  policy  it  has  been  neces- 
sary to  establish  the  auxiliaries  of  • 
the  Church  with  greater  activity,  so 
that  the  people  may  carry  on  their 
religion  in  the  mission  field,  the  aux- 
iliaries are  operating  there  much  as 
they  do  at  home.  That  has  meant  a 
very  great  responsibility  added  to 
the  wife  of  the  mission  president  if 
she  has  been  the  one  to  carry  on  the 
work  of  the  women's  auxiliaries. 

Sometime  ago  a  request  was  made 
for  lady  missionaries  in  Europe. 
Our  leaders  answered  by  urging  us 
to  train  the  local  women  to  officer 
their  own  auxiliaries,  and  during  the 
last  three  years  that  has  been  con- 
summated. In  practically  all  of  the 
eight  very  active  missions  in  Europe, 
there  have  now  been  formed  boards 
of  local  women  over  the  three  wom- 
en's auxiliaries. 

One  of  the  first  projects  that  we 
set  ourselves  was  to  gather  the  his- 
tories of  the  different  missions.  It 
had  been  undertaken  before,  and  the 
mission  presidents'  wives  preceding 
me  have  done  splendid  work,  but  we 
undertook  as  a  special  centennial 
project  the  gathering  of  Relief  So- 
ciety histories  in  each  of  the  mis- 
sions, and  then  used  our  roll  book 
for  the  keeping  of  that  data  up  to 
date.  This  has  meant  a  great  deal 
of  work,  but  has  given  much  en- 
couragement to  the  sisters,  for  they 
all  found  that  they  had  histories  of 
which  they  may  be  proud. 

Another  of  the  contributions  and 
projects  was  the  attempt  we  made  to 
bring  our  study  courses  in  harmony 
with  those  you  are  using  here  in 
Zion.  While  the  missions  were  send- 
ing their  active  people  to  Zion,  it 
was  rather  difficult  to  have  any  uni- 
form courses  of  study,  but  we  at- 


276 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


tempted,  and  have  succeeded  for  the 
last  two  or  three  years,  in  bringing 
all  of  the  European  Missions  (eight 
of  them,  we  have  had  two  new  ones 
added  since)  into  harmony  with  each 
other,  so  that  we  all  were  studying 
the  same  lessons  and  working  from 
the  same  program.  It  has  given 
them  a  great  deal  of  satisfaction  to 
feel  that  they  are  in  unison  with  this 
great  sisterhood  of  women  through- 
out the  world,  and  are  studying 
what  you  are  studying.  They  do 
feel  that  our  Society  is  now  an  In- 
ternational as  well  as  a  National  Re- 
lief Society. 

For  the  last  thirty  years  there 
have  been  no  lady  missionaries  in 
Europe,  but  as  a  result  of  prayer,  we 
were  given  two  lady  missionaries  a 
year  ago  last  October,  and  two  finer 
girls  never  lived  than  those  who 
were  sent  over  to  work  with  us.  They 
are  there  now  and  they  have  proved 
a  very  great  blessing.  They  are  do- 
ing work  that  in  some  cases  our  mis- 
sionary boys  could  not  do,  and  they 
are  helping  us  so  much  with  our  aux- 
iliary work,  which  is  so  necessary. 
It  is  impossible  for  the  mission  presi- 
dent's wife  to  do  it  all.  We  need 
more  missionary  girls.  I  have  lived 
in  Europe  for  six  years,  have  visited 
all  the  countries,  and  I  cannot  see 
that  our  girls  are  not  just  as  safe 
in  Europe  as  they  would  be  in  any 
of  the  missions  in  the  States.  Of 
course  we  need  girls  who  are  spirit- 
ual minded,  and  who  will  be  able  to 
stand  on  their  own  feet,  but  that  is 
the  type  we  need  in  all  of  the  mis- 
sions, and  so  I  hope  that  it  may  be 
possible  for  us  to  receive  more  lady 
missionaries  in  Europe. 

I  should  like  to  report  too  how 
much  we  have  enjoyed  the  Relief 
Society  Handbook.  It  has  been  a 
very  great  satisfaction  to  us  when 
any  question  came  up  to  be  able  to 
turn  to  the  handbook  and  say  this 
and  so  it  is,  and  the  service  of  this 


handbook   has   been   inestimable   in 
our  work. 

Another  activity  is  of  the  Sing- 
ing Mothers.  We  had  no  way  of 
knowing  anything  about  this  activ- 
ity except  through  the  Magazine, 
but  we  read  of  it,  and  the  sisters  of 
the  different  missions  liked  the  title. 
It  had  rather  a  singing  sound,  and 
as  we  spoke  of  it,  it  Drought  to  mind 
busy  mothers  who  had  time  to  leave 
their  fireside  and  sing,  and  if  they 
would  sing  in  a  chorus,  they  would 
surely  sing  to  their  growing  children. 
In  practically  all  of  our  missions 
now  we  have  Church  Singing  Moth- 
ers. We  did  not  make  any  request 
for  it,  the  missions  adopted  it. 

These  are  times,  when,  as  never 
before,  the  contribution  of  the  moth- 
ers of  men  must  be  felt,  and  I  do 
feel  that  upon  the  shoulders  of  the 
Relief  Society — the  mothers,  the 
women  of  our  Church,  rests  the  re- 
sponsibility of  carrying  Christianity. 
It  is  bigger  than  all  the  machinery  of 
our  organization,  great  as  our  ac- 
complishments may  be.  The  world  is 
starving  for  understanding,  for 
sympathy.  The  greatest  help  that 
can  be  given  by  our  Relief  Society 
sisters  is  the  spiritual  uplift  for  men 
and  women  who  have  to  struggle 
against  adversity. 

I  am  sure  that  most  of  us  feel  that 
our  greatest  need  is  for  the  bread  of 
life,  the  bread  of  life  that  Christ 
gives.  While  we  do  feel  that  it  is 
necessary  to  have  actual  food  for 
our  bodies,  let  us  not  forget  that  the 
food  for  the  spirit  is  equally  import- 
ant. 

I  remember  a  story  that  was  told 
by  my  husband's  mother.  It  was 
about  one  of  the  leading  men  whom 
my  husband  saw  as  a  little  lad  soon 
after  he  came  to  this  country,  per- 
mitting an  indiscretion,  and  he  came 
home  in  great  sorrow  to  tell  his 
mother  that  he  had  seen  this  leader 
do  this  act.    His  mother  said,  "Well 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE 


277 


now  it  is  of  no  matter  to  you  what 
brother  so  and  so  does,  that  is  his 
affair,  what  matters  to  you  a  great 
deal,  is  what  John  does."  I  feel  to- 
day that  the  Relief  Society  mothers 
must  not  allow  the  criticism  of  oth- 
ers in  their  presence,  and  must  en- 
courage the  expression  of  love  and 
trust  and  understanding  of  our  lead- 
ers from  our  Bishops  to  the  head 
of  our  Church.  If  we  will  do  this, 
and  dedicate  our  lives  to  this  service, 
and  prove  to  our  Heavenly  Father 
that  we  are  worthy  of  the  great  or- 
ganization He  has  given  to  us,  I  feel 
that  His  kingdom  on  earth  will 
spread  to  that  extent. 

In  closing  I  would  like  to  tell  you 
of  the  great  thrill  it  has  been  to  me 
to  visit  the  Relief  Societies  which  I 
have  visited,  and  to  see  how  they 
have  grown  during  the  last  six  years. 
It    makes    me    happy    to    see    our 


younger  women  come  out.  It  is  a 
great  tribute  to  our  General  Board 
to  know  that  these  groups  are  grow- 
ing, for  if  these  younger  women  did 
not  appreciate  the  lessons,  they 
would  not  come  out  in  the  numbers 
they  do. 

Beyond  measure  I  am  grateful  for 
this  restored  Gospel,  for  the  privi- 
lege that  is  given  the  daughters  of 
Israel  to  walk  side  by  side  with  their 
husbands  who  hold  the  Priesthood. 
I  am  grateful  for  the  testimony  I 
have  of  the  truthfulness  of  the  Gos- 
pel, and  pray  that  we  shall  instill  it 
into  the  hearts  of  our  youth  until  it 
shall  crush  out  of  their  hearts  the 
evil  that  the  evil  one  desires  to  im- 
plant there.  That  our  work  shall 
grow,  that  it  shall  encompass  all 
needs,  spiritual  and  physical,  and 
social  and  economic  ambitions  is  my 
prayer  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ. 
Amen. 


GRACE  E.  CALLIS 
Former  Relief  Society  President  of  the  Southern  States  Mission 


TX7"E  have  recently  completed  a 
mission  of  27Yi  years  in  the 
Southern  States,  a  land  of  happy 
memories.  This  morning,  as  I  see  a 
few  faces  of  my  missionary 
daughters  who  have  become  lovely 
mothers  in  Israel,  I  feel  a  little  more 
at  home. 

In  our  early  missionary  work  in 
the  Southern  States  most  of  the  con- 
verts were  in  the  valleys  and  the 
hills,  where  the  families  lived  miles 
apart,  so  our  Church  population  was 
scattered.  As  a  matter  of  fact  they 
would  not  suffer  the  missionary 
work  to  be  done  in  the  cities,  and 
even  in  the  country  our  people  were 
harassed,  persecuted  and  mobbed. 

Under  special  instructions  from 
the  First  Presidency,  certain  cities 
were  opened  up  in  the  South  for 
missionary  work,  and  here  small 
Sunday    Schools    were    organized, 


which  later  grew  into  branches.  Re- 
lief Societies  were  organized,  and 
the  Southern  women,  with  grateful 
hearts,  accepted  the  call  of  this  grand 
work.  Their  hearts  were  rilled  with 
happiness  and  joy  that  they  might 
be  of  service  to  the  poor. 

In  the  country  one  or  two  families 
formed  a  nucleus,  and  as  these  were 
added  to,  the  sisters  were  organized 
into  a  Relief  Society.  Soon  all  over 
the  mission  our  sisters  assembled  in 
chapels  and  in  country  homes  with 
one  desire  and  purpose  in  their 
hearts,  to  be  of  service  in  the  up- 
building of  the  work  of  the  Lord. 
We  find  that  even  today  when  we 
have  chapels,  sometimes  if  our  Re- 
lief Societies  are  held  in  the  homes 
of  our  sisters  and  the  neighbors  are 
invited  in,  our  attendance  is  greatly 
increased.  In  nearly  all  of  our  meet- 
ings we  have  those  who  are  not  mem- 


278 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


bers  of  the  Church.  This  is  a  stimu- 
lus to  us,  for  we  do  desire  to  let  our 
lights  shine  and  glorify  the  work  of 
our  Father  in  Heaven.  Much  to  our 
delight,  the  non-members  will  often 
see  the  good  works  of  their  ''Mor- 
mon" sisters.  Friendships  are  form- 
ed, and  there  is  a  broadening  ex- 
change of  ideas,  for  we  know  that 
where  women  are,  there  is  going  to 
be  a  little  talk.  They  become  friend- 
ly with  each  other,  and  we  know 
that  through  these  associations  wom- 
en have  come  into  the  Church.  It 
is  hard  for  us  to  say  just  how  many 
women  have  entered  the  Church 
through  our  Relief  Society  meet- 
ings as  well  as  our  other  services. 

I  am  happy  to  report  too  that  our 
sisters  find  favor  in  the  civic  organ- 
izations. Their  counsel  and  advice 
is  sought,  and  the  recommendations 
of  the  sisters  concerning  the  poor  is 
acted  upon.  We  are  given  a  recog- 
nition that  betokens  confidence  and 
authority  and  standing  along  with 
the  other  people.  Our  sisters  have 
been  entrusted  with  the  distribution 
of  large  supplies  from  these  civic  or- 
ganizations. 

When  I  think  of  the  many  char- 
itable acts  that  are  done  through  our 
Societies,  I  know  our  women  are 
imbued  with  true  religion,  for  they 
visit  the  sick  and  attend  to  the  needs 
ot  the  poor  by  giving  food  and  pro- 
visions and  helping  them  along  with 
medical  attention.  Through  our  or- 
ganization many  cripples  have  been 
sent  to  surgeons  of  renown,  and 
blind  people  have  been  taken  to  ocu- 
lists who  have  given  them  treatment. 
I  might  mention  that  one  of  our  Re- 
lief Society  organists  is  a  blind  worn- 
man,  and  it  is  certainly  an  inspiration 
to  see  her  faith,  and  note  how  well 
she  plays  the  hymns  of  Zion,  and 
how  much  good  she  does.  All  feel 
that  if  she  can  work  under  these 
difficulties,  they  too  must  put  forth 
very  great  efforts. 


In  all  our  acts  of  kindness  to  the 
poor  we  are  assisted  by  the  non- 
members  who  give  liberally  of  their 
provisions  and  other  things  that 
amount  to  a  great  sum  yearly. 

The  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  out- 
lined most  beautifully  the  spirit  of 
Relief  Society  work.  It  is  not  only 
to  take  care  of  the  poor,  but  it  is  to 
save  souls.  We  are  admonished  to 
be  pure  in  heart,  to  be  charitable.  In 
the  South  people  are  religious,  so 
this  spiritual,  this  soul-saving  part 
of  the  work  has  a  great  appeal.  We 
like  to  think  of  the  influence  that  the 
mothers  of  the  Church  can,  and  do, 
have  upon  the  people,  especially  up- 
on the  youth.  A  mother's  life  is 
consecrated  in  giving  life.  She  does 
not  bring  sons  and  daughters  into 
the  world  to  be  destroyed  by  hideous 
sin.  God  loves  good  mothers.  I 
think  the  mothers  of  the  two  thou- 
sand Lamanites  must  have  instructed 
their  boys  to  acknowledge  the  Lord 
in  all  His  ways  and  He  would  direct 
their  paths,  for  when  they  told  them 
that  if  they  did  not  doubt  the  Lord 
would  deliver  them,  these  youths, 
these  young  boys  testified,  "We 
doubt  not  our  mother's  word." 

The  influence  that  you  good  moth- 
ers have  over  your  sons  and  daugh- 
ters in  the  mission  field  cannot  be 
measured.  I  have  heard  many  a 
young  elder  say,  "I  only  hope  I  can 
be  the  missionary  that  my  mother 
thinks  I  am."  This  faith  that  you 
have  in  your  boys  and  in  your  girls 
encourages  them  to  go  on  with  their 
noble  work.  Many  of  these  noble 
mothers  have  laid  down  their  lives 
while  their  sons  were  in  the  mission 
field,  but  it  has  been  their  last  re- 
quest that  their  sons  stay  and  fill 
their  missions.  Oh,  I  think  that 
when  the  Savior  comes  He  will  look 
for  this  sublime  faith,  for  never  in 
the  history  of  the  world  has  there 
been    more    willing   sacrifice,    more 


THE  RELIEF  SOCIETY  CONFERENCE  279 

sublime  faith  than  is  shown  by  the  peace,  and  so  by  a  good  example  we 

Mothers  of  Israel.  should  teach  our  children  what  is 

There  is  a  tradition  that  God  was  righteous  and  what  is  unrighteous, 

displeased   with   the   inhabitants   ot  letting  them  know  unlawful  things 

the  world  because  of  their  sin,  and  spell  sin. 

that  Abraham  and  Moses  appeared  Every  true  Latter-day  Saint  wom- 

before  Him  and  interceded  for  the  an  desires  to  be  a  mother  of  sons 

children  of  men,  but  that  they  were  and  daughters  who  will  honor  God. 

ordered  from  His  divine  presence.  You  will  remember  in  reading  the 

Then,  so  the  tradition  goes,  Rachel  story  of  Ben  Hur  how  his  splendid 

appeared  before  the  Almighty,  and  mother  instilled  into  him  the  glorious 

He  said,   "By  what  right  are  you  deeds    of    his   noble   ancestors,   the 

here?"      Rachel    humbly    answered  prophets  Abraham  and  Moses,  and 

"By  the  right  of  a  mother,"  and  it  how  she  aroused  in  him  a  desire  to 

is  said  that  God  listened  to  her.  live  that  he  might  be  worthy  of  these 

We  know  today  that  intoxicating  noble  progenitors.     So  it  should  be 

liquors  weaken  the  reason ;  that  evil-  our  desire  to  teach  our  children  that 

doing  obscures  the   sense  of   God ;  faith  in  God  is  the  way  to  success, 

that   absence   from   Sunday   School  and  let  them  feel  that  if  they  will 

and  meeting  takes  off  the  relish  of  follow  the  examples  of  Jesus  Christ 

spiritual  things,  and  that  unlawful  and  all  the  wonderful  leaders,  and 

pleasure  increases  the  authority  of  if  they  will  live  near  to  the  Lord, 

the  body  over  the  spirit  and  leads  if  they  will  put  themselves  on  the 

to  destruction.  Lord's  side,  they  will  have  no  need 

The  better  way  for  us  to  help  our  to  fear  the  consequences, 
youth  is  to  make  a  spiritual  appeal  I  feel  that  my  life  has  been  en- 
to  their  conscience,  to  help  them  riched  in  the  Relief  Society  work, 
look  within  themselves,  always  re-  and  by  these  wonderful,  gentle,  re- 
membering, as  the  poet  Browning  fined  Southern  women.  They  live 
said,  that  when  a  fight  begins  within  near  to  the  Lord,  and  in  their  daily 
himself  a  man  is  worth  something,  lives  reflect  the  glory  of  the  Gospel. 
God  stoops  over  his  head.  In  the  Industriously  and  with  patient  faith 
strength  of  perseverance  we  must  they  are  building  up  a  glorious  worn- 
help  them  to  stir  up  their  conscience,  anhood.  With  splendid  hospitality 
to  have  control  over  their  minds  and  they  give  to  the  poor ;  they  regard 
their  bodies.  Abraham  Lincoln  said  the  unfortunate  as  their  own  flesh, 
that  he  would  rather  walk  with  his  and  to  your  missionary  sons  and 
conscience  than  with  the  crowd,  and  daughters  they  are  loving  mothers, 
our  young  people,  walking  with  their  Under  the  guiding  influence  of  the 
conscience,  will  walk  with  God,  even  spirit  of  the  Lord  they  are  willing 
as  Enoch  of  old  did.  at  all  times  to  take  upon  them  the  re- 

Every     righteous     prayer     of     a  sponsibility  of  carrying  out  the  spirit 

mother    will    bring    an    answer    of  of  the  Relief  Society  work. 

CHARLOTTE  T.   BENNION 

Former  Relief  Society  President  of  the  Central  States  Mission 

jyjY  call  came  in  December,  1906>  joined  him  in  Kansas  City,  Missouri. 

shortly  after  my  husband  was  The  mission  then  covered  six  states, 

called   to   preside   over  the   Central  Kansas,  Ohio,  Arkansas,  Louisiana, 

States  Mission.    Two  years  later,  I  Texas  and  Missouri.    In  1908  I  was 


280 


RELIEF  SOCIETY  MAGAZINE 


called  to  take  charge  of  the  mission 
work  of  the  Relief  Society  in  the 
Central  States  Mission.  I  began  my 
work  in  organizing  the  Relief  So- 
ciety in  that  Mission,  and  although 
many  of  them  were  small  groups, 
yet  as  opportunity  offered,  we  or- 
ganized and  instructed  women  in  Re- 
lief Society  work,  which  was  quite 
new  to  our  converts. 

When  the  time  came  that  the  mis- 
sion was  divided  the  states  of  Texas 
and  Louisiana  constituted  the  Texas 
Mission.  There  were  38  active  Re- 
lief Society  organizations  in  the  mis- 
sion as  a  whole,  and  5  inactive  or- 
ganizations. The  Relief  Society  or- 
ganizations were  nearly  equally  di- 
vided between  the  two  missions, 
Texas  and  Central  States.  Some  ot 
the  Relief  Societies  were  1,500  miles 
from  Kansas  City,  making  it  neces- 
sary for  me  to  do  a  great  deal  of 
my  work  through  correspondence. 

Although  during  my  25  years  of 
service  with  the  women  of  that  mis- 
sion I  visited  them  a  number  of  times 
personally,  it  is  not  possible  for  the 
work  to  be  carried  on  as  we  would 
like  to  have  it  without  personal  con- 
tact with  the  different  women  and 
the  organizations.  It  is  very  grati- 
fying, however,  after  these  sweet 
women  were  set  apart  and  received 
a  blessing,  to  note  how  efficient  they 
became  as  presiding  officers  in  the 
different  organizations.  They  al- 
ways become  enthusiastic  in  the 
work,  and  try  in  their  humble  way  to 
enrich  every  woman  in  the  organiza- 
tion. As  Sister  Callis  has  said,  a 
number  of  our  members  in  the  mis- 
sion are  not  members  of  the  Church 
of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 
We  have  had  many  women  enrolled 
in  our  organization,  who,  through 
the  faithful  efforts  of  the  Relief  So- 
ciety sisters  were  converted  to  the 
Church. 

Our  visiting  teachers  are  very  effi- 
cient in  their  work,  and  I  feel,  my 


sisters,  that  it  is  a  great  responsibil- 
ity to  be  a  teacher  in  the  Relief  So- 
ciety. These  sisters  have  the  priv- 
ilege of  going  from  door  to  door,  as 
do  our  missionaries,  and  carrying  in- 
to the  homes  the  topics  outlined  so 
beautifully  in  our  Magazine,  and 
they  have  the  privilege  of  teaching 
the  Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ  and  bear- 
ing their  testimonies  in  the  homes, 
because  they  contact  the  people. 

I  am  very  proud  of  the  organiza- 
tions of  the  Central  States  Mission, 
and  the  work  that  has  been  accom- 
plished by  the  women.  Never  has 
there  been  a  call  of  any  kind  made 
upon  them  to  which  they  have  failed 
to  respond  in  taking  care  of  the 
needy  and  unfortunate.  Many  a  fam- 
ily they  have  clothed,  so  children 
might  be  able  to  attend  school.  We 
have  become  affiliated  with  the  so- 
cial service  work  in  many  of  the  or- 
ganizations in  our  mission,  and  the 
advice  and  counsel  of  our  Relief  So- 
ciety women  is  sought,  because  peo- 
ple know  it  is  wise. 

In  some  places  we  labored  under 
disadvantages,  because  we  dealt  with 
a  moving  population.  Many  of  our 
branches  were  organized  in  the  small 
farming  districts,  where  people 
rented  farms  for  a  year,  at  the  end 
of  the  year,  they  moved  to  a